Eyegaze - Twoppy

Report
Taking a introductory “look” at
eyegaze
Lesley Iacona, M. Ed., CCC-SLP ([email protected])
Nikkol Anderson, MA, OTR/L, ATP ([email protected])
Assistive Technology Center
Institute for Human Development
Northern Arizona University
Who uses eyegaze for
communication?
An eyegaze board allows persons with severe speech and motor
impairments to communicate by focusing their gaze on selected items
displayed on the board. Children and adults with the following conditions
often use light tech and high tech eyegaze for communication.
 ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
 Brain injury
 Cerebral palsy
 Locked-in Syndrome (brainstem stroke)
 Multiple Sclerosis
 Muscular Dystrophy
 SMA (spinal muscular atrophy)
 Spinal cord injury
 Stroke
 Rhett Syndrome
Light Tech Eyegaze Communication
 A light-tech eye gaze communication board is a
vertically mounted board with a window cut in the
middle. When the eye gaze board is held up at eye level
to the child, the child and his/her communication
partner should be able to make eye contact through the
open window. The user then learns to scan to the
choices on the board, fixate their eyegaze on the
desired choice, then look back at the communication
partner to confirm the selection.
 Information taken from the Bridge School website at
http://www.bridgeschool.org. There are photos and
videos of children using light-tech eyegaze on the Bridge
School website.
Pros and Cons of Light-Tech
 Pros: Cheap, portable, and require no calibration.
 Cons: This method of communication is limiting in that
there is only so much room on the board to place
choices. You have to have enough space between the
items to allow the communication partner to interpret the
user’s gaze accurately. This can be adjusted to some
degree by changing the size of the icons, the size of the
eyegaze board, or using encoding. You also need a
communication facilitator.
Encoding
 To prevent limiting the user to only a few choices at a time, choices
can be encoded.
 Encoding is the use of a pattern to represent a message. Encoding
is meant to visually simplify systems and reduce the demand for
access so that students can focus on content. It generally involves
a row-column pattern. The location of each message is
represented by 2 variables. Colors and numbers are commonly
used because they are easy to see and communicate. Using
partner assisted scanning, the partner would first offer the color
choice for each row. When the student makes a selection, the
partner then offers the number coordinate for each item.
Alternatively, the partner may offer choices using a key.
 Information taken from the Bridge School website at
http://www.bridgeschool.org/transition/multimodal/encoding.php.
There are photos and videos of children using encoding on the
Bridge School website.
Light- Tech Solutions can be used to prepare for
device trials with high-tech eyegaze systems.
Can be used with objects,
photographs, icons or words.
Can adjust number and size of icons on
the board.
Can adjust size of the eyegaze board.
Visual scanning, fixation, and joint
attention are reinforced by looking at the
preferred icon and then to the
communication partner for
acknowledgement.
Can practice learning to use dwell and
blink for selection with communication
partner.
Get one!
 You can make your own eyegaze boards using laminated
sheets, baseball card holders, foam core boards, PVC
piping, plexiglass or other clear plastic.
 If you want to purchase inexpensive eyegaze frames, visit
www.enablingdevices.com to check out the Eye-Talks by
Enabling Devices. They are $21 for a light plexiglass frame.
 Patrick Joyce, an alternative communicator with ALS,
designed Speakbook to be a free, light-tech
communication tool for use in any environment. You can
download it and watch an informative video about how to
use it by visiting http://www.speakbook.org/about/.
Mid-Tech Eyegaze
 The MegaBee mid-tech option is a little complex at
first, but once you get the hang of it can be a good
alternative to spelling using a plexiglass board. You
can view a video of how the Megabee works
athttp://www.megabee.co.uk/megabee_simulation.ht
ml.
 Comes with software to create your own coded
phrases.
 Bluetooth capabilities for data transfer.
 Carry Case
 AC Charger and 24 hour run time
 Dual LCD screens
 In the U.S. the MegaBee is sold by AMDI for $1280 and
can be found at
http://amdi.net/index.php?route=product/product&filt
er_name=megabe&product_id=416.
High-Tech Eyegaze Systems
 Traditionally Good Candidates for High-Tech Eyegaze
Systems
 Persons who want to communicate without the need for a
facilitator to interpret their eyegaze.
 Persons with appropriate trunk and head control.
 Persons who want to use direct selection rather than
scanning for communication.
 Persons with appropriate vision skills.
Concerns with high-tech eyegaze
 Vision problems (evaluator
sometimes calibrate)
•
CVI
•
Droopy eyelids
 Visual Fatigue
 Poor Positioning
 Difficulty Mounting
 Poor head control.
 Most of the systems are
difficult to see outside.
 Technical Support
 Durability
 Cost
 Weight
 Advanced functions
(computer access, phone)
General High-Tech Eyegaze Features
 Companies have various sized devices to meet users’
needs.
 Users aged 3 to 80 have been reported.
 Grids range from simple displays of 4 or 8 icons and
