Status of SCP in Africa

Report
Africa Regional Implementation Meeting, 26-30 October 2009,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Africa Review Report on Sustainable
Consumption and Production
Ms. Jane B. Nyakang’o
Secretary, African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption &
Production
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Presentation Layout
• What is SCP?
• Major Trends and Emerging Issues
• Progress and Achievements
• Implementation Challenges and Constraints
• Lessons Learned and Way Forward
• Conclusions
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Why do we need SCP?
“The major cause of the continued deterioration of
the global environment are the unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production,
particularly in industrialised countries, which is a
matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty
and imbalances.”
Agenda 21 (Chap. 4)
PFIA 21 (Section 28)
JPOI ( Chap III)
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Goals for a SCP Programme
Changes
in
Production
&
Consumpti
on
5
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Major Trends and Emerging Issues
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
AFRICA-KEY STATISTICS
• 53 countries; Population:958 million
• 20.4 per cent of the global land area
• 13 per cent of the world’s population(61%
population rural)
• Only 1.7 per cent of the global Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) and 2% of the world trade
• The region is large and diverse (a wide range of
HDI). The rrecommended approach for
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promoting SCP will vary from country to country.
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Economic Growth and Welfare
• African economies remain insufficiently diversified. In 2005,
agricultural raw materials, ores and metals and fuels
represented 68% of the region’s exports .
• Agriculture remains an important sector in much of the subSaharan Africa(SSA). It provides 57% of all employment.
• The continent still lags behind in industrial performance.
Environmental best practices need to be incorporated at these
early stages of industrialization
• SSA is not on track to achieve any of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) . Many Africans remain trapped in
dire poverty.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Economic Growth and Welfare
0.9
Mauritius
0.8
Morrocco
Human Development Index
0.7
0.6
Kenya
South
Africa
Equatorial Guinea
Botswana
0.5
Ethiopia
0.4
0.3
Niger
0.2
0.1
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
GDP per capita(constant 2000 international USD)
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
30000
35000
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Socio-Demographic Trends
• Population growth is still strong .
From 520 million in 1990,
population is expected to reach
1.3 billion by 2030.
• SSA’s population is very young.
Population aged 15 to 59 is
expected to grow from 456 million
in 2010 to 758 million in 2030.
This young population structure
represents a particular challenge
for African countries for education
and employment, and for the
structural transformation of the
economies.
• Current rate of urbanization in
Africa of around 3.5 percent per
year. By 2030, the proportion of
Africa’s urbanized population is
expected to reach 53.5 percent,
compared to 39 percent in 2005.
This fast rate of urbanization
places strain on infrastructure and
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other services.
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Major Trends/Emerging Issues
• Africa has the highest urbanization rate in the world which has
a strong impact on patterns and impacts of consumption.
Growing urban middle class adopting western consumption
patterns
• The continent lags behind all others in energy use while energy
production relies heavily on fossil fuels despite significant
renewable energy potential.
• Access to freshwater is worsening in the region and increased
water scarcity in the future implies a need for efficient water
resources management.
• Urbanization and increasing motorization in SSA have resulted
in degradation of air quality in large cities
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Major Trends/Emerging Issues
• Solid and hazardous waste management is one of the major
challenges in the promotion of SCP in the region
• The tourism industry in Africa is characterized by a large
number of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that lack
the capacity to integrate sustainable tourism principles
• Africa is undergoing a severe process of deforestation. From
1990 to 2005, deforestation took place at a rate of 0.7% per
year versus 0.2% at the global level.
• Compared to the rest of the world, the average African’s
ecological footprint is small. However, several African
countries already have a footprint larger than their biocapacity per capita.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
SCP perspective for African countries
• Strong linkages between poverty, environmental
degradation and under-development in the region .
Overall priority of a programme on SCP in Africa
should be to provide the basic needs of the poor
without undermining the natural resource base and
destroying ecosystems on which everybody depends.
• Policies and actions supporting SCP can serve to
bolster poverty reduction efforts and support
sustainable long term growth and help to meet the
MDGs.
• There are many opportunities in Africa to “leapfrog”
towards more SCP patterns.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
How much “nature” is available?
People vs. nature
?
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Metabolism like a cow
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The Ecological Footprint
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
AFRICA’S FOOTPRINT AND BIOCAPACITY, AND
WORLD BIOCAPACITY, PER CAPITA 1961–2003
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Kenya
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Data for 2003
Eco-Footprint
[global ha/cap]
Biocapacity
[global ha/cap]
Botswana
Cameroon
China
Ethiopia
Kenya
South Africa
United Kingdom
US
1.6
0.8
1.6
0.8
0.8
2.3
5.6
9.6
4.5
1.3
0.8
0.5
0.7
2.0
1.6
4.7
WORLD
2.2
1.8
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Ecological Creditors and
Ecological Debtors
in 1961
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Ecological Creditors and
Ecological Debtors
in 2003
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Which Investments Are Most Effective?
( HDI +  overshoot) / $
Building
Resilience
Leapfrogging
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Progress and Achievements
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A21, PFIA 21 and JPOI Commitments on SCP

Development of a 10-YFP in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate
the shift towards SCP.

