Icebreaker ~
What were 3 advantages for the North during
the Civil War?
What were 2 disadvantages for the North
during the C.W.?
What were 3 advantages for the South during
the C.W.?
What were 2 disadvantages for the South
during the C.W.?
• The period during in which the U.S. began to
rebuild after the Civil War
• Also refers to the process the federal
government used to readmit the defeated
Confederate states to the Union.
Key Questions
1. How do we
bring the South
back into the
2. How do we
rebuild the
South after its
during the war?
4. What branch
of government
should control
the process of
3. How do we
integrate and
protect newlyemancipated
black freedmen?
Ten percent plan
• The government would pardon all
Confederates except high ranking officials
and those accused of crimes against
prisoners of war.
• As soon as ten percent of those who had
voted in 1860 took this oath of allegiance, a
Confederate state could form a new state
Wanted to destroy the political power of
former slaveholders.
Most of all, they wanted African Americans to
be given full citizenship and the right to vote.
John Wilkes Booth shoots and kills President
Lincoln at Fords Theatre.
Andrew Johnson becomes President
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
 Required 50% of the number of 1860
voters to take an “iron clad” oath of
allegiance (swearing they had never
voluntarily aided the rebellion ).
 Required a state constitutional
convention before the election of
state officials.
 Enacted specific safeguards of
freedmen’s liberties.
W. Davis
13th Amendment
 Ratified in December, 1865. ~
Abolished slavery
 Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as punishment for
crime whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted, shall exist within
the United States or any place subject
to their jurisdiction.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)
 Assisted ex-slaves in
the south
 Many former northern
abolitionists risked
their lives to help
southern freedmen.
 Called “carpetbaggers”
by white southern
Scalawags were white Southerners who joined
the Republican Party.
Carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved
to the South after the war. TO MAKE THAT
Reconstruction Act of 1867
• Act divided the former Confederate states
into five military districts.
• The states were required to give African
Americans the right to vote and ratify the
fourteenth amendment in order to reenter the
• Johnson vetoed Reconstruction Act of 1867
14th Amendment
 Ratified in July, 1868.
Provide a constitutional guarantee of the
rights and security of freed people.
Insure against neo-Confederate political
Enshrine the national debt while
repudiating that of the Confederacy.
 Southern states would be punished for
denying the right to vote to black
15th Amendment
 Ratified in 1870.
 The right of citizens of the United States to
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any state on account of
race, color, or previous condition of
 The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation.
 Women’s rights groups were furious that
they were not granted the vote!
First time they held office in local, state, and
federal government.
Hiram Revels was the first African American
Gen. Sherman promised former slaves who
followed his army 40 acres per family and the
use of army mules.
 Landowners divide their land and assigned
each head of household a few acres, along
with seed and tools.
Ku Klux Klan
 Southern vigilante group.
 Wanted to destroy the Republican party
 Throw out the Reconstruction governments.
 Prevent African Americans from exercising
their political rights.
Panic of 1873
 Series of bank failures that triggered a five
year depression.
 Supreme Court began to undo some of the
social and political changes the Radicals
In the Election of 1876, Democrat candidate
Samuel Tilden won the popular vote but was
one vote short of electoral victory.
Southern Democrats in Congress agreed to
accept Hayes if federal troops were withdrawn
from the South.
Supreme Court decision requiring racial
segregation in public facilities under the
doctrine “separate but equal”

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