progress to complex system that support continued
language development.
 Many of the devices offer text based displays for literate
users.
 Offer environmental control features.
Calibration Features
 Each system has a different method to access calibration
features. You can:
 Improve and remove calibration points individually.
 Manually change calibration area (x, y axis
settings…….)When you reduce calibration area, you lose
accuracy. This setting moves the edges for calibration in
from the corners, which can be difficult for some users.
 Make adjustments to size, speed, color, and number of
calibration points.
 Animate stimuli and/or use a video for calibration.
 Set the camera to track both eyes together or track them
individually. This is useful if the communicator has one eye
that “works” better than the other.
 Set calibration to be per user area or global (important if
changing user areas……).
 You can set the calibration to work when wearing
eyeglasses.
Camera Features
 Each system has a different method to access camera
features. You can:
 Check your eyetracking status through use of the camera.
 See a picture of the user that shows if they are positioned
correctly so that the camera can read their eyes.
Selection Method Features
 Each system has customizable selection method features.
You can:
 Choose dwell, blink, or use an external switch. You can set
the dwell times.
 Present the cursor in different formats (shrinking dot, hand,
highlighted keys, clock, or invisible feedback).
 Include audio feedback in the form of a “click” and adjust
volume of this.
 Some devices have a zoom feature that first enlarges a
section of the screen and then lets you make a selection
based on that enlarged view.
What does high tech eyegaze access
“look” like? The simple explanation…….
 A user typically needs to be positioned at a specific angle and a
specific distance from the camera that is attached to the AAC or
computer system. Cameras are mounted below the monitor they
are used to control. Software within the device analyzes the user’s
eye position to determine where the user is looking on the screen. In
order to complete this analysis, camera systems sometimes need to
be “calibrated” for a specific user. Other times the system uses a
compilation of calibrations from a group of users to create a sort of
“average” user. This is useful when the consumer has difficulty
calibrating the device themselves. Most calibrations are saved
specifically for the user and recalibration is only done to improve
accuracy if there has been a change in position or vision status.
 To select messages, the user looks at the screen display of
programmed buttons or keys. To activate a key on the screen, the
user either looks at the key for a predetermined period of time
(called dwell), blinks their eyes, or uses an external switch to make
the selection.
How does high tech eyegaze work? The
more complicated explanation……
 “The Eyegaze Edge uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection
method to determine where the user is looking on the screen. An
infrared-sensitive video camera, mounted beneath the System’s
screen, takes 60 pictures per second of the user’s eye. A low power,
infrared light emitting diode (LED), mounted in the center of the
camera’s lens illuminates the eye. The LED reflects a small bit of light
off the surface of the eye’s cornea. The light also shines through the
pupil and reflects off of the retina, the back surface of the eye, and
causes the pupil to appear white. The bright-pupil effect enhances
the camera’s image of the pupil so the system’s image processing
functions can locate the center of the pupil. The Edge calculates
the person’s gazepoint, i.e., the coordinates of where he is looking
on the screen, based on the relative positions of the pupil center
and corneal reflection within the video image of the eye. Typically
the Eyegaze Edge predicts the gazepoint with an average
accuracy of a quarter inch or better.”
 Information taken directly from the
http://www.eyegaze.com/assistive-technology-device/medicaltechnical-information/how-does-it-work/ website.
DynaVox Industries
 http://www.dynavoxtech.com/products/eyemax/
EyeMax System
• All the capabilities of the Vmax plus it is:
• Accessible using the eyes - blink or dwell.
• Integral power supply making the EyeMax ideal for
wheelchair mounting
• Allows head movement & retains calibration
• Full InterAACt content, including Navigator
• e-Book reader
• Email
• Environmental control
• Internet
19
Maestro with EyeMax
• Small profile of Maestro with EyeMax
supports communication while
maintaining the field of vision for
driving a wheelchair and interacting
with others.
• Easier transportation and setup with
the smaller and lighter Maestro!
Language
Gateway Pro
Gateway
21
AlphaCore
• AlphaCore is designed to facilitate
communication for literate adults, like those
with ALS.
• Developed by Amy Roman, M.S., CCC-SLP,
AlphaCore reduces message creation time by
more than 50% by combining Core
Vocabulary (a small set of high-usage words
that account for about 75% of the words we
say) with well-organized conversation pages.
• AlphaCore is available exclusively on the
DynaVox Vmax+ and EyeMax System.
Tobii I-Series
Communication Unbound
Tobii I-12 or I-15
Built for purposeful 24/7 communication
Tobii I-Series: Purpose-Built Speech
Generating Device

