Supervision and Management - Social Work Policy Institute

Report
Crystal Collins-Camargo, MSW PhD
University of Louisville
NASW Child Welfare Symposium
November 18, 2010
Past research links supervision to:
 Reduced Worker Burnout/ Stress (e.g.,
Martin & Schinke, 1998; Ratfill, 1988;)
 Turnover/Retention (e.g. Yankeelov, Barbee,
Sullivan, & Antle, 2009; Strand & Dore,
2009; Jacquet et al., 2007; Landsman,
2001; Ellett & Millar, 2001)
 Perceptions of Organizational Culture (e.g.
Collins-Camargo & Royse, 2010; Cohen &
Austin, 1994)
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Managing boundaries,
approaches to families
(Banach, 1999)
Motivation & service
intensity (McGrew and
Bond, 1997)
Ability to assess and treat
families (Young, 1994)
Analytic skills (Berkman &
Press, 1993)
Successful risk assessment
in child protection
(DePanfilis, 1996)
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CA/N fatalities
(Nash,1997)
Client engagement (Bibis,
1993)
Client satisfaction
(Harkness & Hensley,
1991)
Client contentment and
goal attainment
(Harkness, 1995)
CW self-efficacy and
client outcomes
(Collins-Camargo &
Royse, 2010)
Conceptual Model Regarding the Mechanism
for Supervisory Influence
Organizational
Change
Organizational
Culture
Supervisor
Workers
Effective
Performance
Worker
Retention
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Comprehensive review of the literature
Working group of child welfare
administrators, supervisors, and others
interested in supervision
Structured key informant interviews with
practitioners, supervisors and
administrators, experts in child welfare
supervision and members of the NRCOI
Peer Training Network

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Recruit, select, train (or arrange
for training), and retain staff
Identify/manage/evaluate
caseworker performance
Facilitate communication and
collaboration
Build and maintain working
relationships with other units in
agency
Manage caseloads
Manage time and workflow for
supervisor
Monitor caseworker
responsibilities to supervisor
Provide leadership to unit
Provide leadership within
organization

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Provide leadership within
community
Anticipate/address/manage
change within unit
Interpret and influence the
organizational culture within
the unit
Manage time and workflow for
caseworkers
Influence agency
Anticipate/address/manage
change within agency
Use management information
systems (MIS)
Educational Supervision

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Case staffing/case reviews
Address ethics in caseworker
practice
Address ethics in supervision
Provide ongoing professional
development for supervisor
Develop/monitor caseworkers’
family-centered practice
competence
Promote caseworkers' selfreflective practice, critical
thinking and case decisionmaking
Develop/monitor caseworkers’
cultural competence

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Provide ongoing professional
development for caseworkers
Promote evidence-informed
practice
Assist caseworkers in applying
learning from training,
workshops, etc.
Supportive supervision

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Prevent/address
stress/secondary traumatic
stress/burnout for supervisor
Anticipate/manage risk (safety)
Prevent/address
stress/secondary traumatic
stress/burnout for caseworker
Enhance caseworkers’ job
satisfaction/build and maintain
morale
2002 Child Welfare Supervision Study
Across Six States: What should be
the primary responsibility of
supervisors? (N=836)
Primary Responsibility of Supervisors
Most important:
Supporting the work of line
workers
4% 3%
Monitoring Practice
6%
7%
Policy compliance
45%
10%
Making casework decisions
Other
25%
Training
Administration
•on-the-job
training
•modeling good
practice
•case consultation
•case decisionmaking
•on-going feedback
•policy clarification
•worker safety
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Arkansas
Mississippi
Missouri
Tennessee
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Study Sites
Effectiveness of Supervision and
Organizational Culture (2 States)
Intent to remain
employed/turnover (2 states)
Self-efficacy in child welfare tasks
(3 states)
Trends in case outcomes (2 states)
Supervisor practice, worker practice
and client outcomes based on
qualitative data (4 states)
Favorable Cross-site Findings

Quality Improvement Center on the
Privatization of Child Welfare Services survey
of frontline staff and supervisors in public
and private agency settings
Examples of some relevant findings (n >900)
 These preliminary, interim data are shared as examples
of how supervisors can influence evidence-informed
practice only and are not reflective of data regarding
project outcomes
Frequency of Team Discussion in Terms of What
the Activity Might Mean for Work with Clients
(1 Never; 3 Sometimes; 5 Very Often)
FREQUENCY
Topics discussed
State 1
State 2
State 3
Quality assurance reports
Reports on the team’s meeting
practice standards
Reports on the team’s performance
in meeting client outcomes
Peer Record Reviews
Local performance information/
tables giving data for all teams
State performance information/
tables giving data for all teams
Research on what improves
outcomes for children and/or
families
How we should work with children
and/or families in order to achieve
identified outcomes
3.71
3.58
4.00
4.06
4.01
4.50
3.75
3.96
4.33
2.96
3.64
3.83
3.58
3.28
3.17
3.17
3.07
3.00
3.00
3.33
3.00
3.46
3.95
4.17
State 1
State 2
State 3
Do you use data evidence or
reports to guide your worker’s
practice?
Do you use research findings to
guide your worker’s practice?
81.8%
72.7%
90%
72.7%
36.4
63.3%
Do you role play or model client
scenarios to guide your worker’s
practice?
45.5%
77.3%
70%
Does your supervision session
include a clear set of expectations
and objectives to guide your
worker’s practice?
81.8%
90.0%
90%
Do you feel comfortable
challenging current practice with
research based ideas?
63.6%
81.8%
83.3%
Questions
State 1
State 2
State 3
Is supervision an opportunity to reflect
on your practice, and how it is impacting
clients?
To what extent do conversations with
your supervisor contribute to better
outcomes for children/youth/families?
How often do you and your supervisor
discuss what success might look like
(i.e. measurable outcomes for children)
3.17
2.82
2.99
4
3.82
4.03
3.77
3.54
3.75
How often do you and your supervisor
discuss which of the alternative courses
of action is likely to be more effective,
and how you will know if it is?
3.52
3.49
3.57
How often do you and your supervisor
discuss what your team’s performance
data tells you that may help you improve
your practice with clients?
3.81
3.49
3.3
Questions

It’s about learning
◦ A supportive learning
organizational
culture
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◦ Having a relationship
with staff that makes
looking at evidence
and adjusting
practice safe
It’s about modeling
◦ Using evidence
regarding
 Readiness for EIP
 Staff perceptions re:
outcomes orientation
 Staff assessment of
what is happening on
team and in supervision
It’s about
relationship

It’s about vision
◦ Keeping the team’s
eye on the prize
 Safety
 Permanency
 Well-being
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A sustainable workforce
An organizational
culture that is based on
learning and evidenceinformed practice
Practice enhancement
Improved outcomes for
children and families

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