Acids and Bases - Mrs. Nyzen's Chemistry

Report
Goals to Accomplish Today
5.16.12
1. Properties of Acids and Bases
(A) pg. 74 and 75
PROPERTIES
electrolytes
electrolytes
sour taste
bitter taste
turn litmus red
turn litmus blue
react with metals to
form H2 gas
slippery to the touch
vinegar, milk, soda,
apples, citrus fruits
ammonia, lye, antacid,
baking soda
ChemASAP
Strong or Weak Acids
Strong Acids
Weak Acids
 Ionize completely in a solvent
 Does not ionize completely in
(chemical structure falls apart
into ions completely)
 Strong electrolytes
 Examples:
 HCl
 HBr
 HI
 H2SO4
a solvent
 Weak electrolytes
 Examples:
 CH3COOH
 H3PO4
Strong or Weak Bases
Strong Base
Weak Base
 Completely ionizes
 DOES NOT completely ionize
(chemically falls apart) in a
solvent
 Examples
 NaOH
 KOH
 Ca(OH)2
in a solvent
 Examples
 NH3
 Na2CO3
 K2CO3
Strong vs. Weak Acid
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 508
Common Acids
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
Battery acid
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Used to make fertilizers
and explosives
Phosphoric Acid
H3PO4
Food flavoring
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
Stomach acid
Acetic Acid
Carbonic Acid
CH3COOH
H2CO3
Vinegar
Carbonated water
Common Bases
Name
Formula
Common Name
Sodium hydroxide
NaOH
lye or caustic soda
Potassium hydroxide
KOH
lye or caustic potash
Magnesium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2
milk of magnesia
Calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH) 2
slaked lime
Ammonia water
NH3
household ammonia
Acid – Base Systems
Type
Arrhenius
BrønstedLowry
Acid
Base
H+ or H3O +
producer
OH - producer
Proton (H +)
donor
Proton (H +)
acceptor

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