Nationalism - Palmer 61

The Nationalist Period, 1848 - 1870:
Realism, Positivism, and
AP European History
•Failure of the 1848 led to an end of
liberal and nationalist dreams
•Few constitutional monarchies
•Idealism was discredited
•Realism and Positivism
1. How was the new toughness of
mind reflected in literature and the
arts? In attitudes toward science?
In religion? In basic philosophical
thought? In new attitudes in
domestic and international affairs?
Study Guide - #1, Palmer pg. 504
Realism & Positivism
•Rejection of romanticism
•Science is very important - skepticism
•Religion deemphasized
•Positivism – need for facts and avoid
generalizations – no wishful thinking
•Realpolitik – “politics of reality”
•No utopian dreams
•Power and calculation
Study Guide - #1, Palmer pg. 504
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
2. What were the principal sources
of Marxism? How did Marxism
dramatize the existing conditions
of the working classes?
Study Guide - #2, Palmer pg. 506-509
Communist Manifesto
“The history of
all hitherto
existing society
is the history of
class struggles”
3. How did Marx explain the nature
of capitalist crises and
Study Guide - #3, Palmer pg. 509
4. Summarize the picture of the
past, present, and future offered by
Marxism. What were the
implications of the working class of
the existing war between the
bourgeoisie and the proletariat?
Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510
•State operates for the benefit of the upper class
•Religion is a drug to keep the people in line “opiate of the masses”
•History proves this
•Rome – patricians vs. plebians
•Feudalism – lords vs. serf
•Today – Proletariat vs. Bourgeiosie
•Alienation – the worker today is estranged from
the product he produces
•Worker deprived of the wealth they create
•Worst occurrence in history
Study Guide - #3, Palmer pg. 509
Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510
•Workers will rise up and kill the rich due to
the oppressivenees of capitalism
•Once the proletariat is in power, they will
•Abolish private property
•Create a classless society, with no nationalism, and
no religion
•The State will wither away as it will not be needed
Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510
How to Achieve this?
•Workers must attack
•Morality and laws are designed to help the
bourgeoisie, so ignore them
•Claim to be scientific – not idealistic
•Historical examination
Study Guide - #4, Palmer pg. 509-510
5. How would you explain the
advantages and handicaps of
Marxism in winning supporters?
Study Guide - #5, Palmer pg. 511
•Failure to hold appeal
•Not everybody wanted to give up morality and religion
•Class loyalty not that strong, nationalism was
•Unions and labor parties made democratic gains
•Power only came in the 20th century
•Russia, China, and Cuba
Study Guide - #5, Palmer pg. 511
•After the failure of the 1848 Revolutions,
Europe took a more pragmatic and less
idealistic viewpoint
•Positivism emerged claiming power was
the only way to solve problems
•Marxism took this to an extreme, arguing
for a violent overthrow of society, based
upon class, not national distinctions
Consider: Besides the
obstacles listed by Palmer,
what are some other ways
Marxism would not play out
the way Marx suggested?

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