Built for life 24/7

Robust, accurate Tobii eye tracking technology

Unique Wake-on-Gaze™ including Eye Accessible power plans

2 hot swap batteries, 9 hours non-stop communication, 24 hour operation mode

Stands on its own (no stand required), dual positions with rotatable screen

Purposeful, durable design: IP-43 rating

2 sizes; 12.1” & 15.0”

Multi touch capacitive screen with Corning Gorilla Glass

Voice Optimized High Quality Sound
Tobii I-Series: Purpose-Built Speech
Generating Device

IR GEWA™ Environmental control with 2 transmit windows and excellent
performance

Automotive Industry Bluetooth phone connection

Fanless with Solid State Drive

Dual cameras (forward for Skype and back-facing as camera)

Durable medical device Class 1

Suitable for funding, full service offering

Fully loaded with Tobii Communicator 4.8 and all AAC vocabularies

Research-based Sono Suite language content

Sono Suite Evaluation Toolkit for evaluation purposes
Tobii Language
Sono scribe
Sono Lexis
Sono Primo
Tobii PCEye Go and PCEye Pro
Full computer access with the eyes
 Award-winning Gaze Selection





Relaxed, precise and faster computer
access
Intuitive; eliminates unwanted clicks
Ability to hit smaller targets
Faster computer access
Integrated keyboard
 Portable computer access in two
sizes
 Has its own processor
 Works on any PC computer
New Eyegaze Technology at
The Prentke Romich Company
Accent 1200 with NuEye
Unity Language
 Unique and powerful language
system
 Focuses on frequently used words
that correlate with typical language
development and natural
communication
 Capitalizes on motor planning
sequences to improve generation of
quick, novel utterances
28
UNITY sequenced vocabularies
include many words:
 Unity 60 Sequenced
 core = 2,000 + words (includes derivatives)
 activities = 2,000 + words
 pages = 2,500 + words
 Unity 84 Sequenced
 core = 3,000 + words (includes derivatives)
 activities = 3,000 + words
 pages = 700 + words
 Unity 144 Sequenced
 core = 7,000 + words (includes derivatives)
 activities = 2,000 + words
 pages = 300 + words
29
Accent 1200 with NuEye
*for a full list of features, please visit our website at www.prentrom.com*
 Windows® 8 operating system powered by a dual core processor
 Pre-loaded with NuVoice™, PRC’s exclusive software, that powers both Unity® and
Essence™
 Context-Sensitive Help built right into the device for fast answers that are easy to access
 Front and rear cameras for taking pictures
 Wi-Fi connectivity for rapid remote tech support, software upgrading, and online access
 Integrated Bluetooth® connectivity
 10-12 hour battery life
 Language Activity Monitor (LAM)
 Built-in user manual
 Product Key Code for security and instant upgrades
 Dedicated and integrated versions
30
NuEye Highlights
*for a full list of features, please visit our website at www.prentrom.com*
 Ability to see your eyes and exact
positioning for set up with enhanced
tracker status that includes leveling
features for ease of device placement
 On screen tracking box with easy to
see green for active status and red for
paused status
 Ability to save user profiles after
completing calibration and save
calibration to all user areas
 Advanced feature settings that allow
for increased body and head
movement
 Ability to use both eyes together or
individual eyes for active tracking
31
LC Technologies
 Eyegaze Edge Tablet AAC System
 Eyegaze Edge Desktop AAC System
 The EyeFollower and the 600 Series EyeTracker are their
stand alone eyegaze cameras systems for computer
access.
 Taken directly from: http://www.eyegaze.com/assistive-technology-device/
LC Technologies, Inc: Eyegaze Edge Tablet
and Desktop AAC
 The system offers:
Keyboard
Phrases
Games
Simple EyeMouse- Single click
program for software such as
Speaking Dynamically Pro or Clicker
 The Grid AAC software- Create your
own icon or text screens with keys of
any color or size.
 Lights and AppliancesEnvironmental Control
 Computer Access- The Eyegaze
Edge acts as a peripheral mouse
and keyboard which interfaces with
an external Windows computer.




Eyegaze Edge Features

Highly accurate – The Edge predicts a user’s gaze point to within 1/4 inch or less.

Eye fatigue – Eyegaze Edge programs & hardware are designed to reduce or
eliminate visual fatigue associated with eye-controlled systems.

Faster response – Eyegaze activation time is user-determined and can respond in
as little as 1/10 of a second.

Comfortable – A a user can operate the Edge from any position, including sidelying or with the head tilted, without tilting the screen.

