Generating Signals

Report
Back to Basics: Signal Generation
1
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Agenda
 The need for creating test signals
• Aerospace Defense to Communications
Generating Signals
• No modulation
• Analog Modulation
• Composite Modulation
Signal Generator Architecture
 Signal Simulation Solutions
 Summary
2
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
From Movies ….
Nov. 1940 - News Flash
Disney releases Fantasia with
“Fantasound”, a new audio
stereophonic sound system
Walt Disney orders eight audio oscillators (HP
200B) for the sound production of the movie
Fantasia.
The 200B was used to calibrate the
breakthrough sound system of Walt Disney's
celebrated animated film, Fantasia
Stimulus/Response Testing
Input
Output
Equalizer
3
Tone/volume
Power
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Aerospace Defense ….
TESTING RADAR TRANSMITTERS and RECEIVERS
RF Signal
Injection
ANTENNA
IF Signal
Injection
LNA
1st LO
Signal
Processor
(range and Doppler)
2nd
IFA
LO
Substitution
4
IF
BPF
1st
IFA
IF
BPF
2nd
LO
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
To Mobile Communications….
TESTING DIGITAL TRANSMITTERS and RECEIVERS
1011001110001010001
1011001110001010001
RF Signal injection
IF Signal Injection
Baseband Signal Injection
5
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Agenda
 The need for creating test signals
• Aerospace Defense to Communications
Generating Signals
• No modulation
• Analog Modulation
• Composite Modulation
Signal Generator Architecture
 Signal Simulation Solutions
 Summary
6
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – No Modulation
Time
Voltage
Voltage
Continuous Wave (CW)
Frequency
Oscilloscope
Spectrum Analyzer
The sine wave is the basic, non-modulated signal: It is useful for
stimulus/response testing of linear components and for Local
Oscillator substitution. Available frequencies range from low RF to
Millimeter.
6 GHz
7
Millimeter
Microwave
RF
20-70 GHz
300 GHz
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Analog Modulation
Modulation: Where the Information Resides
V(t) = A(t)*cos[2πfct +
Φ(t)]
AM, Pulse
8
FM, PM
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals - Analog Modulation
Amplitude Modulation
Voltage
Carrier
Modulation
depth %,
dB
Important Characteristics for
Amplitude Modulation



Time
Modulation
frequency



Modulation frequency (rate)
Depth of modulation (Mod Index)
Linear AM (%)
Log AM (dB)
Sensitivity (depth/volt)
Distortion %
Where are AM signals used?



9
AM Radio
Antenna scan
ASK (early digital 100101)
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Analog Modulation
Frequency Modulation
V(t) = A cos[2πfct + βsin2πFmt]
β is the modulation
index, where β = ΔFdev
/Fm
Important Characteristics for
Frequency Modulation

Voltage


Time



10
Frequency Deviation
(ΔFdev)
Modulation Frequency (Fm)
Accuracy
Resolution
Distortion (%)
Sensitivity (dev/volt)
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Analog Modulation
Voltage
Phase Modulation
Time
V(t) = A cos[2πfct + β2πFmt]
Where β =Δθ, the peak phase
deviation
Important Characteristics for
Phase Modulation
 Phase deviation (Δθ)
 Modulation Rate (Fm)
 Accuracy
 Resolution
 Distortion (%)
 Sensitivity (dev/volt)
Where are Phase Modulated
signals used?


11
PSK (early digital 1010)
Radar (pulse coding)
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Analog Modulation
Pulse
Repetition
Interval (PRI)
Pulse Modulation
Rise time
Important Characteristics for
Pulse Modulation
T
Voltage

On/Off ratio


t

Time

Pulse Width
12
(t)
(1/T)
(t/T)
(dB)
(ns)
2/t
1/T
1/t
Power
Where are Pulse Modulated
signals used?
 Radar
 High Power
Stimulus/Response
 Communications
Pulse width
PRF
Duty cycle
On/Off ratio
Rise time
Frequency
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Simultaneous modulation of two Mod Types
Independent Amplitude
and Phase Modulation
Integrated IQ
Modulator
Q
I
Independent FM and
Pulse Modulation
FM during the pulse =
chirp
13
32 QAM Constellation
Diagram
Back to Basics Training
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29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Vector Signal Changes or
Modifications
Phase
0 deg
Magnitude
Change
Phase
0 deg
Phase
Change
0 deg
0 deg
Both
Change
14
Frequency
Change
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Polar Versus I-Q Format
Q
{
Q-Value
Project Signals to “I” and “Q” Axes

Polar to Rectangular Conversion

{
Phase
I-Value
15

0 deg
I
IQ Plane Shows 2 Things:

What the modulated carrier is
doing relative to the
unmodulated carrier.

