Functional Dependency Grammars

Report
Functional Dependency
Grammars
Andreea Gagea (cas. Macovei)
Faculty of Computer Science Iasi
Dependency Grammar
- dependency between grammatical units;
- Lucien Tesnière -1959;
- the main aim: to parse natural language and
generate tree banks;
- dependency versus constituency;
Dependency Grammar Formalisms:
Theoretical Frameworks and
Implementations
- Algebraic Syntax
- Operator Grammar
- Lexicase Dependency Grammar
- Functional Generative Description (FGD)
- Meaning-Text Theory (MTT)
- Word Grammar (WG)
- Topological/Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG)
- Constraint Dependency Grammar ([W]CDG)
- Functional Dependency Grammar (FDG)
Functional Dependency Grammar (FDG)
1. Definition
- introduced by Tapanainen and Järvinen (1997);
- with two conceptually different components:
regular language based analysis and structural
dependency graphs;
- the first computer implementation of Tesnière’s
Dependency Theory.
2. Structure
- Nucleus
- Connexions
- Syntactic head
3. Examples
a) What would you like me to do?
- structural dependency graph
- the directed relations between the nuclei of the sentence
b) Did the dog run in the house?
- five nuclei in the sentence
4. Applications for FDG
a) Connexor
- a language technology provider ;
- supports ten European languages (English, French,
Spanish, German, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Danish,
Norwegian and Finnish);
b) Link Grammar
- a syntactic parser of English and other languages;
- with a dictionary of about 60000 word forms.
a)
Connexor:
Sentence: John has two apples.
Structure:
Components :
b)
Link Grammar:
Sentence: John has two apples.
Structure:
5. Problematical Aspects
- Ambiguous sentences;
- Only a few studies concerning Romanian language
processing;
- Costs;
6. Bibliography
- Pasi Tapanainen (1999), Parsing in two frameworks: finitestate and functional dependency grammar, Chapter 3,
University of Helsinki, Finland
- T. Järvinen P. Tapanainen (1997), A dependency parser for
English, Technical Report no. TR-1, Department of General
Linguistics, University of Helsinki, Finland
- Connexor:
http://www.connexor.eu/technology/machinese/demo/syntax/
- Link Grammar: http://www.link.cs.cmu.edu/link/
- Gramatici de dependenta:
http://thor.info.uaic.ro/~corinfor/teach/LC/SNLP/materials/dis
c/gramatici-general.pdf
- Dependency Grammars :
http://www.fit.vutbr.cz/units/UIFS/grants/index.php?file=%2F
proj%2F533%2Ffmnl08-dependency.pdf&id=533
Thank you!

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