Atom

Report
Warm Up
Directions: Answer the
following questions on a
separate piece of paper.
1. What is the smallest
thing known to man?
2. What is everything made
out of?
CW:
1) Warm Up
2) Video Vocab
HW:
1) None
Thought Question
Directions – Answer the following question in
your notebook:
1. A scientist posed the argument that you
never actually touch anything. He said this
because of the positive and negative charges
in an atom. Hint: Think of a magnet. Do you
agree or disagree and why?
Atom Video Vocabulary
Directions: Divide your paper into 2 columns. Label
the left column Before Videos and the right Column
After Video. Copy the words into each side of the
column.
1. Atomic theory
2. Atom
3. Nucleus
4. Proton
5. Neutron
6. Electron
Atom Video Vocabulary
Directions: As you watch the videos, you need to
come up with a definition in your own words for
each of the following words:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Atomic theory
Atom
Nucleus
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Atomic Theory Exit Ticket
Draw a picture of an atom and label all of its
parts.
Warm Up
If everything is made up of
millions of individual atoms,
why are objects solid and
why don’t they fall apart
into separate individual
atoms?
CW:
1) Warm Up
2) Video Vocab
HW:
1) None
Thought Question
Directions – Answer the following question in your
notebook:
1. A scientist posed the argument that you never
actually touch anything. He said this because of
the positive and negative charges in an atom.
Hint: Think of a magnet. Do you agree or
disagree and why? USE THE INFORMATION YOU
HAVE GATHERED TO BACK UP YOUR POINT!
In the center of Matterville, there The Atoms Family Story
is a place called the Nucleus Name:
Arcade, where two members of Patty Proton
the Atoms Family like to hang
Description:
out. Perky Patty Proton, like
Positive
her sisters, is quite large with a
huge smile and eyes that sparkle Favorite Activity:
(+). Patty is always happy and Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade
has a very positive personality.
Nerdy Nelda Neutron is large Name:
like Patty, but she has a boring, Nelda Neutron
flat mouth and eyes with zero
Description:
expression (o). Her family is very
Neutral
apathetic and neutral about
everything. Patty, Nelda, and Favorite Activity:
their sisters spend all their time at Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade
the arcade.
Around the Nucleus Arcade, you
will find a series of roadways that
are used by another member of the
Atoms Family, Enraged Elliott
Electron. Elliott races madly around
the Arcade on his bright red chromeplated Harley-Davidson. He rides so
fast that no one can be sure where he
is at any time.
Elliott is much
smaller than Patty and Nelda and he
is always angry because these bigger
relatives will not let him in the
Arcade. He has a frown on his face,
eyes that are squinted with anger,
and a very negative (-) attitude.
Name:
Elliott Electron
Description:
Negative
Favorite Activity:
Racing around the arcade
The first energy street can only hold
only two Electron brothers. The
second energy street, called the
Energy Freeway, can hold 8
brothers. The third energy street,
called the Energy Superhighway, can
hold 18 of the brothers.
Energy Freeway
Can hold 8
electrons
Energy Street
Can hold 2
electrons
Energy
Superhighway Can
hold 18 electrons
Nucleus Arcade
Contains protons &
neutrons
The morale of Matterville is stable as long as each negative Electron
brother is balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of
residents in Matterville depends on the Proton and Neutron families.
Challenge: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one
Elliott Electron was kidnapped?
Challenge 2: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one
Elliott Electron moved to Matterville?
1st Verse:
They’re tiny and they’re
teeny,
Much smaller than a beany,
They never can be seeny,
The Atoms Family.
Chorus
3rd Verse:
Neutrons can be found,
Where protons hang
around;
Electrons they surround
The Atoms Family.
Chorus
2nd Verse:
Together they make gases,
And liquids like molasses,
And all the solid masses,
The Atoms Family
Chorus
Chorus:
They are so small.
(Snap, snap)
They’re round like a ball.
(Snap, snap)
They make up the air.
They’re everywhere.
Can’t see them at all.
(Snap, snap)
They’re tiny and they’re
teeny,
Much smaller than a
beany,
They never can be seeny,
The Atoms Family.
They are so small.
(Snap, snap)
They’re round like a ball.
(Snap, snap)
They make up the air.
They’re everywhere.
Can’t see them at all.
(Snap, snap)
Together they make gases,
And liquids like molasses,
And all the solid masses,
The Atoms Family
They are so small.
(Snap, snap)
They’re round like a ball.
(Snap, snap)
They make up the air.
They’re everywhere.
Can’t see them at all.
(Snap, snap)
Neutrons can be found,
Where protons hang
around;
Electrons they surround
The Atoms Family.
