The Respiratory System - Mrs. Grigar

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The Respiratory System
http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/respiratory%20system.jpg
The system of the body that
deals with breathing
The body takes in the oxygen that
it needs and removes the carbon
dioxide that it doesn’t
The Oxygen Delivery System
• Main function - to supply the blood with
oxygen
• Does this through breathing
Function
- to bring oxygen into the body
- to remove carbon dioxide and
water from the body
O2
CO2
Breathing and Respiration
are NOT the same thing!
Breathing
Moving air in
and out of the
lungs
• Breathing is partly a result of changes in
air pressure-gases move from an area of
high pressure to an area of low pressure.
• Lungs are considered an excretory organexcrete(get rid of) carbon dioxide
Respiration
Chemical reaction that
releases energy
What’s the Difference
Between Breathing, Circulation,
and Respiration?
Breathing is simply inhaling and exhaling air.
Circulation is the transport of O2
from the lungs to the body’s cells,
and the transport of CO2 from the
body’s cells back to the lungs.
It involves the heart, blood
vessels, and blood.
Carbon dioxide
is carried from
all cells back to
lungs
Oxygen
is carried
from
lungs to
all cells
Respiration is a chemical
reaction that makes energy from
glucose (sugar) and oxygen.
C6H12O6 + 6O2
glucose + oxygen
ENERGY +
6CO2 + 6H2O
ENERGY +
carbon dioxide + water
Respiration takes place in cells.
Inhalation
• Breathing in
• Body gets oxygen from the air
• Rib muscles contract to pull ribs up and
out
• Diaphragm muscle contracts to pull down
the lungs
• Tissue expands to force (pull) in air.
• Less air pressure in lungs
Exhalation
•
•
•
•
•
Breathing out
Get rid of carbon dioxide
Rib muscles relax
Diaphragm muscle relaxes
Tissue returns to resting position and
forces (pushes) air out
• Increased air pressure in lungs
http://mhln.com
Parts of the System
• Mouth
• Nose
• Trachea
– splits into bronchi
– bronchioles
• Lungs
– Bronchioles
– Alveoli
• Diaphragm
Lungs
• Bronchial tubes
• Many smaller tubes
• Alveoli (alveolus) – surrounded by
capillaries
• Average adult's lungs contain about 600
million of these air-filled sacs
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/
The main body organs
or parts of the
respiratory system are:
• Nose (mouth sometimes)
• trachea (windpipe)
• bronchi tubes
• lungs (main organ)
• bronchioles (smaller tubes)
• alveoli (tiny air sacs)
• diaphragm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/respirat.htm
Structure
Nose or
Mouth
or bronchial
tubes
Function of Organs
1) nose: moistens,
warms and filters air
septum
nasal
cavity
1930’s “nose
job”
2) mouth: takes in
and breathes out air
3) pharynx: top of throat
pharynx
pharynx
epiglottis
esophagu
s
trachea
4) epiglottis: flap that closes off
trachea when you swallow
5) larynx: vocal cords; vibrate to
produce sound
Cancer of
the larynx
vocal
cords
Artificial Larynx, 1933
6) trachea: windpipe; connects
nose
and mouth to lungs
trachea
bronchus
7) bronchus or bronchial tubes:
where trachea splits and
enters both lungs
8) lungs: main organs of respiratory
system; full of alveoli
The right lung is slightly larger than
the left. It has 3 lobes
or areas; the left lung
has 2 lobes.
Each lung weighs about one pound.
9) alveoli: tiny sacs in lungs that
are covered with capillaries;
they exchange
CO2 for O2
10) diaphragm: a strong muscle
that fills lungs with air when
it contracts downward, and
empties lungs when it relaxes
http://users.tpg.com.au/users/amcgann/body/respiratory.html
Pathway of Oxygen
Body breathes in the air which is pulled
through the nose or mouth and down
through the trachea
http://webschoolsolutions.com/patts/systems/lungs.htm
Pathway of Oxygen
The trachea is a pipe shaped by rings of
cartilage.
It divides into two tubes called bronchi.
Bronchi carry air into each lung.
Pathway of Oxygen
Inside the lung, the tubes divide into smaller
and smaller tubes called bronchioles.
At the end of each of these tubes are small
air sacs called alveoli.
Capillaries, which are small blood vessels
with thin walls, are wrapped around these
alveoli.
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/
Pathway of Oxygen
Capillary walls are so thin and close to each
other that the air easily diffuses through.
