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IT series – What’s New in Windows
Server 2008 R2
Donald Hester
October 7, 2010
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IT series – What’s New in Windows
Server 2008 R2
Donald Hester
Donald E. Hester
CISSP, CISA, CAP, MCT, MCITP, MCTS, MCSE Security, Security+, CTT+
Director, Maze & Associates
University of San Francisco / San Diego City College / Los Positas College
www.LearnSecurity.org
http://www.linkedin.com/in/donaldehester
http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=245570977486
Email:
[email protected]
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History
What’s new in Hyper-V
What’s new in NTFS
What’s new with Service Accounts
What’s new in User Account Control
What’s Direct Access
What’s new with BitLocker
What’s AppLocker
What’s new in Biometric support
What’s new in SmartCard support
What’s new in Backup
What’s BranchCache
What’s new in DNS
What's New in Failover Clusters
What's New in Microsoft iSCSI Initiator
What's New in Remote Desktop Services
What’s new in performance and reliability monitoring
What’s new in Event Auditing
What’s new in Server Core
What’s New in Active Directory
Windows History
Server OS
Corresponding Client OS
Kernel Version
Build
Server 2008 R2
Windows 7
NT 6.1
7600
Server 2008
Windows Vista
NT 6.0
6000
NT 5.2
3790
Windows XP Pro (x64)
NT 5.2
3790
Windows XP Pro (x86)
NT 5.1
2600
Server 2000
Windows 2000 Pro
NT 5.0
2195
Windows NT 4 Server
Windows NT 4 Workstation
NT 4.0
1381
Windows NT 3.51
Windows NT 3.51
NT 3.51
1057
Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT 3.1
NT 3.1
528
Server 2003 R2
Server 2003
Note the following versions of Windows were DOS based:
Windows 3.11, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me
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What’s new in Hyper-V?
 The following changes to
existing features:
• Dynamic virtual machine
•
•
storage
Enhanced processor
support
Enhanced networking
support
 New
• Live Migration
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Quick Migration vs. Live Migration
•
Quick Migration
Live Migration
(Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V)
(Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V)
•
•
•
Save state
• Create VM on the target
Write VM memory to shared
storage
Move virtual machine
• Move storage connectivity from
source host to target host via
Ethernet
•
source to the target via
Ethernet
•
Restore state & Run
• Take VM memory from shared
•
storage and restore on Target
Run
Host 2
Final state transfer and virtual machine
restore
• Pause virtual machine
• Move storage connectivity
from source host to target host
via Ethernet
•
Host 1
VM State/Memory Transfer
• Create VM on the target
• Move memory pages from the
Un-pause & Run
Host 1
Host 2
What’s new in NTFS?
• VHD Boot in Windows
• Native VHD support
• Chkdsk performance
improvements
• Robocopy performance
enhancement
• Local file copy
improvements
• Improvements in Volume
Shrink
• Improved performance for
solid state disks (SSD)
• Defrag for metadata
What’s new with Service Accounts?
 Service accounts have always had
issues
• Security hole
• Password never changes
• Nobody knows the passwords
• Not sure what services where are using the
service accounts
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Virtual Accounts
 Want better isolation than existing service accounts
• Don’t want to manage passwords
 Virtual accounts are like service accounts:
• Process runs with virtual SID as principal

Can ACL objects to that SID
• System-managed password
• Show up as computer account when accessing network
 Services can specify a virtual account
• Account name must be “NT SERVICE\<service>”

Service control manager verifies that service name matches account
name
• Service control manager creates a user profile for the account
 Also used by IIS app pool and SQL Server
Managed Service Accounts
 Services sometimes require network identity e.g. SQL,
IIS
 Before, domain account was only option
• Required administrator to manage password and Service
Principal Names (SPN)
• Management could cause outage while clients updated to
use new password
 Windows Server 2008 R2 Active Directory introduces
Managed Service Accounts (MSA)
• New AD class
• Password and SPN automatically managed by AD like
computer accounts
• Configured via PowerShell scripts
• Limitation: can be assigned to one system only
What’s New with User Account Control?
 29% fewer user account control (UAC)
prompts than Windows Vista has, and
 fewer prompts in general
 "We've put users in control and allowed
them the ability to tune the level of
prompting" using a slider bar
• Paul Cooke, director of Windows Client
Enterprise Security
UAC Slide Bar
UAC in GPO
What’s DirectAccess?
 DirectAccess offers remote workers the
same level of seamless and secure
connectivity as they have in the office.
 The system automatically creates a secure
tunnel to the corporate network and workers
don't have to manually connect
 DirectAccess also allows IT administrators
to patch systems whenever a remote
worker is on the network
DirectAccess
 DirectAccess also uses
IPsec to authenticate the
computer and user,
encrypt the data crossing
over the Internet
 Can even be used to
require employees to
authenticate with a smart
card
DirectAccess Requirements
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Active Directory
PKI Certificates
IPv6
Server 2008 R2
Windows 7
Or you can use
ForeFront USG
What’s new with BitLocker?
 Windows Vista users have to repartition
their hard drive to create the required
hidden boot partition
• Windows 7 & Server 2008 R2 creates that
partition automatically when BitLocker is
enabled
 Windows 7 & Server 2008 R2 extends the
Data Recovery Agent (DRA) to include all
encrypted volumes
• As a result, only one encryption key is needed
on any BitLocker-encrypted Windows machine
What replaces software restriction
polices?