What baseband I and Q
inputs are required to
produce the modulated
carrier
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Transmitting Digital Data -- Bits vs Symbols
Binary Data bit = 0,1
Transmitting Digital Bits (f 1 = 0, f 2 = 1 )
f1
f (t) =
f2
T
010101010
Symbol = Groups/blocks of Bits
2 bits/symbol (00 01 10
11) 3 bits/symbol (000
001 …..) 4 bits/symbol
(0000 0001 ..)
2/ T
Main lobe width is 2 × Sample rate
Symbol Rate =
Bit rate
# bits per symbol
Symbol 1 (00)
Symbol 2 (01)
f (t) =
Symbol 3 (10)
Symbol 4 (11)
S
16
Transmission Bandwidth Required
2/ S
Main lobe width is 2 × Symbol rate
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Digital Modulation Characteristics
Modulation
format
Number of bits
per symbol
Constellation
Transmission
bandwidth
Q
BPSK
1
1
0
I
F
01
QPSK
Q
2
I
10
11
Q
16 QAM
4
Symbol Rate = #symbols/sec. (Hz)
17
00
F/2
0000
I
F/4
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Vector Modulation - Important
Characteristics
Q




Phase
IQ Modulation Bandwidth
Frequency Response/flatness
IQ quadrature skew
IQ gain balance
0 deg
I
flatness
Fb
w
18
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Generating Signals – Composite Modulation
Vector Modulation - Where Used
Q

I

19
Mobile Digital
Communications
Modern Radars
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Agenda
 The need for creating test signals
• Aerospace Defense to Communications
 Generating Signals
• No modulation
• Analog Modulation
• Composite Modulation
Signal Generator Architecture
 Signal Simulation Solutions
 Summary
20
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Signal Generator Architecture
Basic CW Signals
•Block Diagram (RF and Microwave)
•Specifications
•Applications
Analog Signals
•Block Diagram (AM, FM, PM, Pulse)
•Applications
Vector Signals
•Block Diagram (IQ)
•Applications
21
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
RF Source
Synthesizer Section
Output Section
Frac-N
ALC
Modulator
Phase
Detector
Output
Attenuator
f
VCO
divide
by X
Reference
Oscillator
Reference Section
22
ALC
Driver
ALC Detector
ALC = automatic level
control
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
Reference Section
Phase
Detecto
r
Divide
by X
f
Optional
External
Reference InputTCXO
23
To
synthesizer
section
Reference Oscillator (TCXO or
OCXO)
Aging Rate
+/- 2ppm/year
OCXO
+/- 0.1 ppm /year
Temp.
+/- 1ppm
+/- 0.01 ppm
Line Voltage
+/- 0.5ppm
+/- 0.001 ppm
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
Output Section
• ALC
•maintains level output
power by
adding/subtracting power
as needed
• Output Attenuator
•mechanical or electronic
•provides attenuation to
achieve wide output range
(e.g. -127 dBm to +23
dBm)
24
From
synthesiz
er section
ALC
Modulator
Output
Attenuator
Sourc
e
output
ALC
Driver
ALC Detector
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
Synthesizer Section
Front
panel
contro
l
N = 93.1
Frac-N
Error signal
5MHz
Phase
Detecto
r
f
X
VCO
5MHz
From reference
section
25
2
To output
section
931 MHz
Multiplie
r
465.5 MHz
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
PLL/Fractional-N…suppress phase noise
Overall phase noise of signalPhase-locked-loop (PLL)
bandwidth selected for optimum
noise performance
Reference
oscillator
Phase
detector
noise
20logN
VCO noise
26
Broadband
noise floor
frequency
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Block Diagram
Microwave Source
Reference Section
Output Section
Frac
N
ALC
Modulator
Phase
Det
Output
Attenuator
VCO
Sampler
Ref
Osc
YIG
Oscillator
Phase
Detector
f
ALC
Driver
Frac
-N
f
27
Synthesizer
Section
ALC Detector
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Specifications
Frequency