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/
Pathway of Oxygen
Oxygen diffuses through the capillaries into
the bloodstream.
Carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, diffuses
through into the alveoli, and is then
removed from the body when we breathe
out.
http://users.tpg.com.au/users/amcgann/body/respiratory.html
http://www.mtsinai.org/
http://mhln.com
http://www.borg.com/~lubehawk/hrespsys.htm
In the lungs, the exchange of gases (oxygen &
carbon dioxide) occurs in tiny air sacs called
the alveoli.
How does oxygen move to the circulatory
system from the alveoli?
Capillaries wrap around each air sac. The air
sacs have thin walls that let gases move
through them.
Pleura
• Membrane lining the lungs and chest
cavity
The Diaphragm
The muscle that controls the breathing
process.
The Diaphragm
The diaphragm contracts; flattens and pulls
down to cause the chest to expand and air
is pulled into the lungs (inhale)
The Diaphragm
When the diaphragm relaxes, the chest
collapses and the air in the lungs is forced
out (exhale)
http://users.tpg.com.au/users/amcgann/body/respiratory.html
How is air brought into your
lungs?
The diaphragm, a muscle just
below your lungs & near the
bottom of the ribcage, helps
pull in air into the body (as well
as force it out).
This is how it does it
• Epiglottis– A flap of tissue at the lower end of the
pharynx; when you swallow your epiglottis
fold down to prevent food or liquid from
entering your airway.
• Diseases and Disorders
– Things that can harm your respiratory system
• Smoking-first and second hand smoke
– Nicotine
– Tar
– Carbon monoxide
•
•
•
•
Polluted air
Coal
Dust
asbestos
Diseases of the
Respiratory System
Asthma-shortness of breath wheezing or
coughing
•Caused often by an allergic reaction
•Causes the bronchial tubes to contract quickly
http://kidshealth.org/kid/closet/movies/asth
ma_movie.html
Asthma
• Bronchitis-infection of the bronchial tubes
– Too much mucus is produced
– Causes coughing which harms cilia and
bronchial tubes
Bronchitis
inflammation of
bronchial tubes
• Emphysema-a disease in which the alveoli
in the lungs enlarge
– Main cause is smoking
– Alveoli in the lungs lose their ability to expand
and contract-can’t push air out of lungs so
less oxygen moves into the bloodstream
– People w/emphysema need extra
oxygen(from oxygen tanks)
Emphysema
oxygen-dependent
• Lung Cancer-main cause is smoking
– Leading type of cancer deaths
– Caused by inhaling the tar in cigarette smoke
– Carcinogens-tar and other ingredients found
in smoke that lead to uncontrolled growth of
cells(cancer)
Lung Cancer
Pneumonia: lungs are swollen
and filled with
pus or liquid
How does the respiratory system work with the
circulatory system?
• The respiratory & circulatory systems work
together to get oxygen to cells (and to help them
get rid of carbon dioxide).
• The respiratory system brings oxygen into the
lungs and gets it into the blood.
• The circulatory system takes that oxygen and
transports it through the blood to your body cells.
• Also, carbon dioxide is removed from your cells by
the circulatory system and brought to your lungs,
which exhale it back out of your body and into the
air outside.
When the body needs more oxygen, it will
breathe rapidly to get the oxygen it needs to
meet its energy needs.
As the body gets more active, it needs more
oxygen.
.
My lungs are
working extra
hard! Can we
slow down?.
Q: What two things happen at the same time
in the alveoli (air sacs)?
Blood picks up oxygen from the lungs at
the alveoli and blood releases carbon
dioxide into the alveoli.
Your body is so complex that it takes two
systems working together as a team to get
oxygen to your body cells.
Air enters the body
Nasal or Oral Cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Oxygen diffuses into
capillaries and into
the bloodstream
Mouth/Nasal Cavity
Larynx
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Lungs
QUIZ
2
7
the area ringed in purple
3
5
1
4
6
Relationship to digestive system
• Cellular respiration requires
glucose and oxygen to release
energy to the body
• C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
• Oxygen is provided by the respiratory
system
• Glucose is provided by the digestive
system
• (glucose is made during photosynthesis)
“Respirate”
A respiratory System Song
by. Mr. Rojas
www.rrojas.com/home/rojassongs/respiratesong
• http://science.nationalgeographic.com/scie
nce/health-and-human-body/humanbody/lungs-article.html
Test what you know with an
online practice quiz on the
Respiratory System:
www.quia.com/quiz/796944.html

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