What is... vs. What we think

Report
What is...
vs.
What we think
The difference between Observation and Inference
The Nature of
Science
• Systematic gathering of information
- direct observations
- indirect observations
• Testing of this information
- experimentation
- observation
• Knowledge gained
- naturalistic concepts
- laws
and theories related to those
concepts
Scientific Knowledge
• Simultaneously reliable and tentative
• Prior understandings may be
abandoned or modified in light of new
evidence
• Prior knowledge may be reconceptualized due to new evidence
The Scientific Method
Creativity
•Science demands creativity.
Scientists
need to be able to think outside the box
and solve both real and conceptual
problems.
•Personal Passion
•Vital Characteristic
Limitations
• Naturalistic methods and explanations
• Cannot rely on supernatural elements
Facts aka
Observations
• Observable phenomenon in a particular
situation
• Which of the following examples is a
scientific fact?
- “Dinosaurs were cold blooded”
- “The caterpillar is 2.6 cm in length”
Hypotheses
• A statement based on previous
observation or research, that can be
tested scientifically.
• It isn’t an hypothesis if it cannot be
tested!!
Goal - Theories & Laws
1. Laws = generalizations or universal relationships related to the
way that some aspect of the natural world behaves under
specific conditions.
2.Theories = inferred explanations of some aspect of the natural
world.
• Theories explain laws. They do not become laws even with
additional evidence.
• Not all scientific laws have accompanying explanatory
theories.
3. Well-established laws and theories must ...
Well-established laws and theories
must ...
✴be internally consistent and compatible
with the best available evidence
✴be successfully tested against a wide
range of applicable phenomena and
evidence
✴possess appropriately broad and
demonstrable effectiveness in further
research.
Who does science?
• EVERYONE!
“...on the shoulders of giants...”
•
Controls on ...
• scientific questions asked
• the observations made
• the conclusions
•
Include ...
• the existing state of scientific knowledge
• the social and cultural context of the researcher
• the observer's experiences and expectations (this is where the
creativity comes in!)
History of Science
•With new evidence and interpretation, old
ideas are replaced or supplemented by
newer ones.
- Evolutionary Changes
- Revolutionary Changes
Science &
Technology
•Science and technology impact each other
•Basic scientific research is not directly
concerned with practical outcomes
•The goal of science is to gain an
understanding of the natural world not to
create ways to change or control it.

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