f CW
t aging =
=
t cal
Power

Range
Fmin to Fmax
Resolution
Smallest frequency increment
Accuracy
How close is the indicated
frequency
to the actual
frequency?
Switching Speed How quickly can you change
from
one frequency to
Uncertainty
Accuracy = ±f CW * t aging * t cal
another?
=
Frequency
CW frequency = 1 GHz
aging rate = 0.152 ppm/year
time since last calibrated = 1
year
Accuracy = ±152 Hz
28
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Specifications
Amplitude
• Range
 Resolution
 Accuracy
the
 Switching Speed
Pmin to Pmax
Smallest amplitude increment
How close is the indicated amplitude to
actual amplitude?
How quickly can you change from one
amplitude to another?
• Reverse Power Protection Maximum safe power that can be
Amplitude
applied
to the
RF output
uncertaint
y
Voltag
e
Source protected from
accidental transmission from
DUT
DU
T
29
What is P
ma
out?
x
What is min
P
out?
Frequenc
y
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Specifications
Frequency Sweep
Step sweep
• accuracy
• number of
points
• switching time
Ramp sweep
• accuracy
• sweep time
• resolution
f4
f3
f2
f1
t1
t2
t3
t4
f2
f1
t1
30
t2
time
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Specifications
Frequency Sweep - Amplitude
power
level accuracy
spec
Frequency Sweep
• Level Accuracy
• Flatness
• Source Match (SWR)
f1
P2
P1
31
frequency
f2
}
power
Power Sweep
• Power Sweep Range
• Power Slope Range
• Source Match (SWR)
flatness spec
t1
power sweep
range
t2
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Specifications
Spectral Purity
•
•
•
•
Phase Noise
Spurious
Harmonics
Sub-harmonics
CW output
Phase
noise,
dBc/Hz
Non-harmonic spur
~65dBc
Harmonic spur
~30dBc
Sub-harmonics
0.5 f0
2f0
32
f0
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
As a Local Oscillator
DUT
IF signal
transmitter output
LO signal
Key Specs:
•
•
•
•
•
33
Frequency Range
Accuracy
Resolution
Output Power
Phase Noise
Poor frequency accuracy
and/or resolution will cause
the transmitter output to be at
the wrong frequency
poor phase noise spreads
energy into adjacent
channels
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
In-Channel Receiver Testing
Receiver Sensitivity
IF
signal
The smallest RF signal that will produce
a desired baseband output from the
receiver
DUT
in-channel signal
(cw signal)
source
output
• Range (-127 dBm to +23 dBm)
• Accuracy (+/- 0.7 dB)
• Resolution (0.01 dB)
Level (dBm)
Key Specs:
IF Rejection Curve
-116 dBm to –
126 dBm
IF Channel Frequency
34
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
Out-of-channel Receiver Testing
Receiver Selectivity
Spurious Response
Immunity
in-channel
signal
IF
signal
isolato
r
DUT
out-of-channel
interferer
source output
IF Rejection Curve
Key Specs:
Frequency Range
Output Power
Phase Noise
Broadband noise
Non-harmonic spurious
Level (dBm)
•
•
•
•
•
spur from source and/or high levels
of phase noise can cause a good
receiver to fail
Frequency
35
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
Non-linear Amplifier Testing - TOI
f1
DUT
output RF
f2
•
•
•
•
•
Key Specs:
Frequency Range
Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Resolution
Output Power
Non-harmonic spurious
isolato
r
Two-tone Intermodulation
Distortion
test system third order
f
f2
products will also fall here
1
spurious signals from source
can corrupt measurement
fL = 2f1 - f2
fU = 2 f2 - f1
frequency
36
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
Out-of-channel Receiver Testing - IMD
Intermodulation immunity
f1
IF
signal
isolator
f2
Fmod = nF1 + mF2
DUT
Frequency Range
Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Resolution
Output Power
Non-harmonic spurious
out-of-channel
signals
sources
output
F1
Level (dBm)
•
•
•
•
•
Key Specs:
F2
n= -1,2
m= 2,-1
IF Rejection Curve
Intermodulation product
Fmod = 2F2 – F1
spur from
source
Frequency
37
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29 Feb 2012
Basic CW Signals – Applications
Stimulus-Response Testing
Example DUT’s
Detector
Detector
Fout
Fin
DUT
Fin
LO
38
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fout
Key Specs:
Frequency Range
Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Ramp/step sweep
Power sweep
Sweep speed
Output Power accuracy
Residual FM
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Signal Generators
Basic CW Signals
•Block Diagram (RF and Microwave)
•Specifications
•Applications
Analog Signals
•Block Diagram (AM, FM, PM, Pulse)
•Applications
Vector Signals
•Block Diagram (IQ)
•Applications
39
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Analog Signals – Block Diagram
Add AM, FM, PM, and Pulse Modulation
VCO
Output
Attenuator
ALC
Modulator
Pulse
Mod.
Freq.
Control
Reference
Oscillator
40
ALC
Driver
FM, PM input
AM input
Pulse Mod input
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Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Analog Signals – Block Diagram
Add internal modulation generator
VCO
Output
Attenuator
ALC
Modulator
Pulse
Mod.
Freq.
Control
ALC
Driver
FM, PM input
Reference
Oscillator
41
FM
AM
Source Source
AM input
Pulse Mod input
Pulse
Source
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29 Feb 2012
Analog Signals – Applications
Pulsed Radar Testing with Chirps
RF Signal
Injection
ANTENNA
FM during the pulse = chirp
Key Specs:
• Frequency Range
• FM Modulation rate/deviation
• Pulse rate, width, rise time
LNA
1st LO
Signal
Processor
(range and Doppler)
2nd
IFA
IF
BPF
1st
IFA
IF
BPF
2nd
LO
42
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Signal Generators
Basic CW Signals
•Block Diagram (RF and Microwave)
•Specifications
•Applications
Analog Signals
•Block Diagram (AM, FM, PM, Pulse)
•Applications
Vector Signals
•Block Diagram (IQ)
•Applications
43
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Block Diagram
IQ Modulation
01
I
:
π/2
Q
:


00
Carrier
I
11

44
Q
10
Good Interface with Digital Signals and
Circuits
Can be Implemented with Simple Circuits
Fast, accurate state change
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Block Diagram
Adding the IQ modulator
Synthesizer
VCO
I-Q Modulator
Output
90̊
Freq.
Control
ALC
Driver
Q
Reference
45
I
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Block Diagram
Baseband IQ signal generation
Analog Reconstruction
Filters
Pattern
RAM
Symbol
Mapping and
Baseband
Filters
DAC
I
DAC
Q
00 -> 1+j1
11000101101
01001011100
10101010
46
01 -> -1+j1
10 -> -1-j1
11 -> 1-j1
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Block Diagram
Baseband Generator: Baseband Filters
Fast Transitions Require Wide Bandwidths
Frequency
Frequency
Filtering Slows Down Transitions and Narrows the Bandwidth
47
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Block Diagram
Adding an internal Baseband Generator
Synthesizer
VCO
I-Q Modulator
Output
p/2
Freq.
Control
ALC
Driver
Q
DAC
I
Reference
DAC
Pattern
RAM
and
Symbol
Mapping
Baseband Generator
48
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Format Specific Signal Generation
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver Selectivity
Component Distortion
49
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Digital Format Access Schemes
Different time - different Users
One User
FDMA
Differ channel - different Users
CDMA Same channel – many users
50
TDMA
Different time - different Users
OFDM
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Format Specific Modulation
GSM: A type of TDMA modulation
Multiple users, same frequency, different time slots
51
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Digital Receiver Sensitivity
The smallest modulated RF signal that will
produce a specified BER from the receiver
DUT
RF
Baseband
DSP
DAC
Amplitude
RF LO
Payload
Data
BER Spec
Line
frequency
52
BER
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Digital Receiver Sensitivity
Testing a -110 dB sensitivity digital receiver:
X= Failed unit
O=Passed unit
-110 dB specification
X
X
X
Set source to -111 dBm
X
X X X Actual output power= -114 dBm
O
Set source to -115 dBm
Frequency
Case 1: Source has +/-5 dB of
output power accuracy at
-100 to -120 dBm output power.
53
-110 dB specification
O O O
Actual output power= -112 dBm
O
Frequency
Case 2: Source has +/-1 dB of
output power accuracy at
-100 to -120 dBm output power.
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Receiver Selectivity (Blocking Tests)
In-channel signal
(modulated signal)
RF
DAC
Baseband
DSP
RF LO
Out-of-channel signal
(CW or modulated signal)
Level (dBm)
IF Rejection Curve
Spur from source and/or high
levels of phase noise can
cause a good receiver to fail
Payload
Data
Sensitivity specification
Frequency
54
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Receiver Sensitivity – Connected Solutions
• Simulated portion
RF
IF
I
Demodulator
Q
A/D
Converter
Baseband
De-Coding
DUT
RF/IF BER
Signal Generator
55
Simulation Software
Signal
Analyzer
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Component Distortion – Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
DUT
Spectral Output from amplifier
ACPR
Input from Source
Spectral regrowth
ACP Margin
Margin (dB)
0
Error contribution (dB) 3.0
56
1
2
3
4
5
10
15
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
