The Nationalist Period, 1848 - 1870: Realism, Positivism, and Marxism AP European History Androstic 2012-2013 Overview •Failure of the 1848 led to an end of liberal and nationalist dreams •Few constitutional monarchies •Idealism was discredited •Topics •Realism and Positivism •Marxism 1. How was the new toughness of mind reflected in literature and the arts? In attitudes toward science? In religion? In basic philosophical thought? In new attitudes in domestic and international affairs? Study Guide - #1, Palmer pg. 504 Realism & Positivism •Rejection of romanticism •Science is very important - skepticism •Religion deemphasized •Positivism – need for facts and avoid generalizations – no wishful thinking •Realpolitik – “politics of reality” •No utopian dreams •Power and calculation Study Guide - #1, Palmer pg. 504 Marxism Karl Marx Friedrich Engels 2. What were the principal sources of Marxism? How did Marxism dramatize the existing conditions of the working classes? Study Guide - #2, Palmer pg. 506-509 Communist Manifesto (1848) “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” 3. How did Marx explain the nature of capitalist crises and depressions? Study Guide - #3, Palmer pg. 509 4. Summarize the picture of the past, present, and future offered by Marxism. What were the implications of the working class of the existing war between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat? Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510 Beliefs •State operates for the benefit of the upper class •Religion is a drug to keep the people in line “opiate of the masses” •History proves this •Rome – patricians vs. plebians •Feudalism – lords vs. serf •Today – Proletariat vs. Bourgeiosie •Alienation – the worker today is estranged from the product he produces •Worker deprived of the wealth they create •Worst occurrence in history Study Guide - #3, Palmer pg. 509 Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510 Predictions •Workers will rise up and kill the rich due to the oppressivenees of capitalism •Once the proletariat is in power, they will •Abolish private property •Create a classless society, with no nationalism, and no religion •The State will wither away as it will not be needed Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510 How to Achieve this? •CLASS WARFARE! •Workers must attack •Morality and laws are designed to help the bourgeoisie, so ignore them •Appeal •Claim to be scientific – not idealistic •Historical examination Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510 5. How would you explain the advantages and handicaps of Marxism in winning supporters? Study Guide - #5, Palmer pg. 511 Failure •Failure to hold appeal •Not everybody wanted to give up morality and religion •Class loyalty not that strong, nationalism was •Unions and labor parties made democratic gains •Power only came in the 20th century •Russia, China, and Cuba Study Guide - #5, Palmer pg. 511 Summary •After the failure of the 1848 Revolutions, Europe took a more pragmatic and less idealistic viewpoint •Positivism emerged claiming power was the only way to solve problems •Marxism took this to an extreme, arguing for a violent overthrow of society, based upon class, not national distinctions Consider: Besides the obstacles listed by Palmer, what are some other ways Marxism would not play out the way Marx suggested?