McNeill_VCO_Slides_2012-12-02

Report
VCO Fundamentals
John McNeill
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
[email protected]
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Block Concept
Oscillator Review
Basic Performance Metrics
Methods of Tuning
Advanced Performance Metrics
Conclusion
2
Overview
• Functional Block Concept
– Applications
– Specifications
• Oscillator Review
• Basic Performance Metrics
• Methods of Tuning
• Advanced Performance Metrics
• Conclusion
3
Functional Block Concept
• Input control voltage VTUNE
determines frequency of output waveform
4
Applications: RF System
• Downconvert band of interest to IF
• VCO: Electrically tunable selection
5
Applications: Digital System
÷N
• Clock synthesis (frequency multiplication)
J. A. McNeill and D. R. Ricketts, “The Designer’s Guide to Jitter in Ring Oscillators.” Springer, 2009
6
Specifications
• from data sheet showing specs
7
Overview
• Functional Block Concept
• Oscillator Review
– Frequency Control
– Amplitude Control
– Types of Oscillators
• Basic Performance Metrics
• Methods of Tuning
• Advanced Performance Metrics
• Conclusion
8
Oscillator Review
• Types of Oscillators
– Multivibrator
– Ring
– Resonant
– Feedback
• Basic Factors in Oscillator Design
– Frequency
– Amplitude / Output Power
– Startup
9
Multivibrator
• Conceptual multivibrator oscillator
– Also called astable or relaxation oscillator
• One energy storage element
10
Example: Multivibrator
• Frequency: Controlled by charging current IREF ,
C, VREF thresholds
• Amplitude: Controlled by thresholds, logic swing
• Startup: Guaranteed; no stable state
11
Ring Oscillator
• Frequency: Controlled by gate delay
• Amplitude: Controlled by logic swing
• Startup: Guaranteed; no stable state
12
Resonant Oscillator
• Concept: Natural oscillation frequency
of resonance
• Energy flows back and forth between
two storage modes
f OSC 

13
1
2
LC
Resonant Oscillator (Ideal)
•
•
•
•
•
Example: swing (ideal)
Energy storage modes: potential, kinetic
Frequency: Controlled by length of pendulum
Amplitude: Controlled by initial position
Startup: Needs initial condition energy input
14
Resonant Oscillator (Real)
• Problem: Loss of energy due to friction
• Turns “organized” energy (potential, kinetic) into
“disorganized” thermal energy (frictional heating)
• Amplitude decays toward zero
• Requires energy input to maintain amplitude
• Amplitude controlled by “supervision”
15
LC Resonant Oscillator (Ideal)
• Energy storage modes:
Magnetic field (L current), Electric field (C voltage)
• Frequency: Controlled by LC
• Amplitude: Controlled by initial condition
• Startup: Needs initial energy input (initial condition)
16
LC Resonant Oscillator (Real)
• Problem: Loss of energy due to nonideal L, C
– Model as resistor RLOSS; Q of resonator
• E, M field energy lost to resistor heating
• Amplitude decays toward zero
17
LC Resonant Oscillator (Real)
•
•
•
•
Problem: Loss of energy due to nonideal L, C
Requires energy input to maintain amplitude
Synthesize “negative resistance”
Cancel RLOSS with -RNEG
18
Negative Resistance
• Use active device to synthesize V-I characteristic that
“looks like” –RNEG
• Example: amplifier with positive feedback
• Feeds energy into resonator to counteract losses in RLOSS
19
Feedback Oscillator: Wien Bridge
• Forward gain A=3
• Feedback network with transfer
function b(f)
• At fOSC, |b|=1/3 and  b =0
• Thought experiment:
break loop, inject sine wave,
look at signal returned around
feedback loop
20
Ab=1
• “Just right”
waveform is
self sustaining
21
Ab=0.99
• “Not enough”
waveform
decays to zero
22
Ab=1.01
• “Too much”
waveform grows
exponentialy
23
Feedback oscillator
•
•
•
•
Stable amplitude condition: Ab=1 EXACTLY
Frequency determined by feedback network Ab=1 condition
Need supervisory circuit to monitor amplitude
Startup: random noise; supervisory circuit begins with Ab>1
24
Resonant Oscillator (Real)
|RNEG| < RLOSS
•
•
•
•
|RNEG| = RLOSS
|RNEG| > RLOSS
Stable amplitude condition: |RNEG| = RLOSS EXACTLY
Frequency determined by LC network
Startup: random noise; begin with |RNEG| > RLOSS
Amplitude grows; soft clip gives average |RNEG| = RLOSS
25
Clapp oscillator
f OSC 
C eq 
1
2
LC eq
1
 1
1
1 

 

C
C
C
 1
2
3 
• L, C1-C2-C3 set oscillation frequency fOSC
26
Clapp oscillator
• Circuit configuration
• Equivalent circuit
MiniCircuits AN95-007, “Understanding Oscillator Concepts”
Clapp oscillator
Z eq 
1
j C1