 AppLocker technology that allows
administrators to control the software
that runs on Windows 7 & Server 2008
R2 machines
 This ensures that only authorized scripts,
installers, and dynamic load libraries are
accessed
 It can also be used to keep unlicensed
software off machines
What’s new in Biometrics?
 A Biometric Devices Control Panel
 Device Manager support for managing drivers for biometric
devices
 Credential provider support (UAC elevation)
 Group Policy settings to enable, disable, or limit the use of
biometric data for a local computer or domain
 Biometric device driver software available from Windows Update
What’s new in Smart Card support?
 Windows 7 & Server 2008 R2 extends
the smart card support offered in
Windows Vista by automatically installing
the drivers required to support smart
cards and smart card readers, without
administrative permission
 Smart Card device driver software
available from Windows Update
What's new in Backup?
 Ability to back up/exclude individual files and
to include/exclude file types and paths from a
volume
 Improved performance and use of incremental
backups
 Expanded options for backup storage
 Improved options and performance for system
state backups and recoveries
 Expanded command-line support
 Expanded Windows PowerShell support
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What’s BranchCache?
 Microsoft recommends that users run
Windows 7 clients in conjunction with
Windows 2008 R2 servers in order to get
the benefit of BranchCache, a caching
application that makes networked
applications faster and more responsive
What’s BranchCache?
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What's New in Failover Clusters?
 Improvements to the validation process
for a new or existing cluster
 Improvements in functionality for
clustered virtual machines (which run
with the Hyper-V feature)
 The addition of a Windows PowerShell
interface
 Additional options for migrating settings
from one cluster to another (Live
Migration & Quick Migration)
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What's New in Microsoft iSCSI
Initiator?
 User interface enhancement and
redesign
 iSCSI digest offload support
• better CPU utilization
 iSCSI boot support for up to 32 paths at
boot time
• Redundancy needed to protect against
network component failures or outages
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What’s New with DNS?
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DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)
DNS Devolution
DNS Cache Locking
DNS Socket Pool
DNSSEC
 Supports Domain
Name System
Security Extensions
(DNSSEC), newly
established protocols
that give
organizations greater
confidence that DNS
records are not being
spoofed
DNS Devolution
 Helps clients in child domains resolve
host names when they are not sure what
domain the host is in
 This can be set to specific levels of
resolution (Domain Child/Parent Levels)
 For example:
An application attempting to query the host name emailsrv7
will attempt to resolve emailsrv7.central.contoso.com and
emailsrv7.contoso.com
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DNS Cache Locking
 Cache locking is a
new security feature
available with
Windows Server®
2008 R2 that allows
you to control whether
or not information in
the DNS cache can be
overwritten.
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DNS Socket Pool
 The socket pool enables
a DNS server to use
source port
randomization when
issuing DNS queries
 This provides enhanced
security against cache
poisoning attacks
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What's New in Remote Desktop
Services?
Server 2008 R2 with SP 1
 Microsoft RemoteFX has been added to
Remote Desktop Services
• 3D adapter
• USB redirection
 Intelligent capture and compression that
adapts for the best user experience
 All Remote Desktop Services role
services have been renamed
40
What’s new in performance and
reliability monitoring?
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What’s new in Event Auditing?
 Enhancements to event auditing
 Regulatory and business requirements
are easier to fulfill through management
of audit configurations, monitoring of
changes made by specific people or
groups, and more-granular reporting.
 For example, Windows 7 reports why
someone was granted or denied access
to specific information.
What’s new in Server Core?
 Additional Server Roles Available
• The Active Directory® Certificate Services
•
•
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(AD CS) role
The File Server Resource Manager
component of the File Services role
A subset of ASP.NET in the Web Server
role
What’s new in Server Core?
 Additional Features
• Support for .NET framework
• Windows PowerShell
• Windows-on-Windows 64-bit (WoW64)
 Removed
• The removable storage feature
 New support
• Remote configuration with Server Manager
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What’s New in Active Directory?
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Active Directory Recycle Bin
Changes to Group Policies
Windows PowerShell cmdlets
AD Administrative Center
AD Best Practices Analyzer
Offline domain join
Managed Service Accounts
Management Pack
What’s new in Group Policies?
 Extended Windows 7 & Server 2008 R2
polices
 Windows PowerShell Cmdlets for Group
Policy
 Additional Group Policy Preferences
 Improved Starter Group Policy Objects
 Improved UI Admin Template
Functionality
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AD Recycle Bin
 Information technology (IT) professionals can
use Active Directory Recycle Bin to undo an
accidental deletion of an Active Directory object.
 Accidental object deletion causes business
downtime.
 This is the number one cause of Active Directory
recovery scenarios.
 Active Directory Recycle Bin works for both AD
DS and Active Directory Lightweight Directory
Services (AD LDS) objects.
 This feature is enabled in AD DS at the Windows
Server 2008 R2 forest functional level.
AD Recycle Bin
180 Days
180 Days
Your slides here
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/whats-new.aspx
Donald E. Hester
CISSP, CISA, CAP, MCT, MCITP, MCTS, MCSE Security, Security+, CTT+
Director, Maze & Associates
University of San Francisco / San Diego City College / Los Positas College
www.LearnSecurity.org
http://www.linkedin.com/in/donaldehester
http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=245570977486
Email:
[email protected]
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IT series – What’s New in Windows
Server 2008 R2
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