说什么

Report
China Debate Education Network:
Extending Arguments in Member
Speeches
阁员陈词中的扩展立论
翻译:曾庆熹
Extension Speech
扩展陈词
Most Important Message最重要的信息
Who speaks?谁说
What to say?说什么
How to say it?怎么说
Who Speaks?
谁说?
1. MG Speaker 政府阁员
2. MO Speaker 反对党阁员
What Task to Undertake?
任务目标?
Task 1. Refutation 目标1.反驳
---- Length should be brief.长度简短
---- Content should be essential.内容精要
Task 2. Extension 目标2.扩展
---- Length should be considerable.长度充分
---- Content should be elaborate.内容详实
What to Say?
说什么?
Types of Extension 扩展类型
1.
New Line of Argument开辟新论点
2.
In-depth Analysis深入分析
3.
Focused Case Study个案聚焦
What is new Line of argument
开辟新论点
• A new reason to explain why particular claim
is correct. This new reason is independent
from other reasons .
• 开辟阐释论证相关结论的新论点。这些新的论点
是独立于(已有的)其他论点的。
What is deeper analysis?
深入分析
• More comprehensive understanding of the
argument discussed.
• 更加综合性地理解已讨论的论点
• Like onion-peeling, figure out the reason
behind each arguments made.
• 就像剥洋葱,指出各论点背后的深层次问题
What is focused case study?
个案聚焦
• ---- Focus on one typical example and offer
detailed analysis of it
• 聚焦于一个典型案例,提供有关于它的具
体分析
How to say it?
怎么说?
Criteria of good extension speech
好的扩展陈词的标准
1. New argument / analysis 新的论点与分析
2. Loyalty (对己方上院的)忠诚
3. Distinction
(与己方上院的)区别
Why speak ?
为什么要说?
1.Unique contribution
(建立)独特贡献(意即与上院不同)
2.Advancement
(展现)过人之处(意即比上院更好)
Example1:
This House would ban smoking in China.
Opening Government
Model: Smoking should be
banned totally in China.
1. Ensure healthy Living
Environment
-Protect second-smoking
smoking victims
2.Reduce medical burden
on public healthcare
system
3. Reduce the risk of fire
Opening Opposition
Rebuttal arguments
Constructive arguments
1. Free choice of lifestyle
2. Economic Impacts
- Loss of revenue (tobacco
industry)
- Personal economic loss
(shopkeepers, tobacco factory
workers, tobacco farmers)
- More serious unemployment
例1:
本院将在中国禁止吸烟
正方上院
讨论模型: 在中国全面禁烟
反方上院
反驳部分(略)
立论部分:
1. 确保健康的生活环境,保 1. 生活方式的自由选择权
2. 对经济的影响
护二手烟受害者
2.减少公共卫生系统的医疗 - 收入损失(烟草行业)
- 个人经济损失(零售店主, 烟
负担
草工厂工人, 烟叶农民)
3. 减少火灾风险
- 更加严重的失业
Example1 例1:
This House would ban smoking in China.
本院将在中国禁止吸烟
Member Government 正下
Member Opposition 反下
Example1:
This House would ban smoking in China.
Member Government
Rebuttal arguments
Extension speech (constructive
arguments)
1. Individual Rights of health
more important than smoking
rights; health rights are basic
human rights
2. A clear message to public, to
advocate correct values and
healthy lifestyle
3. Impact on Next Generation
Member Opposition
例1:
本院将在中国禁止吸烟
正方下院
反驳 (略)
扩展陈词(树立论点)
1. 个人的健康权高于吸烟者的
吸烟权;健康权是基本人权。
2. 给公众传递一个清楚的信息,
提倡正确的价值观和积极的
生活方式
3. 对下一代的影响
反方下院
Example1:
This House would ban smoking in China.
Member Government
Member Opposition
Rebuttal arguments
Extension speech (constructive
arguments)
1. Individual Rights of health
more important than smoking
rights; health rights are basic
human rights
2. A clear message to public, to
advocate correct values and
healthy lifestyle
3. Impact on Next Generation
Rebuttal arguments
Extension speech
1. Public Backlash
---Smoker’s protest and social
unrest
2. Black market
a. more crime and violence,
b. more money to criminals
例1:
本院将在中国禁止吸烟
正方下院
反方下院
反驳 (略)
扩展陈词(树立论点)
反驳 (略)
1. 个人的健康权高于吸烟者的 扩展陈词
吸烟权;健康权是基本人权。1. 社会反弹:吸烟者的抗议
2. 给公众传递一个清楚的信息, 和社会动荡
提倡正确的价值观和积极的 2. 黑市:更多的犯罪和暴力;
生活方式
更多资金流向犯罪分子
3. 对下一代的影响
Contrast of Two Government Teams
Model: Smoking should be banned totally in China.
Upper House 1. Ensure healthy Living Environment
---Protect second-hand smoking victims
of
Government 2.Reduce medical burden on public healthcare system
3. Reduce the risk of fire
Refutation arguments
Extension speech
Lower House 1.Individual Rights of health
of
more important than smoking rights; health rights
Government
are basic human rights
2.A clear message to public, to advocate correct values
and healthy lifestyle
3.Impact on Next Generation
两支正方队的对比
模型: 应在中国全面禁烟
1. 确保健康的生活环境
正方上院 ---保护二手烟受害者
2.减少公共卫生系统的医疗负担
3. 减少火灾风险
反驳
扩展陈词
1.每个人的健康权
正方下院
比吸烟全更重要,健康权是基本人权。
2.给公众传递一个清楚的信息,提倡正确的价值观和
积极的生活方式
3.对下一代的影响
Contrast of Two Opposition Teams
Refutation arguments
Constructive arguments
1. Free choice of lifestyle
Upper House 2. Economic Impacts
of Opposition ---- Loss of revenue (tobacco industry)
- Personal economic loss (shopkeepers, tobacco factory
workers, tobacco farmers)
- More serious unemployment
Refutation arguments
Lower House
Extension speech
of Opposition
1. Public Backlash (Smoker’s protest and social unrest)
2. Black market (more crime and violence ; more money to
criminals)
两支反方队的对比
反驳(略)
扩展:
1. 生活方式的自由选择权
反方上院 2. 对经济的影响
- 收入损失(烟草行业)
- 个人经济损失(零售店主, 烟草工厂工人, 烟叶农民)
- 更加严重的失业
反驳 (略)
反方下院 扩展
1.
2.
社会反弹:吸烟者的抗议和社会动荡
黑市:更多的犯罪和暴力;更多资金流向犯罪分
子

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