Presidential Powers - Las Vegas High School

Chapter 13
Roles of the President
Powers of the President
 Electing a President
Jumpstart Assignment
Describe the following political cartoon.
Today’s Agenda
• Jumpstart
• Notes: Ch. 13, Sec. 1 and 2
• Presidential Roles Hats
• The Heartbeat Job
Jumpstart Assignment
• Of the 8 “roles” of the President of the
United States, which one do you think
President Bush was most successful at?
Which one was he least successful at?
The roles are listed on pages 354 and 355
of your textbook.
Characteristics of U.S.
100% male
100% Caucasian
97% Protestant
82% of British
• 77% college educated
• 69% politicians
• 62% lawyers
• >50% from the top 3%
wealth and social class
• 0.5% born into
• 69% elected from
large states
Fortunate Son
Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival
Some folks are born made to
Some folks are born silver
wave the flag,
spoon in hand,
Ooh, they’re red, white and
Lord, don’t they help
themselves, oh.
And when the band plays,
But when the taxman comes to
“Hail to the Chief,”
the door,
Ooh, they point the cannon at
Lord, the house looks like a
you, lord,
rummage sale, yes,
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
no senator’s son, son.
no millionaire’s son, son.
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
no fortunate one, no.
no fortunate one, no.
Fortunate Son
Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
ain’t no military son, son.
Some folks inherit star
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
spangled eyes,
ain’t no fortunate one,
Ooh, they send you down to
war, lord,
And when you ask them,
“How much should we
Ooh, they only answer
more! more! more! yo,
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
ain’t no fortunate son,
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
ain’t no fortunate son, no,
no, no.
Constitutional Qualifications
 Must be at least 35
years old
 Must have lived in
the United States for
14 years
 Must be a natural
born citizen
Presidential Benefits
 $400,000 tax-free salary
 $50,000/year expense
 $100,000/year travel
 The White House
 Secret Service
 Camp David country
 Air Force One personal
 Staff of 400-500
Christmas at the White House, 2004
Presidential Roles
Head of State
The President is chief of state.
This means he is the ceremonial
head of the government of the
United States, the symbol of all
the people of the nation.
Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983
President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall,
Chief Executive
The Constitution vests the President
with the executive power of the United
States, making him or her the nation’s
chief executive.
President Clinton with Janet Reno,
the first female Attorney General,
February, 1993
President Bush holds cabinet meeting
in October, 2005
The Constitution makes the
President the commander in chief,
giving him or her complete control
of the nation’s armed forces.
President Johnson decorates a soldier
in Vietnam, October, 1966
President Bush aboard U.S.S.
Lincoln, May, 2003
Chief Legislator
The President is the chief
legislator, the main architect
of the nation’s public policies.
President Clinton delivers the State
of the Union Address, 1997
President Roosevelt signs into law the
Social Security Act, 1935
Political Party Leader
The President acts as the chief
of party, the acknowledged
leader of the political party
that controls the executive
President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s
nomination in 1980
Chief Administrator
The President is the chief
administrator, or director, of the
United States government.
President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11
Vice-President Johnson sworn in
aboard Air Force One
after President Kennedy’s
assassination, 1963
Chief Diplomat
As the nation’s chief diplomat, the
President is the main architect of
American foreign policy and chief
spokesperson to the rest of the
President Lincoln during the Civil
War, 1862
President Roosevelt and the “Bully
Pulpit,” 1910
Chief Citizen
The President is expected to be
“the representative of all the
Presidential Succession
Presidential succession is the
plan by which a presidential
vacancy is filled.
1) Vice President
2) Speaker of the House
3) President Pro Tempore
Role of the Vice President
Role of the Vice President
____ 1. The vice president is also the president of
the Senate.
_____2. The vice president is also head of the
judicial branch and presides over the Supreme
____ 3. The vice president and cabinet are part of
the legislative branch.
____ 4. The vice president is first in the line of
succession to the presidency.
____ 5. The Constitution notes only one official
role for the vice president.
____ 6. The qualifications for the vice presidency
are not the same as those for the presidency.
____ 7. The vice president administers the oath of
office to the president.
Jumpstart Assignment
Describe the following political cartoon. How
does it relate to the power of the President and
Vice President?
Today’s Agenda
Jumpstart Assignment
 Notes: Presidential
Powers (Formal/Informal)
 Presidential Powers
Powers of the President
Formal Powers of the
 Constitutional or expressed powers of
the presidency
 Found primarily in Article II of the
Constitution (the Executive Article)
Formal Powers:
 Commander in Chief of the Army & Navy
 Making undeclared war
 Limited by War Powers Act 1973
 President can commit troops for 90 days
Formal Powers:
Chief Executive
 “Faithfully execute” the laws
 Grant pardons for federal offenses except for
cases of impeachment
 Nominate judges of the Supreme Court and
all other officers of the U.S. with consent of
the Senate
 Fill vacancies that may happen during recess
of the Senate (recess appointments)
Formal Powers:
Foreign Affairs
 Appoint ambassadors, ministers and
 Make treaties subject to Senate
 Receive ambassadors
 Diplomatic Recognition – acknowledging
the legal existence of a country/state
Formal Powers:
Chief Legislator
 Give State of the Union address to
 Recommend “measures” to the
 Upon “extraordinary occasions”
convene both houses of Congress
Formal Powers:
Chief Legislator (cont.)
 Presidential Veto
 Veto Message within 10 days of passing the House of
 Pocket Veto - President does not sign within 10 days
 Congress can override with 2/3 majority from both
 Veto Politics
 Congressional override is difficult (only 4%)
 Threat of veto can cause Congress to make changes in
Informal Powers
• Those powers not explicitly written in the
• Similar to “necessary and proper” powers
of Congress
• In the modern era (since 1933), the
President’s informal powers may be
significantly more powerful than his
formal powers
Executive Orders
• Orders issued by the
President that carry the force
of law
• Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t
tell” gays in the military
• FDR’s internment of
Japanese Americans
• GWB trying suspected
terrorists in military tribunals
Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942
Executive Agreements
• International agreements, usually related to trade, made
by a president that has the force of a treaty; does NOT
need Senate approval
• Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803
• GWB announced cuts in
the nuclear arsenal, but
not in a treaty; usually
trade agreements between
US and other nations
Executive Privilege
• Claim by a president that he has the right to decide
that the national interest will be better served if
certain information is withheld from the public,
including the Courts and Congress
• United States v. Nixon
(1973) – presidents do
NOT have unqualified
executive privilege (Nixon
Watergate tapes)
Jumpstart Assignment
• Describe the following political cartoon.
Today’s Plan
Presidential Review Questions
Notes: Presidential Elections
Jeopardy Review
Test Next Class
Electing a President
• Step 1:
–Primaries and Caucuses –
determine who the Presidential
candidates will be for each
political party
• Caucuses -
Electing a President
• Step 2:
– Convention – political parties
formally nominate candidates
- Party platform is established –
basic principles and beliefs of the
Electing a President
• Step 3:
–Electoral College – group of
people from each state chosen to
formally select the president and
vice president
Alternatives to Electoral College
• District Plan – each Congressional
receives 1 electoral vote
• Proportional Plan – candidates receive
electoral votes in proportion to the
percentage of popular vote received
• Direct Popular Election – based strictly
on popular vote (would require a
Constitutional Amendment)
• National Popular Vote – states agree to
give all electoral votes to popular winner

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