Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi Pertemuan 3

Report
PERTUKARAN
DAN PASAR
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Konsep Pertukaran dan Opportunity Cost
Pengertian Pasar
Pasar Barang Dan Jasa
Kegagalan Pasar dan Peran Pemerintah
Eksternalitas, Public Goods Dan Private
Goods
Free Rider Problems
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An old song lyric maintains that “the best
things in life are free.
” A moment’s thought reveals a long list of
goods that the songwriter could have had in
mind.”
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Free goods provide a special challenge for
economic analysis. Most goods in our economy
are allocated in markets, where buyers pay for
what they receive and sellers are paid for what
they provide.
For these goods, prices are the signals that guide
the decisions of buyers and sellers. When goods
are available free of charge, however, the
market forces that normally allocate resources in
our economy are absent.
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Apa itu pasar & bagaimana bekerjanya pasar
dapat dianalisis dg konsep ekonomi demand
& supply
Pasar dari sisi demand & sisi supply
Pada sisi demand ada konsumen & pada sisi
supply ada produsen
A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a
particular good or service. The buyers as a group
determine the demand for the product, and the
sellers as a group determine the supply of the
product.
 Place/ tempat  bukan secara fisik
 Penjual dan pembeli masing2 membawa
kepentingannya ke pasar
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Markets take many forms.
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Sometimes markets are highly organized,
such as the markets for many agricultural
commodities. In these markets, buyers and
sellers meet at a specific time and place,
where an auctioneer helps set prices and
arrange sales
More often, markets are less organized. For
example, consider the market for ice cream in a
particular town.
 Buyers of ice cream do not meet together at any
one time. The sellers of ice cream are in different
locations and offer somewhat different
products. There is no auctioneer calling out the
price of ice cream. Each seller posts a price for an
ice-cream cone, and each buyer decides how
much ice cream to buy at each store.
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Markets have evolved because they facilitate
trade.
Without organized markets, we would miss
out on a substantial part of the potential
gains from trade.
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Di dalam Pasar, terjadi pertukaran barang
dan jasa menggunakan alat tukar yang
disepakati.
A voluntary exchange between two people
makes both people better off.
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The opportunity cost of something is what you
sacrifice to get it
Ex:
Fred s opportunity cost of 1 coconut is 3 fish that
s how many fish he could catch in the time
required to gather 1 coconut.
Similarly, his opportunity cost of a fish is 1/3
coconut, the number of coconuts he could
gather in the time required to catch 1 fish.
For Kate, the opportunity cost of 1 coconut is 1
fish, and the opportunity cost of 1 fish is 1
coconut.
Coba ingat prinsip ekonomi No.6 !!!!
PRINCIPLE #6: MARKETS ARE
USUALLY A GOOD WAY
TO ORGANIZE ECONOMIC
ACTIVITY
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Perekonomian pasar  keputusan2 para perencana pusat
diambil alih oleh jutaan perusahaan rumah tangga
(keputusan masing2 apa yang harus dibeli atau dijual)
sehingga memperhitungkan biaya dan manfaat  harga
dapat membimbing para pengambil keputusan di tingkat
individual mengambil pilihan yang, dalam banyak kasus,
memaksimalkan kesejahteraan masyarakat secara
keseluruhan
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Markets are useful resource allocation
mechanisms because they are automatic,
responsive to changes in consumer
preferences and, under the right conditions,
allocatively efficient (Wonderling, 2005).
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A free market is one in which there is perfect
competition. It is characterized by four features:
• many producers selling the same product to
many purchasers;
• no restrictions on potential producers entering
the market;
• existing producers have no advantage over the
new producers;
• producers and purchasers are well informed
about prices.
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Dlm situasi pasar persaingan sempurna
(perfect market) produsen dpt menjual
semua yg diinginkan (jd memaksimalkan
profit) dan konsumen dpt membeli semua yg
diinginkan (jd memaksimalkan utility) 
maximum utility at least cost
Prasyarat: memenuhi asumsi krusial
- Certainty /predictable
Konsumen tahu apa yg diinginkan, kapan menginginkan, &
dimana bisa mendapatkan
- No externalities
- Perfect knowledge
- Consumers act free
1. Konsumen bertindak bebas atas interest-nya sendiri dalam
membuat keputusan konsumsi
2.Konsumen bertindak bebas atas interest-nya sendiri dalam
menyediakan barang yg dihargai tinggi oleh konsumen relatif
thd harganya
- Numerous, small producers with no market power
1.Skala tiap-2 produsen adl kecil & berjumlah banyak shg tidak
memiliki kekuatan mendikte pasar
2.Mereka saling bersaing hanya berdasarkan harga
3.Utk mempertahankan konsumen, produsen menahan harga
serendah mungkin  biaya menjadi minimal
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A situation in which a market left on its own
fails to allocate resources efficiently for social
welfare (maximizing health benefits) and
price optimalization.
Example: imperfect information, imperfect
competition, public goods, externalities
The uncompensated impact of one person’s actions
on the well-being of a bystander (Mankiw, 2011)
 Cost or benefit arising from an individual’s production
or consumption decision which indirecly affects the
well-being of others (wonderling, 2005).