0.4
0.2
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
Component Distortion – Error Vector Magnitude
OFDM Signal 400 MHz Bandwidth
DAC
Q
Q
Magnitude Error
Q (IQ error mag)
I
Error
Vector
Magnitude
Test
Signal
I
Θ
Ideal (Reference) Signal
Phase Error (IQ error phase)
I
57
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29 Feb 2012
Vector Signals – Applications
OFDM Signal 400 MHz Bandwidth
58
Component Distortion – EVM
Measured EVM = -30 dB, 3.3%
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29 Feb 2012
Agenda
 The need for creating test signals
• Aerospace Defense to Communications
Generating Signals
• No modulation
• Analog Modulation
• Composite Modulation
Signal Generator Architecture
 Signal Simulation Solutions
 Summary
59
Back to Basics Training
Copyright Agilent 2012
29 Feb 2012
Signal Simulation Solutions
Remove Test Signal Imperfections
Add
Predistortion
(corrections)
Signal
Software
LAN/GPIB
PSG
Measurement
Results
Measure
Modulated
Signal
PXA
Sources of error – I/Q modulator, RF chain, IQ path
Result – passband tilt, ripple, and roll off
60
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29 Feb 2012
Signal Simulation Solutions
Remove Test Signal imperfections – IQ flatness
Solution – measure vector signal generator and apply predistortion
Tradeoff – calculation time, valid calibration time
Typical application – wideband, multitone, and multicarrier
500 MHz UWB
32 tones - 80 MHz
61
2.4 dB
Before
6-8 dB
0.1 dB
After
< 3 dB
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29 Feb 2012
Signal Simulation Solutions
Removing Test Signal Imperfections - IMD
Before Predistortion
Measured in-band IMD = -40 dBc
62
After Predistortion
Measured in-band IMD = -84 dBc
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29 Feb 2012
Signal Simulation Solutions
Removing Test Signal Imperfections – Group Delay
Before Predistortion
EVM -30 dB, 3.3%
63
After Predistortion
EVM –34 dB, 2%
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29 Feb 2012
Signal Simulation Solutions
Non-linear Amplifier Testing
DUT
output RF
Intermodulation
Distortion
• Improved IMD suppression (typically > 80 dBc)
• Correct generator with additional devices in the loop
• Lower overall cost-of-test for large # tones
Signal Studio – Enhanced Multitone
• Same hardware for ACPR/NPR distortion tests
Up to 1024 tones
Set relative tone power
Set relative tone phase
80 MHz correction BW
CCDF plot
64
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29 Feb 2012
SISO BBG and Fading Test at RF/BB
Simulate one Tx, one Rx, and apply real-time fading
1
PXB generates single channel signals with long playback
2
PXB applies SISO real-time fading
Faded signal & Interferers
3
Analog I/Q
Output
IQ or RF
Transmission
channel
N5102A
Digital I/Q
Receiver
Vector MXG,ESG, or PSG
used as an up converter
No BBG required for MXG
65
BER/PER
analysis
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MIMO Receiver Test at RF/BB
Create MIMO signals with real-time fading for receiver test
1
PXB generates MIMO signals up
to 4x2 with long playback
No BBG required
for MXG
Rx0
Mobile
Station
Rx1
2
PXB applies flexible real-time
fading to MIMO signals
66
3
Vector MXG or ESG used as
RF up converters, one per
receive antenna
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Agenda
 The need for creating test signals