1
j C 2


• Frequency: Determined by L, C1, C2, C3
• Amplitude: Grows until limited by gm soft clipping
• Startup: Choose C1, C2 feedback for | RNEG | > RLOSS
gm
 C 1C 2
2
Oscillator Summary
• Typical performance of oscillator architectures:
BETTER
PHASE
NOISE
RESONANT
FEEDBACK
RING
MULTIVIBRATOR
kHz
MHz
GHz
FREQUENCY fOSC
29
Overview
• Functional Block Concept
• Oscillator Review
• Basic Performance Metrics
– Frequency Range
– Tuning Range
• Methods of Tuning
• Advanced Performance Metrics
• Conclusion
30
Basic Performance Metrics
• from data sheet showing specs
31
Basic Performance Metrics
• from data sheet showing specs
32
Basic Performance Metrics
• Supply: DC operating power
• Output
– Sine: output power dBm into 50Ω
– Square: compatible logic
• Frequency Range
• Tuning Voltage Range
33
Frequency Range
• Output frequency over tuning voltage range
• Caution: Temperature sensitivity
34
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Block Concept
Oscillator Review
Basic Performance Metrics
Methods of Tuning
Advanced Performance Metrics
Conclusion
35
VCOs / Methods of Tuning
• Require electrical control of some parameter
determining frequency:
• Multivibrator
– Charge / discharge
current
• Ring Oscillator
– Gate delay
• Resonant
– Voltage control of
capacitance in LC
(varactor)
36
Example: Tuning Multivibrator
I REF
• Frequency: Controlled by
IREF , C, VREF thresholds
f OSC 
• Use linear transconductance
GM to develop IREF from VTUNE
I REF  G M V TUNE
4 CV REF


f OSC
 G

M
 
V TUNE
4
CV

REF 
+ Very linear VTUNE – fOSC characteristic
- But: poor phase noise; fOSC limited to MHz range

37
Tuning LC Resonator: Varactor
Q

Cj 
dQ
dV R
Cj 

C j0
 V m
R
1 

V

bi 
• Q-V characteristic of pn junction
• Use reverse bias diode for C inresonator
38
Example: Clapp oscillator
f OSC 
1
2
LC TUNE
1
C TUNE
C1

C TUNE
C2
• Tuning range fMIN, fMAX set by CTUNE maximum, minimum
• Want C1, C2 > CTUNE for wider tuning range
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Overview
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Block Concept
Oscillator Review
Basic Performance Metrics
Methods of Tuning
Advanced Performance Metrics
– Tuning Sensitivity
– Phase Noise
– Supply Pushing
– Load Pulling
• Conclusion
40
Advanced Performance Metrics
• Tuning Sensitivity (V-f linearity)
• Phase Noise
• Supply/Load Sensitivity
41
Tuning Sensitivity
• from data sheet showing specs
42
Frequency Range
• Change in slope [MHz/V] over tuning voltage range
43
Tuning Sensitivity
K d  i   o 

1  s Z
KO
s I
s
L 
K d K O Z
I



• Why do you care?
– PLL: Tuning sensitivity KO affects control parameters
– Loop bandwidth L (may not be critical)
– Stability (critical!)
44
Varactor Tuning
Cj 
C j0
 V
m
TUNE
1 

V


bi
f OSC 
f OSC 
1
2
LC
1
2
LC
j0
V
m 2
TUNE


V
 bi 
m 1 2
• Disadvantages ofabrupt junction C-V characteristic (m=1/2)
– Smaller tuning range
– Inherently nonlinear VTUNE – fOSC characteristic
45
Hyperabrupt Junction Varactor
Cj 
C j0
 V
m
TUNE
1 

V


bi
f OSC 
f OSC 
1
2
LC
1
2
LC
j0
V
m 2
TUNE


V
 bi 
m 1 2
m 2
• Hyperabrupt junction C-V characteristic (m ≈ 2)


+ Larger tuning range; more linear VTUNE – fOSC
- Disadvantage: Lower Q in resonator
46
Phase Noise
• from data sheet showing specs
47
Phase Noise
• Power spectrum “close in” to carrier
48
Phase Noise: RF System
• Mixers convolve LO spectrum with RF
• Phase noise “blurs” IF spectrum
49
Phase Noise: Digital System
÷N
• Time domain jitter on synthesized output clock
• Decreases timing margin for system using clock
50
Shape of Phase Noise Spectrum
• LC filters noise into narrow band near fundamental
• High Q resonator preferred to minimize noise
51
Phase Noise: Intuitive view
• Sine wave + white noise; Filter;
limit; Result:
52
Phase Noise: Intuitive view
•
Sine wave + white noise;
Filter; limit; Result:
53
Phase Noise Description
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•
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Symmetric; look at single sided representation
Normalized to carrier: dBc
At different offset frequencies from carrier
White frequency noise: phase noise with -20dB/decade slope
Other noise processes change slope; 1/f noise gives
-30dB/decade
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Phase Noise Specification
•
•
•
Symmetric; look at single sided
Normalized to carrier: dBc
At different offset frequencies from carrier
55
Sources of Phase Noise
White noise in
VTUNE signal path
Noise of
active
devices
Thermal noise: Losses in resonator, series R of varactor
56
Supply / Load Sensitivity
• Ideally tuning voltage is the only way to change output
frequency
– In reality other factors involved
– Mechanism depends on specifics of circuit
• Power supply dependence: Supply Pushing
• Impedance mismatch at output: Load Pulling
57
Supply Pushing
• Change in fOSC due to change in supply voltage
• Clapp oscillator: supply affects transistor bias condition,
internal signal amplitudes
58
Load Pulling
• Change in fOSC due to impedance mismatch at output
• Clapp oscillator; reflection couples through transistor
parasitic to LC resonator
59
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Block Concept
Oscillator Review
Basic Performance Metrics
Methods of Tuning
Advanced Performance Metrics
Conclusion
60
Summary: VCO Fundamentals
• First order behavior
– Tuning voltage VTUNE controls output frequency
– Specify by min/max range of fOSC, VTUNE
• Performance limitations
– Linearity of tuning characteristic
– Spectral purity: phase noise, harmonics
– Supply, load dependence
• Different VCO architectures trade frequency range,
tuning linearity, phase noise performance
61
Questions?
62

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