Eye variations - Eyegaze Edge systems require only use of one eye and track
accurately even if the use has droopy eyelids (ptosis). Has nystagmus , or
irregularly shaped pupils.

Multiple positions – The Eyegaze Edge adjustable camera allows the system to be
positioned high or low with a focus range of 16 inches to 30 inches..

Low light – The Edge will track a user’s eyes even in the dark.

Off angle tracking – The user does not need to be parallel to the screen.
EyeTech Digital Systems
EyeTech Digital Systems Eyegaze
Hardware
 Eyetech Digital Systems sells an eyegaze system for
computer access.
 VT series designed to work up to 10 feet away from a
television display.
 Used with external AAC software by companies such as
Words+ and Forbes Rehab Services (FRS) Custom
Solutions.
 DynaVox EyeMax systems used their algorithms for their
product.
 Craig Cannon in Mesa, AZ is company representative.
EyeTech Digital Systems
 “EyeTech’s new hot spot user interface conserves space
on a user’s screen and improves the entire user
experience with quick and natural control of Windowsbased programs. There are four different colored hot
spots (blue, yellow, red, and green) which appear on the
sides and top corners of the screen. Simply look off the
screen over the hot spot. Different mouse and keyboard
functions will appear thereafter.”
EyeTech Digital Systems: Quick
Access 1.0 Software

Eye Scrolling Tool—Just look near the bottom or top of a Web page or other document
and let your eyes control the scrolling. This new feature is a huge time saver for avid
Facebook users, blog readers, and for scrolling document where there is a lot of
content.

Quick Pause Hot Spot—Simply look over the blue hot spot and click on the pause button
to pause the cursor. The cursor stops moving and enables the user to quickly unpause by
looking at the blue hot spot again. It is that simple.

Real-time Zoom View—Now users can zoom anywhere and see a real-time view of the
screen. This is ideal for zooming in on areas where there may be moving parts, such as
YouTube videos or other applications with moving controls.

Animated Calibration—Easier to calibrate than ever before, Quick Access provides an
animated calibration with a 5, 9, or 16 point setup. At the end of the calibration a visual
score is presented to help the user measure performance.

Hand Mouse and Eye Mouse Now Play Nicely—Simply move the hand mouse and it will
smoothly override the eye mouse. The eye mouse automatically resumes control once
the hand mouse is not in use for a certain amount of time that you can customize.

Information taken directly from the http://www.eyetechaac.com/quick-access-1-0-eyetracking-software-for-aac website.
General Positioning
Recommendations
 The angle of the device and the head should be the same.
You may have to raise or lower the device and angle it to
match the user’s gaze.
 The head should be centered.
 Eyes are level and gaze is in the middle to upper part of the
display screen.
 User within 18-29” of the display screen.
 No obstructions between you and the camera.
 Lighting and reflections can also affect accuracy so
environment is important.
 Can be used with glasses but you need to be sure
reflections are not affecting accuracy.
Mounting Eyegaze Systems
 Decide if you need a wheelchair mount, desk mount, or
floor mount.
 Positioning is critical to successful use of eyegaze.
 Additional safety concerns due to weight of devices.
 Make sure mount is installed according to directions.
 Make sure mount is within the footprint of the chair and does
not throw the chair off balance.
 Positioning of eyegaze devices can interfere with field of
vision for power mobility.
Wheelchair Mounts
Wheelchair mount
 Advantage: Remains on the consumer’s wheelchair, so
the device is always with the user for communication.
(Exception is when being transported in a motor vehicle.)
 Disadvantage: If the user needs frequent adjustments for
eyegaze positioning, the adjustable pieces can strip out
quickly.
Desk Mounts
 Desk Mount
 Advantage: Easily adjustable, lightweight and portable.
 Disadvantage: Requires a caregiver to move from one
location to another. Requires the user to be at an
adjustable desk or table.
Floor Mounts
 Floor Mount
 Advantage: Very adjustable. Can be used in wheelchair,
floor chair, or in bed.
 Disadvantage: Large and bulky. Not easy to store or
transport.
Mounting Companies
 Daessy at www.daessy.com
 CJT at www.cjtmounting.com
 DynaVox at www.dynavoxtech.com/products/connectit
 Mount’n Mover at www.mountnmover.com
 REHAdapt at www.rehadapt.de/en/products.php (sold
by amdi.net as well in the U.S.)
The future
 The major companies are continuing to release devices
that smaller and more powerful with faster processing
speeds, as well as more intuitive options for computer
access and environmental control.
 Samsung Galaxy S4: You can tilt your head up or down to
scroll on the page. You can also pause video by looking
away.
 L.C. Technologies sells eyegaze research software called
Nyan. This is being used by researchers to analyze data
on human cognition, consumer behavior, and
oculomotor processes.
Questions?

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