• Aerospace Defense to Communications
Generating Signals
• No modulation
• Analog Modulation
• Composite Modulation
Signal Generator Architecture
 Signal Simulation Solutions
 Summary
67
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Agilent Portfolio of Signal Generators
Analog
Basic
Performance
N9310A
3 GHz
MidPerformance
High
Performance
MXG
ESG
1, 3, 6, 20, 32, 40 GHz
3, 6 GHz
E8663D
3.2, 9 GHz
PSG
20, 32, 40, 50, 67 GHz
500 GHz
Vector
Signal Studio Software
68
N9310A
MXG
PXB
ESG
3 GHz
3, 6 GHz
Baseband
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 GHz
PSG
20, 32, 44 GHz
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Millimeter Wave Signal Generation
E8257D has the widest specified frequency range of
any signal generator on the market: 250 kHz to 67 GHz
•
• E8257D offers 8 different models of mm source
modules covering
50 to 500 GHz
•50 to 75 GHz
•60 to 90 GHz
•75 to 110 GHz
•90 to 140 GHz
•110 to 170 GHz
•140 to 220 GHz
•220 to 325 GHz
•325 to 500 GHz
69
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Agilent Signal Studio & Embedded Software
Application Portfolio
Mobile
Communications
W-CDMA/HSPA (ARB)
HSPA+ (ARB)
W-CDMA/HSPA (ARB)
W-CDMA (RT)
HSPA (RT)
LTE
FDD
(ARB, RT) + MIMO
NEW
LTE TDD (ARB,RT) + MIMO
TD-LTE (ARB)
(RT) (ARB)
IS-95-A TD-LTE
& CDMA2000
1xEV-DO (ARB)
TD-SCDMA (ARB)
IS-95-A & CDMA2000 (ARB)
IS-95-A & CDMA2000 (RT)
GSM/EDGE (ARB)
EGPRS2 (ARB)
TDMA (RT):
GSM/EDGE/GPRS/EGPRS
NADC/PDC/PHS
DECT/TETRA
TDMA (ARB):
GSM/EDGE
NADC/PDC/PHS
DECT/TETRA
APCO/PWT/CDPD
NEW
70
Wireless
Connectivity
Mobile WiMAX (ARB)
802.16e + MIMO
Fixed WiMAX (ARB)
802.16d
WLAN (ARB)
802.11 a/b/g/p/j
NEW
802.11n + MIMO
802.11ac
Audio/Video
Broadcasting
Detection, Positioning,
Tracking & Navigation
General
RF/MW
Digital Video (ARB):
Pulse Building (ARB)
Toolkit (ARB)
DVB-T/H/C/S/S2
Pulse Train
Jitter Injection (ARB)
NEW
J.83 Annex A/B/C
GPS (RT)
Multitone Distortion (ARB)
ISDB-T
1 to 8 satellites
(Enhanced Multitone & NPR)
DTMB
GPS (RT)
NEW
Multitone (ARB)
ATSC
multi-satellite
Calibrated
AWGN (ARB &
CMMB/STiMi
GLONASS
RT)
NEW
Digital Video (RT)
Phase Noise
Impairments
(RT)
T-DMB (ARB)
Custom Modulation (ARB &
RT)
S-DMB (ARB)
Bluetooth (ARB)
V1.1
Broadcast Radio (ARB):
V2.1+EDR
FM Stereo/RDS/RDBS
Ultra Low Energy (Wibree)
mono & stereo
DAB/DAB+
MB-OFDM UWB (ARB)
802.15
Signal Studio
Signal Generator
Channel
NEW
Flexible
Fixed
Licensing
- perpetual
- 1 month time-based
Legend
Signal Studio
Embedded SW
RECENT INTRO
UPCOMING INTRO
Transportable
- perpetual
Waveform
Licensing
NEW
- 5-pack perpetual
-Trial
50-pack
perpetual
License
- 14-day time-based
Support
Vector Signal
Generator
- N5182A MXG RF
- N5162A MXG-ATE RF
- E4438C ESG RF
- E8267D PSG
Wireless
Test MW
Set
- N8300A
Logic Analyzer DigRF
V3 - 16800/16900
Emulator
N5106A
PXB UPDATE
Support
- Digital, RF, MW
- 1 to 4 Ch. BBG
- Single Channel Fading
- Multi-Channel Fading
- MIMO Fading
- RF to RF Fading
Baseband Studio
- Digital, RF, MW
- Single Channel Fading
- Dual Channel Fading
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29 Feb 2012
For Additional Information
Sources:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sources
Signal Analyzers: http://www.agilent.com/find/sa
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THANK YOU!
72
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