Evaluation of Public Policy - in Local Government in Serbia

Report
Priority areas of
government reform in Serbia
Snežana Djordjević,
Professor of Local Government
Faculty of Political Sciences,
Belgrade University
Map
of Serbia
LEVELS OF STATE ORGANIZATION
 Union of Serbia and
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Montenegro
Republic of Serbia
Pokraina Vojvodina
and Kosovo
County (29)
Municipality (163)
Priority Areas of Reform
 Reform of political system (government
structure)
 Decentralization and strengthening of
local government
 Reform of economy
Political system - unity of
power
 System of unity of power is not still changed
 Assembly has huge influence on structure of Government and
Ministries (number and organization)
 Prime Minister lack a lot of tools and instruments for organizing
work of Government (no right to found or abolish some
Ministries, to exchange some competences between Ministries,
to decide on term or content of working bodies etc)
 Prime Minister Cabinet has poor influence (in comparison to
other countries)
 Judicial system is not reformed (poor autonomy, strong
influence of executive power)
Political system – executive
government
 Ministries have too many competences (centralization)
 Ministries are oriented to control their field of policy in details:
non-adequate, irrational and unjust decisions
 Lack of institutional channels for exchange of information
between local and central government (using party channels
and private connections)
 Lack of coordination and team work between Ministries
 Administration has as the main aims: executing laws, deciding in
administrative procedure on rights, obligations and legal interest
of citizens and different organizations, inspection control etc.
Judicial system
 Strengthen independence (status of judges,)
 High Judicial Council
 Judicial Budget
 Codification of professional ethic
 Modernization of process laws, simplifying
and more efficient
 Evaluation of “accessibility to justice”, quality
of work
 New institutes:clerk, magistrate, judge police,
judge executer, bankrupt manager and
ombudsman
Reform of Public Administration
 State as civil service, the end of hierarchy, modernize
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the organization and management, decentralization
Changing the status of civil servants, division political
and professional positions, strengthening
professionalism
Law on public administration and Law on civil
servants
New institutes: Administrative Court, Administrative
Tribunals and Ombudsman
Strengthen state capacities (using state channels
instead of party channels or private connections)
Including mission driven government, strategic
government, management and planning
Local Government
 System is still centralized and state has too many competences
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(rowing instead steering) and local government not enough
Undeveloped network of local government levels (municipality,
city but no regions or counties)
Municipalities still don't have Property and assets, local finances
are still too much dependent regarding type and rates of local
taxes which are regulated by center and central collecting of
taxes and limitation of bruto municipal budgets
Formal and funcional municipal potentials are still undeveloped
New entrepreneurila models of local government (Strong Mayor
and City Manager model) are to be developed and implement
Citizen participation is still marginalised
Economic reforms
 Various economic structure, low intensity, backward technology,
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poor organization and management, poor standard, poor quality
and design
State intervention (central redistribution)
GDP - 1800 $ (double less then in 1980), high level of
unemployment (33 % to 50 %)
State is the greatest owner and creditor in banking system
Reform of market system
Established stock exchange market and markets of value
papers
Banking laws are not harmonized with EU principles and
standards
Wages are risen, inequality is not risen (Gini coeficient went
from 0,30 to 0,35).
Consequences of pure liberal
concept
 Rising of poverty and inequality (social
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exclusion)
Steering credit capital on speculating
business (real-estate, bonds)
Success of only short – term projects caused
by nature of credits (short term, high interest)
Impossibility of investment in phased
revitalization and strengthening economy
branches (implemented researches)
Pauperism of economic structure, ruining
different economic branches
Alternate concept - Parnership relations
between state and local government
 State
 Establishing the strategy of economic
development: investment in development of
competent economic branches
 Creating convenient legal ambience for
market society: decreasing interventionism,
strengthening strategic management
capacities
 Entrepreneurial local governance: network of
institutions, better organization and
management, developmental activities
Entrepreneurial local government
 Financial authonomy (property and taxes)
 Competences (primary education, health
care, social affairs and impetus of economic
development)
 New government models (strong mayor, city
manager) and strengthening of organizational
and managerial potentials
 Developmental projects: incubator business
centers: SME, local financial institutions,
infrastrucure, techical help, consulting
centers, tax releases, itd)
Public services: reform of public
entreprises
 Public enterprises: monopolistic position,
subventions, poor capacities, organization,
equipment and management, over-employment (10%
of all employed in Serbia, 36 % over-employed)
 Law productivity, ineficiency, non-market prices, poor
competitiveness (use 38 % materials of the economy,
create only 20 % of economy product, and 26% of
depths)
 Necessity of reforms: modernization (organization,
management), privatization, returning depths,
consolidation, competitiveness
Evaluation of public policies
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Phases: creating, realizing, monitoring and evaluation
Lack of strategic governing, planning and management
Creating public policies: Ministries, Government; Assembly
adopt it
Municipalities are in charge for realizing it and for creating a
small part of it
Creating phase: lack of permanent expert work, empirical
research and lack of contact and especially lack of citizens`
participation
Realizing phase: role – organized institutions, sector - way
of work, lack of monitoring, permanent control
Evaluation: it is an goal-oriented and not result-oriented
government, lack of standards, paying by position instead by
results, there is no learning on experience etc.
Evaluation tools
 Central and local government: use inspection for basic control
 Ministries have the right and obligation to react in case of illegal
normative acts and decisions of local government.
 Constitutional Court is in charge to solve the conflict if local
government is not willing to accept suggestions of Ministries
 Socio - Economic Councils, a new form of work in
Municipalities includes team work, strategic planning as well as
monitoring and evaluating results
 A number of new multi-disciplinary and multi-sector projects
is launched on central level. They ask for strategic managing,
monitoring and permanent evaluation as important element of
implementation process (“Strategy of Poverty decreasing” etc).

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