Functional Dependency Grammars Andreea Gagea (cas. Macovei) Faculty of Computer Science Iasi Dependency Grammar - dependency between grammatical units; - Lucien Tesnière -1959; - the main aim: to parse natural language and generate tree banks; - dependency versus constituency; Dependency Grammar Formalisms: Theoretical Frameworks and Implementations - Algebraic Syntax - Operator Grammar - Lexicase Dependency Grammar - Functional Generative Description (FGD) - Meaning-Text Theory (MTT) - Word Grammar (WG) - Topological/Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG) - Constraint Dependency Grammar ([W]CDG) - Functional Dependency Grammar (FDG) Functional Dependency Grammar (FDG) 1. Definition - introduced by Tapanainen and Järvinen (1997); - with two conceptually different components: regular language based analysis and structural dependency graphs; - the ﬁrst computer implementation of Tesnière’s Dependency Theory. 2. Structure - Nucleus - Connexions - Syntactic head 3. Examples a) What would you like me to do? - structural dependency graph - the directed relations between the nuclei of the sentence b) Did the dog run in the house? - five nuclei in the sentence 4. Applications for FDG a) Connexor - a language technology provider ; - supports ten European languages (English, French, Spanish, German, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and Finnish); b) Link Grammar - a syntactic parser of English and other languages; - with a dictionary of about 60000 word forms. a) Connexor: Sentence: John has two apples. Structure: Components : b) Link Grammar: Sentence: John has two apples. Structure: 5. Problematical Aspects - Ambiguous sentences; - Only a few studies concerning Romanian language processing; - Costs; 6. Bibliography - Pasi Tapanainen (1999), Parsing in two frameworks: finitestate and functional dependency grammar, Chapter 3, University of Helsinki, Finland - T. Järvinen P. Tapanainen (1997), A dependency parser for English, Technical Report no. TR-1, Department of General Linguistics, University of Helsinki, Finland - Connexor: http://www.connexor.eu/technology/machinese/demo/syntax/ - Link Grammar: http://www.link.cs.cmu.edu/link/ - Gramatici de dependenta: http://thor.info.uaic.ro/~corinfor/teach/LC/SNLP/materials/dis c/gramatici-general.pdf - Dependency Grammars : http://www.fit.vutbr.cz/units/UIFS/grants/index.php?file=%2F proj%2F533%2Ffmnl08-dependency.pdf&id=533 Thank you!