Increase investments in Cleaner production and eco-efficiency.

Development of policies and strategies on SCP patterns and Integration of these into
sustainable development policies, programmes and strategies.

Enhancing CESR and accountability.

Encouraging sustainable development considerations in decision-making, including
on national and local development planning, investment in infrastructure, business
development and public procurement.

Promote energy for sustainable development

Promote an integrated approach to policy making for transport services

Prevent and minimize waste and maximize reuse and recycling. Renew the
commitment to sound management of chemicals and of hazardous wastes

Promote sustainable tourism development

Undertake research on consumption and production.
Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
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Development of the African 10-YFP(1)
• Institutionalization of the African Roundtable on
Sustainable Consumption and Production in 2004
• Africa is the first region to have developed a 10-YFP
on SCP, endorsed by AMCEN and high-level launch in
May 2006 in Addis Ababa.
• The strategic focus of the 10 YFP
Linking SCP with the challenges of meeting
basic needs.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
The priority areas of the African 10-YFP
– Provision of affordable and sustainable energy for
productive use
– Water provision and efficient utilization
– Urban development and sanitation
– Improvement of the competitiveness of African
Industries in the global market
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Africa is at the forefront of the global
Marrakech Process on the 10-YFP
• Has a regional 10-YFP approved by AMCEN and
included in its workplan
• Created a regional institutional mechanism –the
ARSCP
• ARSCP organises regional roundtables– 6th
roundtable 7-9th June 2010 in Egypt
• Have a Marrakech Task Force on Cooperation with
Africa as the only region-focussed taskforce under
the global mechanism
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Progress and Achievements
• In addition to several regional energy infrastructure projects to
increase access and progress in the means of
implementation, off-grid systems based on renewable energy
have been developed in rural areas of many countries
• Some countries are on track in meeting the MDGs on water
and sanitation while an increasing number of countries are
undertaking policy, legal and institutional reforms and
developing strategies for water resources development and
management based on the Integrated Water Resources
Management
• Urban centers in the region have benefited through global
urban management programs. Many countries are beginning
to put in place the strategic policy and institutional framework
to address some of the transport-related problems in cities.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Progress and Achievements
• Cleaner production is being promoted through thus far ten National Cleaner
Production Centers in the region and industrial environmental policies are
being developed in some countries
• African business organizations are participating in the Global Compact
initiative and several companies have become members of the World
Business Council on Sustainable Development
• In addition to a number of measures taken at national, sub-regional and
regional levels to improve agricultural production, there is an increasing
number of initiatives in organic food production
• Many African countries have ratified major chemicals-related and wasterelated conventions while a number of projects are under way to implement
regional action plans for the implementation of the Strategic Approach to
International Chemicals Management in the Africa region. Many African
countries have adopted policies and legislation on hazardous wastes and
are implementing activities to support the environmentally sound
management of hazardous wastes
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Progress and Achievements
• Many African countries have adopted the Global Code of
Ethics for Tourism and are reporting on progress in
implementation. There have been many capacity building
initiatives on sustainable tourism and some countries have
started to adopt policies that create opportunities for the poor
within tourism
• In most countries there are examples of addressing SCPrelevant topics, albeit in an isolated fashion. Few economic
instruments are in use in African countries and little progress
has been made in the area of Sustainable Public
Procurement
• Some universities have embarked upon introducing
sustainable development into their education and training
programmes
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Status of SCP in Africa
• Impact and penetration of SCP activities is still very limited
in most countries.
• Few key activities conducted in most countries as part of
the 10 YFP.
• SP is in progress. Several examples for SP; NCPCs have
achieved much, but still not enough to create national level
impacts.
• Few examples for SC. Regional capacity for promoting SC
is far less developed than for SP.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Challenges and Constraints
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Challenges and Constraints
(i) Poor Education and lack of awareness on
the
benefits
of
SCP
among
all
stakeholders
(ii) Government failures
(lack of legislation and/or
enforcement; weak recognition of SCP in most policies; weak
institutional capacity for monitoring and use of economic
instruments; lack of decentralization to local authorities;)
(iii) Lack of human and technical capacity (lack