They are so small.
(Snap, snap)
They’re round like a ball.
(Snap, snap)
They make up the air.
They’re everywhere.
Can’t see them at all.
(Snap, snap)
Atom
• The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists
of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a
cloud of negatively charged electrons. The
atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively
charged protons and electrically neutral
neutrons.
Atomic Theory
 Atoms are building blocks of elements
 Similar atoms in each element
 Different from atoms of other elements
 Two or more different atoms can bond to form
compounds
22
Location of Subatomic Particles
electrons
protons
neutrons
nucleus
23
Subatomic Particles
Particle
Symbol
Charge
Electron
e-
-
Relative
Mass
0 amu
Proton
p+
+
1 amu
Neutron
n
0
1amu
24
Atomic Number
Counts the number
of
Protons and Electrons
in an atom
25
Atomic Number on the Periodic Table
Atomic Number
Symbol
11
Na
26
All atoms of an element have the
same number of protons
11 protons
and 11 electrons
Sodium
11
Na
27
Number of Electrons
 An atom is neutral
 The net charge is zero
 Number of protons = Number of electrons
 Atomic number = Number of electrons
28
Atomic Mass
Counts the number
of
protons and neutrons
in an atom
29
Subatomic Particles in Some Atoms
16
O
8
8
p+
8n
8 e-
31
P
15
15
p+
16 n
15 e-
65
Zn
30
30 p+
35 n
30 e30
Atom Exit Ticket
• How are a more positive and a more negative
atom different? You can explain your answer
in words or with a picture.
LecturePLUS Timberlake
31
Atom Exit Ticket #2
24
Mg
12
27
209
Al
Bi
13
83
LecturePLUS Timberlake
32
Warm Up
1. Where do you find the
Sub-Atomic particles?
2. Describe what one
characteristic about an
atom determines that it
is different from all other
atoms?
CW:
1) Warm Up
2) Atom Notes
HW:
1) Atomic Math
Worksheet
Isotopes
 Atoms with the same number of protons, but
different numbers of neutrons.
 Atoms of the same element (same atomic
number) with different mass numbers
Isotopes of chlorine
35Cl
37Cl
17
17
chlorine - 35
chlorine - 37
34
Atom Exit Ticket
24
27
Mg
12
Al
13
209
Bi
83
Warm Up
• Draw a picture of the
following Atom:
Carbon
CW:
1) Warm Up
2) Atom Notes
HW:
1) Draw the Atom
Worksheet
Element Model
Draw an Atom Check list
1.
2.
3.
Find the Atom on the Periodic Table
Write down the Atomic Number and the Atomic Mass
Figure out how many Protons, Neutrons and
Electrons it has
Draw with Nucleus labeling protons and neutrons
Draw the Energy Street, Freeway and Superhighway
Label each Energy Street with the number of
electrons it can hold (2, 8, 18)
Begin drawing the electrons onto the streets.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
2.
Be sure to start with the innermost streets first
Only draw the number of electrons that your atom actually has.
37
Day 1 Mini lesson
Nucleus
2 electrons
8 electrons
18 electrons
Day 1 Mini Lesson
• Draw the following Atoms: Hydrogen, Carbon,
sodium
Atomic theory exit Ticket
• How are the Atomic Mass and the Atomic
Number related to the number of sub-atomic
particles in an atom?
Day 1 Expectations
By yourself, you will need to choose 3 atoms from the first 28 elements
on the periodic table. (You may not choose Hydrogen, Carbon,
Sodium)Once you have done that, you need to figure out the following
information about your element:
Element Name
Element Symbol
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass
Number of Protons
Number of Neutrons
Number of electrons
What your element looks like
Drawing an Atom Check list
1.
2.
3.
4.
Find the atom on the periodic table.
Write down the Atomic # and Atomic Mass
Find the number of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.
Draw the correct number of Protons and Neutrons in
the Nucleus
5. Draw your energy Street, Freeway and Super Highway
6. Next to each energy level, Write how many electrons
each can hold.
7. Begin filling in Energy levels with the correct number
of electrons (make sure to only add as many as your
element has)
Gum Drop Atoms
Directions:
» Pod 1 (Nitrogen (N), Neon (Ne))
» Pod 2 (Helium (He), Sodium (Na))
» Pod 3 (Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg))
» Pod 4 (Nickel (Ni), Phosphorous (P))
» Pod 5 (Oxygen (O), Chlorine (Cl))
» Pod 6 (Silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn))
Make a model of the element’s atom to teach to the
class. You will need to have the following things
drawn in your notebook and on the whit board:
1.
2.
3.
What is the elements Atomic #, Atomic Mass and Symbol.
