Incorporating Mobile Technology into Information Literacy Instruction: Opportunities and Challenges Chad Crichton, MA, MLIS Coordinator of Reference Research & Instruction U of T Scarborough Library, University of Toronto Robin Canuel, MLIS Liaison Librarian Humanities and Social Sciences Library, McGill University 39th Annual LOEX Conference - Fort Worth, Texas - May 5-7, 2011 Learning Objectives Participants will... 1) Understand the value of mobile technology in an academic library context 2) Appreciate the current state of mobile resources and services, and possible avenues of future mobile development 3) Learn about the integration of mobile technology into information literacy instruction in the classroom and beyond Introduction • Being available for your users anytime, anywhere, any place • New Paradigm - Possibility of never seeing your patrons in person in the future • Does new mobile technology change what it means to be “information literate”? How many of you own a cellphone? How many of you have a smartphone? Image: http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/technology-CM079001967.aspx#ai:MP900422242|mt:2|is:3|si:1| Globally there are over 555 million fixed broadband subscriptions but over 940 million 3G subscriptions There are now over 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide A World Without Wires The World in 2010, International Telecommunication Union, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosipaw/4328473236/ In 2010, 74% of undergraduates owned an internet capable handheld device or planned to purchase one within the next 6 months ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers1006/rs/ers1006w.pdf 25% of mobile internet users in the U.S are “mobile only” 59% of internet users in India are “mobile only” 70% of mobile internet users in Egypt never or rarely access the internet via desktop, laptop or tablet. Hill, Alistar. (2010) The Mobile Only Internet Generation • AT&T reported that from 2007-2010 demand for mobile broadband increased 4,932% (Hanson, Cody) • Soon, 80% of all people accessing the internet will be doing so using their mobile device (Ericsson (2010), http://www.ericsson.com/jm/news/1430616) The average person engages with their phone 150 times per day. If averaged out over a 16.5 hour day, that works out to an average of once every 6.5 minutes. Tomi Ahonen Librarians could become invisible on smartphones unless they reach out to patrons through existing applications… …Continuing down this road, many libraries could find themselves doing little more than selecting and paying for databases… …If librarians are not visible in research apps, patrons will go to vendors to get help… …But if librarians are willing to redefine their roles in the research process, they can not only survive, but thrive in the mobile world. http://www.flickr.com/photos/andyi/482006549/ Boone, Tom (2011) Librarians need to look for ways to insert themselves into mobile apps. This doesn’t mean creating an app for the library, but instead using existing apps to reach out to patrons… …Another redefinition of librarians’ roles involves looking for unique content from one’s own library and making it electronically available. Boone, Tom (2011) If your library, like mine, has been transformed by desktop computing and Internet access, now is the time to take action and be proactive in providing robust services to mobile users. Hanson, Cody (2011) Image – iPhone screens: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chromatic/3969329831/ Image – Device pile: http://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/4773693893/ Some Questions • How many of you already have a mobile initiative at your institution? • How many of you are going mobile in the next six months? Year? Association of Research Libraries Members Offering a Mobile Web Presence Members with a University Mobile Site & a University Library Mobile Site 9% ARL Members with a University Library Mobile Site only 13% ARL Members with a University MobileSite only 14% ARL Members with neither a University Mobile Site nor a University Library Mobile Site 65% Aldrich, 2010 Canadian Association of Research Libraries Members Offering a Mobile Web Presence CARL Members offering some type of Mobile Web Presence 34% CARL Members offering no Mobile Web Presence 66% Canuel and Crichton, 2011 Academic Libraries Offering Mobile Services Respondents currently offering services for handheld devices 44% Respondents offering no services for handheld devices, and with no plans to do so 35% Respondents planning to offer services for handheld devices 21% Thomas, 2010 What does it mean to “go mobile”??? Apps vs. Websites 100% 90% 80% Services offered by Canadian Academic Library Mobile Sites (Canuel and Crichton, 2011) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Services Offered by North American Academic Library Mobile Sites (Aldrich, 2010) Library Services for Mobile Devices • • • • • • Library Account (Renewals) Library Chat Help (IM, SMS) Room Bookings / Availability Library News (RSS) Desktop/Laptop Availability Research Workshop Schedule/Sign-up • Floor Maps / Stacks Guide • Automated Phone Renewals • VPN/WIFI Configuration • • • • • • • Mobile Subject Guides Campus Webcams Course Reserves Videos - vodcast (libcasts) Podcast Library Finder Full Text Finders (Article Finder) • Bus Schedules • Send book location / call number to phone So that’s what people are doing with mobile technology, but why? Who’s priorities are those? Who is setting the agenda, users or librarians? Mobile Search • As smartphones become more ubiquitous, they increasingly influence the ways in which students search for, find, evaluate, and use information. • Do current students exhibit information literate behaviour when engaging with information on their phones? • Do smartphones make it easier for students to demonstrate information literacy, or does this new technology perhaps erect barriers between students and effective searching for and use of information? (Yarmey, 2011) Mobile Information Seeking Behaviour • Users likely to have more immediate and goaldirected intentions relevant to their context • Need to consider the time factor. Users typically less interested in lengthy documents/browsing • Cost of data plans affect usage of data by users, as well as time of day of usage • Users often only access information from mobile devices as a last