Warm Up Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper. 1. What is the smallest thing known to man? 2. What is everything made out of? CW: 1) Warm Up 2) Video Vocab HW: 1) None Thought Question Directions – Answer the following question in your notebook: 1. A scientist posed the argument that you never actually touch anything. He said this because of the positive and negative charges in an atom. Hint: Think of a magnet. Do you agree or disagree and why? Atom Video Vocabulary Directions: Divide your paper into 2 columns. Label the left column Before Videos and the right Column After Video. Copy the words into each side of the column. 1. Atomic theory 2. Atom 3. Nucleus 4. Proton 5. Neutron 6. Electron Atom Video Vocabulary Directions: As you watch the videos, you need to come up with a definition in your own words for each of the following words: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Atomic theory Atom Nucleus Proton Neutron Electron Atomic Theory Exit Ticket Draw a picture of an atom and label all of its parts. Warm Up If everything is made up of millions of individual atoms, why are objects solid and why don’t they fall apart into separate individual atoms? CW: 1) Warm Up 2) Video Vocab HW: 1) None Thought Question Directions – Answer the following question in your notebook: 1. A scientist posed the argument that you never actually touch anything. He said this because of the positive and negative charges in an atom. Hint: Think of a magnet. Do you agree or disagree and why? USE THE INFORMATION YOU HAVE GATHERED TO BACK UP YOUR POINT! In the center of Matterville, there The Atoms Family Story is a place called the Nucleus Name: Arcade, where two members of Patty Proton the Atoms Family like to hang Description: out. Perky Patty Proton, like Positive her sisters, is quite large with a huge smile and eyes that sparkle Favorite Activity: (+). Patty is always happy and Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade has a very positive personality. Nerdy Nelda Neutron is large Name: like Patty, but she has a boring, Nelda Neutron flat mouth and eyes with zero Description: expression (o). Her family is very Neutral apathetic and neutral about everything. Patty, Nelda, and Favorite Activity: their sisters spend all their time at Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade the arcade. Around the Nucleus Arcade, you will find a series of roadways that are used by another member of the Atoms Family, Enraged Elliott Electron. Elliott races madly around the Arcade on his bright red chromeplated Harley-Davidson. He rides so fast that no one can be sure where he is at any time. Elliott is much smaller than Patty and Nelda and he is always angry because these bigger relatives will not let him in the Arcade. He has a frown on his face, eyes that are squinted with anger, and a very negative (-) attitude. Name: Elliott Electron Description: Negative Favorite Activity: Racing around the arcade The first energy street can only hold only two Electron brothers. The second energy street, called the Energy Freeway, can hold 8 brothers. The third energy street, called the Energy Superhighway, can hold 18 of the brothers. Energy Freeway Can hold 8 electrons Energy Street Can hold 2 electrons Energy Superhighway Can hold 18 electrons Nucleus Arcade Contains protons & neutrons The morale of Matterville is stable as long as each negative Electron brother is balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of residents in Matterville depends on the Proton and Neutron families. Challenge: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one Elliott Electron was kidnapped? Challenge 2: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one Elliott Electron moved to Matterville? 1st Verse: They’re tiny and they’re teeny, Much smaller than a beany, They never can be seeny, The Atoms Family. Chorus 3rd Verse: Neutrons can be found, Where protons hang around; Electrons they surround The Atoms Family. Chorus 2nd Verse: Together they make gases, And liquids like molasses, And all the solid masses, The Atoms Family Chorus Chorus: They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) They’re tiny and they’re teeny, Much smaller than a beany, They never can be seeny, The Atoms Family. They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) Together they make gases, And liquids like molasses, And all the solid masses, The Atoms Family They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) Neutrons can be found, Where protons hang around; Electrons they surround The Atoms Family. They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) Atom • The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms can bond to form compounds 22 Location of Subatomic Particles electrons protons neutrons nucleus 23 Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Electron e- - Relative Mass 0 amu Proton p+ + 1 amu Neutron n 0 1amu 24 Atomic Number Counts the number of Protons and Electrons in an atom 25 Atomic Number on the Periodic Table Atomic Number Symbol 11 Na 26 All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11 protons and 11 electrons Sodium 11 Na 27 Number of Electrons An atom is neutral The net charge is zero Number of protons = Number of electrons Atomic number = Number of electrons 28 Atomic Mass Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom 29 Subatomic Particles in Some Atoms 16 O 8 8 p+ 8n 8 e- 31 P 15 15 p+ 16 n 15 e- 65 Zn 30 30 p+ 35 n 30 e30 Atom Exit Ticket • How are a more positive and a more negative atom different? You can explain your answer in words or with a picture. LecturePLUS Timberlake 31 Atom Exit Ticket #2 24 Mg 12 27 209 Al Bi 13 83 LecturePLUS Timberlake 32 Warm Up 1. Where do you find the Sub-Atomic particles? 2. Describe what one characteristic about an atom determines that it is different from all other atoms? CW: 1) Warm Up 2) Atom Notes HW: 1) Atomic Math Worksheet Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers Isotopes of chlorine 35Cl 37Cl 17 17 chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37 34 Atom Exit Ticket 24 27 Mg 12 Al 13 209 Bi 83 Warm Up • Draw a picture of the following Atom: Carbon CW: 1) Warm Up 2) Atom Notes HW: 1) Draw the Atom Worksheet Element Model Draw an Atom Check list 1. 2. 3. Find the Atom on the Periodic Table Write down the Atomic Number and the Atomic Mass Figure out how many Protons, Neutrons and Electrons it has Draw with Nucleus labeling protons and neutrons Draw the Energy Street, Freeway and Superhighway Label each Energy Street with the number of electrons it can hold (2, 8, 18) Begin drawing the electrons onto the streets. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. Be sure to start with the innermost streets first Only draw the number of electrons that your atom actually has. 37 Day 1 Mini lesson Nucleus 2 electrons 8 electrons 18 electrons Day 1 Mini Lesson • Draw the following Atoms: Hydrogen, Carbon, sodium Atomic theory exit Ticket • How are the Atomic Mass and the Atomic Number related to the number of sub-atomic particles in an atom? Day 1 Expectations By yourself, you will need to choose 3 atoms from the first 28 elements on the periodic table. (You may not choose Hydrogen, Carbon, Sodium)Once you have done that, you need to figure out the following information about your element: Element Name Element Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Number of electrons What your element looks like Drawing an Atom Check list 1. 2. 3. 4. Find the atom on the periodic table. Write down the Atomic # and Atomic Mass Find the number of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. Draw the correct number of Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus 5. Draw your energy Street, Freeway and Super Highway 6. Next to each energy level, Write how many electrons each can hold. 7. Begin filling in Energy levels with the correct number of electrons (make sure to only add as many as your element has) Gum Drop Atoms Directions: » Pod 1 (Nitrogen (N), Neon (Ne)) » Pod 2 (Helium (He), Sodium (Na)) » Pod 3 (Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg)) » Pod 4 (Nickel (Ni), Phosphorous (P)) » Pod 5 (Oxygen (O), Chlorine (Cl)) » Pod 6 (Silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn)) Make a model of the element’s atom to teach to the class. You will need to have the following things drawn in your notebook and on the whit board: 1. 2. 3. What is the elements Atomic #, Atomic Mass and Symbol. Write out the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Draw the atom. Once you have finished, then move on to the next element. CW: 1) Intro atomic theory Rap HW: 1) None Atomic theory rap • Directions: – You and max 2 partners need to come up with a rap/song where you explain how the atomic model has changed over the years. – the rap needs to include a description of the following models: • • • • • Dalton’s Plum pudding Thompson’s Model Rutherford’s Model Bohr Model Present Day (Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) I am Talking To you • Prompt: You are writing to one of your favorite teachers. Apply concepts you have learned to explain to your favorite teacher how elements are different. WU - Atomic Math Directions: Answer the following question. 22 CW: 1) Warm Up Ti 2) Molecule Notes Titanium HW: 1) None 47.867 Atomic # = ______ Atomic Mass = _________ # of Protons = ________ # of Neutrons = ________ # of Electrons = ________ Elements, Molecules and Compounds The Language of Chemistry • CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - – pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Sodium Bromine CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are composed of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms. Atoms of the same and different elements are bonded together. The red compound is composed of • nickel (Ni) (silver) • carbon (C) (black) • hydrogen (H) (white) • oxygen (O) (red) • nitrogen (N) (blue) Compounds – composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio – properties differ from those of individual elements – EX: table salt (NaCl) A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound. Composition of molecules is given by a MOLECULAR FORMULA H2O C8H10N4O2 - caffeine Diatomic Molecule: Molecule composed of 2 atoms of the same element ELEMENTS THAT EXIST AS DIATOMIC MOLECULES Remember: BrINClHOF These elements only exist as PAIRS. Note that when they combine to make compounds, they are no longer elements so they are no longer in pairs! The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907) Group 1A: Alkali Metals •All Metal except for Hydrogen •1 electron on the outermost road Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals Magnesium Magnesium oxide •Metal •2 electrons on the outermost road Transition Elements Lanthanides and actinides •Metal Group 7A: The Halogens (salt makers) F, Cl, Br, I, At •Non-Metal •7 electrons on the outermost road Group 8A: The Noble (Inert) Gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn • Lighter than air balloons • “Neon” signs • Very Un-reactive because they have 8 electrons on the outermost road Elements want 8 electrons on outer road XeOF4 • • • • • • • • • Elements want 8 electrons on outer road 1a – 1 electron 2a – 2 electrons 3a – 3 electrons 4a – 4 electrons 5a – 5 electrons 6a – 6 electrons 7a – 7 electrons 8a – 8 electrons Chemical Bonding • The two main types of chemical bonds are: – Ionic Bonds – Covalent Bonds • Ionic Bonds: Metals bonding with non-metals – Example: NaCl, CaCl2, K2O • Covalent Bonds: Formed by sharing electron pairs – Example: O2, CO2, C2H6, H2O, SiC Properties of Ionic Bonds: • Tight crystal structure makes ionic bond hard, rigid, and brittle. • Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity – Because melted ionic compounds are not in a crystal structure, the ionic charge allows electricity to be conducted. • The lattice of ionic compounds is so stable that these compounds have a high melting point. • Will dissolve in water Covalent Compounds: • Covalent bonds form between non-metals. • Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share electrons to fill their valence shell (have 8 electrons around them). What a covalent bond looks like: Metallic Bonds • Occur between metal and metal. • Electrons are pooled, forming a “sea of electrons,” such that the electrons flow from atom to atom, thereby holding them together. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are composed of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms. The red compound is composed of • nickel (Ni) (silver) • carbon (C) (black) • hydrogen (H) (white) • oxygen (O) (red) • nitrogen (N) (blue) Compounds – composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio – properties differ from those of individual elements – EX: table salt (NaCl) MOLECULE A is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound. Composition of molecules is given by a MOLECULAR FORMULA H2O C8H10N4O2 - caffeine Draw the Atom Exit Ticket • Draw an atom of Lithium (Li). Be sure to properly label the correct number of subatomic particles.