of capacity for product development and formulating
bankable CP projects in industry; lack of capacity on SCP
tools in government; wide scale reliance on obsolete
technologies; lack of information on emerging clean
technologies)
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Challenges and Constraints (contd)
(iv)Economic (Financial instability of NCPCs; underpricing of natural resources; lack of appropriate
financing mechanisms for SCP investments; lack of
financial
incentives-for
example
for
RETs;
widespread poverty)
(v) Systemic (lack of monitoring ; lack of systematic
training of employees and lack of R&D in Industry;
lack of reliable data on pollution and resources use;
inadequate research on SCP; consumer traditions)
(vi)
Organizational
(poor
institutional setting;
absence of collaborative projects and exchange
programmes in the region to facilitate knowledge
sharing)
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Lessons Learned and the
Way Forward
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Key Lessons Learned (1)
• Political will and commitment is essential to the effective
implementation of the African 10-YFP. The leadership and guidance
being provided by the AU Commission, ECA and UNEP in the further
development and implementation of the Program should be
maintained, if not enhanced. The region’s cooperation with
development agencies, such as the Government of Germany and the
Marrakech Task Forces should be fostered.
• A basic condition for SCP is to achieve general awareness and
understanding of the concept among all people. Education curriculum
to include the concept.
• It is necessary for Governments to develop, in partnership with a
wide range of stakeholders, national SCP strategies or action plans
reflecting a country’s specific priorities. Capacity building of public
sector is crucial.
• Resource Mobilisation process from both domestic and international
sources to establish innovative funding mechanisms for SCP
investments
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Key Lessons Learned (2)
• Need for mainstreaming of SCP in the priorities and decision making criteria
of bilateral and multilateral development financing agencies.
• The International NCPC programme has led to the development of critical
capacity and institutional strengthening in developing countries and
generated useful results. However there is a need strengthen the
programme strategy, utilization of programmatic funding and improvement of
programme mangement.
• Create demand for SCP, rather than focusing on the supply side. Such
demand is created when enforcement of legislation is practiced, suitable
economic incentives are established and efficiency improvements offered by
SCP provide a competitive edge.
• Visible implementation of SCP activities at an early stage is important to
demonstrate the concept and to show that it can have a significant impact on
the production-consumption system. Ex: government green procurement
programs, waste recycling schemes, SMEs support programs for Cleaner
Production, Introduction of CFL lamps, Incentives for Solar Water Heaters
and Solar Panels, taxes on plastic bags, etc.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
The Way Forward
•
Institutional and Policy Mechanisms(National SCP
Programs, Legislation and economic instruments, SCP indicators,
DSM programmes, donors programmes, etc)
•
Supporting tools and instruments(CP, SPP, Ecolabelling, ISWM plans, CESR, LCA, etc)
•
Education for SCP(curriculum development, use of media,
best practice databases, centers of excellence, etc)
•
Means of implementation (Financial resources,
technology transfer, capacity building, information and outreach,
partnerships etc)
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Concluding Note
•
SCP provides an ideal framework for achieving development goals .
•
The underdevelopment of the region adds a new dimension to the SCP
challenges in Africa. The same under development provides a significant
opportunity to leapfrog to more resource efficient economies and
sustainable resource use and build Green Economies.
•
Use the opportunity provided by the political commitment through AMCEN,
the leadership and guidance being provided by the AU Commission, ECA
and UNEP, the work of the Marrakech Task Force on Cooperation with
Africa and the other Marrakech Task Forces, and the ARSCP for the
further development and implementation of the African 10-YFP and other
SCP initiatives.
•
Lessons learnt from pilots will help in sectoral policy and strategy review
and ultimately in mainstreaming SCP in national policies/strategies
•
Important to focus on some fast track projects and mobilize
international/regional/local support.
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Priority projects identified during the Ad-Hoc Expert
Group Meeting on the SDRA
1. Capacity building for National SCP Action Plans
2. The African Local SCP Initiative
3. Regional programme on Resource Efficiency and Cleaner
Production (RECP) including building capacities of
NCPCs and SCP institutions
4. The African Eco-labelling Mechanism
5. Promoting an Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)
System in Africa
6. Education for Sustainable Consumption and Production
in Africa
7. Sustainable Building and Construction in Africa
8. Promotion of small-scale renewables and biomass-based
co-generation
9. Regional Knowledge Management and Information
Exchange on SCP in Africa
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009
Thank you for your
attention!
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Africa RIM, Addis Ababa 26-30 October 2009

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