resort. Heimonen, T. (2009); Cummings, J., Merril, A., & Borrelli, S. (2010); Kaikkonen, A. (2008); Lee, I., et al. (2005); W3C Mobile Best Practices (2008); Church, K., et al. (2007) Mobile Learning “Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.” O’Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J. P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., & Lefrere, P. (2003) “The intersection of mobile computing (the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices) and e-learning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology).” Image: http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/results.aspx?qu=cell%20phones#ai:MP900422734|mt:2|is:3|si:1| Quinn (2000) Mobile Information Literacy What does it mean to be mobile information literate? The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information. The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information. The information literate student communicates the product or performance effectively to others. The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology. "If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. What you have discovered is a recipe not for memory, but for reminder. And it is no true wisdom that you offer your disciples, but only its semblance, for by telling them of many things without teaching them you will make them seem to know much, while for the most part they know nothing, and as men filled, not with wisdom, but with the conceit of wisdom, they will be a burden to their fellows." Plato (Phaedrus, 275a-b) … then again, what did Plato know? He didn’t even have a landline connection to the internet!!! Image: - http://www.flickr.com/photos/lentina_x/3595837441/ “The mobile internet . . . will not be just a way to do old things while moving. It will be a way to do things that couldn’t be done before.” Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publications, 2002), pp. xiv, xix. Mobile Search Variety Searching for information on an internet-capable phone: • Typed keywords • Spoken keywords (voice search) • Other audio (e.g. Shazam) • Camera (e.g. Google Goggles) • Location-aware (GPS/Compass) • Barcode/QR Code • Augmented Reality Potential QR Code Uses • • • • Links to electronic resources Instructional videos Useful websites for further information Directly containing contact details (e.g. link to QP, Subject Librarian) • A way of storing information for future reference (Scanning catalogue records, Call number and location information – floor maps, scanning search results) (Ashford, 2010; Walsh, 2010) Augmented Reality Video Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamais_cascio/2756996849/ Question 1. Brainstorm: What innovative and creative ways can you think of to use mobile resources and tools to facilitate mobile learning, and the development of mobile information literacy, and to give users access to the expertise of librarians at the moment that their information need occurs? Question 2. Brainstorm: How would you go about incorporating mobile technology into an in-class information literacy instruction session? In the Classroom Google Goggles – have items to scan with the camera that will find results through Google, and items that will not. Have students scan the items and make notes, and then discuss why the items that didn’t work, didn’t work, and why those that did, did. Location-Based Searching (Local History Courses) – Have students create written descriptions to geotag historic buildings and locations with contextual information for others with mobile devices to access. Taking the students in your class out of the room and walking in to the stacks (bringing the online and physical together… standing in the stacks with all of the library’s digital resources in your hand). Outside the Class / Reference Mobile Librarians (page or SMS a librarian and have them meet you where your are in the library with an iPad) Utilize discipline-appropriate augmented reality services (like Google SkyMap for astronomy, or local historical “layars” such as “Your city 100 years ago”.) Augmented Reality created by you! (Make a “layar” for your campus or the libraries in your local library system) QR Codes in the stacks or in the books. Link to information on the call number range that the student is visiting in the stacks, link to subject guides related to the content of a print book, link to lists of related resources, instructional videos etc… free your hyperlinks from the virtual world and bring them into reality! Opportunity Opportunities Engaging students with a compelling technology that they are already engaged with daily Taking the expertise of librarians out of the library, and allowing students to access it where, and when they need it most New search inputs allow for new ways of searching for data, and the same technology offers new ways to manipulate and use data once found New types of searching allow opportunities to re-emphasize traditional information literacy concepts Mobile services give libraries an opportunity to challenge the strong (and not always helpful in 2011) connection of our profession to a place and collections of THINGS and make us more present in our students’ lives, and hopefully more obviously relevant to their information seeking success. Image - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opportunity_in_Endurance_Crater.jpg Challenges Technical Expertise Costs (of development for libraries, and of devices and data plans for users) Competing Priorities Perception of Librarians (elite, expensive, frivolous…) INERTIA Licensed vs. Owned content (DRM) Speed (Net Neutrality) Coverage (mobile broadband availability) Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lauramary/233098556/ Image - http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/results.aspx?qu=success+failure&origin=FX010132103#ai:MP900442210 Conclusions Jump on the mobile bandwagon now, in the future this won’t even be a “thing”, but you and your students will benefit greatly from having been ahead of the curve! “If I have one prediction about the future of mobile computing, it’s this: The future of mobile is the future of computing is mobile.” (Hansen, 2011) In the future, we’ll all simply be moving from screen to screen to screen, with no difference between one’s laptop and TV and desktop computer and cell phone… Bibliography Ahonen, Tomi (2011), Evolving Mobile Industry (Keynote Address). 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