 An action undertaken by an individual (or firm) has
secondary effect on others, which maybe favorable or
unfavorable
 Externalities result in a non-optimal amount of output
being produced because an individual or firm
considers only their own benefits and costs when
making a production or consumption decisions
(Feldstein, 1994)
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Positif
-Positive externalities in production or
consumption lead markets to produce a
smaller quantity than is socially desirable.
Co: Vaksinasi, Imunisasi
Negatif
-Negative externalities in production or
consumption lead markets to produce a
larger quantity than is socially desirable.
Co: Pencemaran Lingkungan
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Pemerintah dapat mengintervensi dalam pasar untuk
mengurangi dampak negatif eksternalitas
-Pemberlakuan pajak dari kerugian biaya sosial dari
kegiatan yang merugikan itu. (internalizing an
externality :altering incentives so that people take
account of the external effects of their actions)
Pigovian tax : a tax enacted to correct the effects of a
negative externality
-Subsidi
-Pembuatan regulasi
-Transfer Program: Medicaid and Medicare in US
(Folland et.all, 1997)
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Masyarakat bisa meminimalkan eksternalitas
negatif atau meningkatkan produksi untuk
eksternalitas positif
Contoh: Mobil menggunakan standar emisi
yang ditetapkan, hibah ke institusi pelayanan
kesehatan
How well do markets work in providing the
goods that people want?
 The answer to this question depends on the
good being considered.
 In thinking about the various goods in the
economy, it is useful to group them according to
two characteristics:
-Is the good excludable? Can people be
prevented from using the good?
-Is the good rival? Does one person’s use of the
good diminish another person’s enjoyment of
it?
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RIVALRY
-the property of a good whereby one person’s
use diminishes other people’s use
-Ex: buy clothes, eat banana, take drug It’s
imposible to eat/use it together
EXCLUDABILITY
the property of a good whereby a person can
be prevented from using it or can be gotten
by paying a certain number
Ex: toll road
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Private goods
both excludable and rival
Barang tidak dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya
harus membayar (eksklusif)
Public Goods
neither excludable nor rival
Barang dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (non-rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya
tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)
Common Resources
are rival but not excludable
Barang tidak dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (rival), tetapi untuk
menikmatinya tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)
Natural Monopolies
are excludable but not rival
Barang dapat dikonsumsi secara bersama (non-rival), tetapi untuk menikmatinya
tidak harus membayar (non-eksklusif)
A public good is ‘a good or service that can be
consumed simultaneously by everyone and from
which no individuals can be excluded (Wonderling,
2005)
Ciri-ciri:
 Non Excludability
 Non Rival
 No Marginal cost (tidak menambah biaya).
Biaya yang dirasakan oleh 1 orang dengan 20 orang
sama
 Externality
Manfaat intervensi 1 orang bisa dirasakan oleh lebih 1
orang
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If the provider of a public good tries to ask
people how much they are willing to pay to
receive it, consumers say they don’t want it.
 Why?
 Because the consumers know that once the
good is provided they can consume it even if
they don’t pay for it. This is called the free-rider
problem’ (Parkin et al. 2003).
 Free rider is a person who receives the benefit of a
good but avoids paying for it (Mankiw, 2011).
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Masyarakat tidak bisa dicegah untuk
menikmati layanan penyediaan barang
publik. Ada individu yang tidak mau
membayar untuk pelayanan publik ini.
Masalah ini membuat private market tidak
menyediakan layanan barang publik (Najib,
2011)
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Solusi untuk masalah free rider
-pemerintah dapat memutuskan
memberikan pelayanan publik, jika total
keuntungan yang dinikmati lebih besar dari
biaya yang dibutuhkan Memerlukan tools
CBA
-pemerintah memberikan layanan barang
publik melalui pembayaran pajak dari
warganya
Untuk Welfare Economics
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According to economic theory, there are three main areas of
government activity:
• redistribution of wealth and income;
• stabilization of the macroeconomy (to keep unemployment,
inflation and economic growth at reasonable levels);
• correction of microeconomic market failure.
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As regards the last of these, there are four circumstances in which
governments can and should get involved:
• ensuring and protecting public goods;
• controlling monopoly power;
• reducing externalities;
• reducing asymmetry of information
• redistribusion
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Jelaskan Jenis –jenis dan klasifikasi Pasar
barang dalam ekonomi ?
Analisis pernyataan berikut. Apakah sampah merupakan
eksternalitas positif atau negatif? Mengapa pasar merupakan
solusi terbaik di dalam kasus ini?
 Sejak pergantian abad kedua puluh, peternak di kota New Jersey
menggunakan limbah makanan di kota Philadelphia untuk
memberi makan ternak sapi mereka.
 Philadelphia menghemat $ 3 juta per tahun dan mengurangi
gundukan sampahnya dengan membiarkan peternak New Jersey
mengambil sisa-sisa makanan untuk daur ulang makanan ternak
mereka.
 Kota ini dibayar $ 1.900.000 oleh peternak New Jersey untuk
mengambil sampah setiap tahun, dengan tarif $ 79 per ton. Jika
tidak, kota harus harus membayar $ 125 per ton ke dewan kota
untuk daur ulang di tepi jalan sekitar peternakan mereka dari
limbah makanan tersebut.
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