Write out the number of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Draw the atom.
Once you have finished, then move on to the next
element.
CW:
1) Intro atomic
theory Rap
HW:
1) None
Atomic theory rap
• Directions:
– You and max 2 partners need to come up with a
rap/song where you explain how the atomic model
has changed over the years.
– the rap needs to include a description of the following
models:
•
•
•
•
•
Dalton’s Plum pudding
Thompson’s Model
Rutherford’s Model
Bohr Model
Present Day (Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)
I am Talking To you
• Prompt: You are writing to one of your
favorite teachers. Apply concepts you have
learned to explain to your favorite teacher
how elements are different.
WU - Atomic Math
Directions: Answer the following question.
22
CW:
1) Warm Up
Ti
2) Molecule Notes
Titanium
HW:
1) None
47.867
Atomic # = ______
Atomic Mass = _________
# of Protons = ________
# of Neutrons = ________
# of Electrons = ________
Elements, Molecules
and Compounds
The Language of Chemistry
• CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
-
– pure substances that cannot be decomposed by
ordinary means to other substances.
Aluminum
Sodium
Bromine
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are
composed of atoms and so can be
decomposed to those atoms.
Atoms of the same and different
elements are bonded together.
The red compound is
composed of
• nickel (Ni) (silver)
• carbon (C) (black)
• hydrogen (H) (white)
• oxygen (O) (red)
• nitrogen (N) (blue)
Compounds
– composed of 2 or
more elements in a
fixed ratio
– properties differ
from those of
individual
elements
– EX: table salt
(NaCl)
A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a
compound that retains the chemical
characteristics of the compound.
Composition of molecules is given by a
MOLECULAR FORMULA
H2O
C8H10N4O2 - caffeine
Diatomic Molecule: Molecule composed of 2 atoms of the
same element
ELEMENTS THAT EXIST AS
DIATOMIC MOLECULES
Remember:
BrINClHOF
These elements
only exist as
PAIRS. Note that
when they
combine to make
compounds, they
are no longer
elements so they
are no longer in
pairs!
The Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)
Group 1A: Alkali Metals
•All Metal except for
Hydrogen
•1 electron on the
outermost road
Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals
Magnesium
Magnesium
oxide
•Metal
•2 electrons on the
outermost road
Transition Elements
Lanthanides and actinides
•Metal
Group 7A: The Halogens
(salt makers)
F, Cl, Br, I, At
•Non-Metal
•7 electrons on the
outermost road
Group 8A: The Noble
(Inert) Gases
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
• Lighter than air
balloons
• “Neon” signs
• Very Un-reactive
because they have 8
electrons on the
outermost road
Elements want 8
electrons on
outer road
XeOF4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elements want 8 electrons on outer road
1a – 1 electron
2a – 2 electrons
3a – 3 electrons
4a – 4 electrons
5a – 5 electrons
6a – 6 electrons
7a – 7 electrons
8a – 8 electrons
Chemical Bonding
• The two main types of chemical bonds are:
– Ionic Bonds
– Covalent Bonds
• Ionic Bonds: Metals bonding with non-metals
– Example: NaCl, CaCl2, K2O
• Covalent Bonds: Formed by sharing electron
pairs
– Example: O2, CO2, C2H6, H2O, SiC
Properties of Ionic Bonds:
• Tight crystal structure makes ionic bond hard, rigid,
and brittle.
• Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity
– Because melted ionic compounds are not in a crystal
structure, the ionic charge allows electricity to be
conducted.
• The lattice of ionic compounds is so stable that
these compounds have a high melting point.
• Will dissolve in water
Covalent Compounds:
• Covalent bonds form between non-metals.
• Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share
electrons to fill their valence shell (have 8
electrons around them).
What a covalent bond looks like:
Metallic Bonds
• Occur between metal
and metal.
• Electrons are pooled,
forming a “sea of
electrons,” such that
the electrons flow from
atom to atom, thereby
holding them together.
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are
composed of atoms and so can be
decomposed to those atoms.
The red compound is composed
of
• nickel (Ni) (silver)
• carbon (C) (black)
• hydrogen (H) (white)
• oxygen (O) (red)
• nitrogen (N) (blue)
Compounds
– composed of 2 or
more elements in a
fixed ratio
– properties differ from
those of individual
elements
– EX: table salt (NaCl)
MOLECULE
A
is the smallest unit of a
compound that retains the chemical characteristics of
the compound.
Composition of molecules is given
by a MOLECULAR FORMULA
H2O
C8H10N4O2 - caffeine
Draw the Atom Exit Ticket
• Draw an atom of Lithium (Li). Be sure to
properly label the correct number of subatomic particles.

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