Importance of English Proficiency

Report
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Ways to Improving Writing Skill
• Study writing principles and techniques.
• Watch for their appearance in the writing of
others.
• Try them out in your own writing—over and
over and over again.
• Imitate sentences and passages of good
writing.
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Breast cancer strikes more than 212,000 American women each
year and kills more than 40,000, making it the most common
cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women,
after lung cancer.
MRI tends to produce false positives at about twice the rate of
mammography, forcing more women to undergo repeated tests
and sometimes biopsies and subjecting them to anxiety, distress
and discomfort. But the panel concluded that the benefits
outweigh the downside for those at high risk.
The champion smiled, recalling the roar of the crowd.
His mother waited, tapping her foot on the hardwood floor.
Dicey looked out over the tall marsh grasses, blowing in the
wind.
The children stared down at the honeybees, careening from
flower to flower.
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Congress gave final approval to a broad overhaul of federal student
loan programs Friday, sharply cutting subsidies to lenders and
increasing grants to needy students.
The United States Air Force has decided to push development of a
new type of fuel to power its bombers and fighters, mixing
conventional jet fuel with fuels from nonpetroleum sources that could
eventually limit military dependence on imported oil.
The World Health Organization on Wednesday urged nations with
rampant AIDS epidemics to begin offering free or subsidized
circumcisions in hopes of preventing millions of new infections and
deaths.
The American Cancer Society’s guidelines stress that the MRI exams
should be done in addition to annual mammograms and regular
physical exams in the hope of driving down the death toll from the4
common, widely feared malignancy.
Novartis said it will stop phase II development of NKS104, a
treatment for elevated total cholesterol, after data showed the
drug wasn't competitive enough to invest further resources.
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Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course
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Traits of good technical writing
Five steps to successful writing
Structure and content for scientific
papers/research reports, and
proposals
Elements of composition: words,
phrases, clauses, sentences,
paragraphs, and punctuation
Diction
Phrases
Clauses
Sentences: structures and patterns
Punctuation
Variation of sentences: expansion,
transformation, reduction, sentence
combining, inversion, and ellipsis
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Keys to clear, concise, and
grammatically correct sentences
Transition words and phrases:
conjunctive adverbs and conjunctions
Paragraphs: topic sentence, elaboration,
unity, and coherence
Essays: thesis statement, unity, and
coherence
Common expressions in technical
writing
Critical analyses of published journal
articles
Demonstration of editing with drafts of
students’ papers
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Unit 1
Traits of Good Technical
Writing
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Good Technical Writing Is :
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Technically accurate
Clear
Concise
Correct in spelling,
punctuation, and
grammar
• Compliant with the
conventions of
institutions or
professional societies
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Well organized
Useful
Targeted
Complete
Consistent
Ethical
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Unit 2
Five Steps to Successful
Writing
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Five Steps to Successful Writing
• Planning
– Establish your purpose or objective.
– Identify your readers.
– Define your scope.
– Select the appropriate medium.
• Research
– Find information and take notes.
– Gather all your own data.
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Five Steps to Successful Writing
(Continued)
• Organization
– Group related information with headings and
subheadings.
– Arrange information in a logical order (e.g., general to
specific, specific to general, chronological, spatial,
sequential, cause and effect, and comparison).
– Write an outline.
• Composing
– Articulate your thesis and support it with evidence.
– Achieve unity and coherence in structure.
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Five Steps to Successful Writing
(Continued)
• Revision
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Check for completeness and accuracy.
Check for unity and coherence.
Activate the writing.
Clarify the writing.
Check for sentence variety (i.e., structure and
length).
Check for appropriate word choice.
Eliminate problems with grammar.
Check for spelling and punctuation.
Check for the adherence to format guidelines.
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Unit 3
Structure and Content for
Scientific Papers/Research
Reports, and Proposals
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
• Title – What is the paper about?
– Need to reflect an overview of the paper’s
content and emphasis.
– Be brief, honest, and communicative.
– Avoid phrase such as “on the”, “a study of”,
“research on”, “regarding”, and “use of”.
– Avoid nonquantitative, meaningless word such as
“rapid” and “new”.
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Capitalizing Words in Titles
Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of
titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of
speech.
CAPITALIZED PARTS OF
SPEECH
NOT CAPITALIZED
PARTS OF SPEECH
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Nouns
Pronouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Articles
Prepositions
Coordinating conjunctions
To in infinitives
Subordinating conjunctions
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Abstract – What is the basic content?
– Summarize its objectives, the work performed,
and the major conclusions reached in an
informative, concise, one-paragraph statement.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Introduction – What is the problem and why
should anyone care?
– An Opening Attention-Grabber
• Point out the problem or issue.
• Offer your reasons for studying it.
– Background Information
• Give a concise and appropriate review of the preexisting
literature of the problem.
• Describe how your work differs or is related to work
previously published.
– A Preview of the Whole
• State your purpose or thesis and give a blueprint of the
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contents to be presented.
Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Materials and Methods – How was the evidence
obtained?
– Identify the materials used and give information on
the degree of and criteria for purity.
– Describe apparatus only if it is not standard or not
commercially available.
– Describe the procedures used unless they are
established and standard.
– Note any safety precautions.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Results – What was found or seen?
– Summarize the data collected and their statistical
treatment.
– Include only relevant data, but give sufficient detail
to justify your conclusions.
– Use equations, figures, and tables only where
necessary for clarity and brevity.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Discussion and Conclusion – What do
these findings mean?
– Relate your results to current knowledge in
the field and to your original purpose in
undertaking the project.
– State the logical implications of your results.
– Suggest further study or implications if
warranted.
– Be objective while pointing out the features and
limitations of your work.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
– Be tactful about disagreements when discussing
other people’s results and hypotheses that are
relevant to yours. If possible, offer approaches to
resolve the conflicts.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• Acknowledgements – Who help, support or
sponsor this work?
– Thank those persons, other than coauthors, who
added substantially to the work, provided advice
or technical assistance, or aided materially by
providing equipment or supplies.
– State grant numbers and sponsors, as well as
auspices under which the work was done,
including permission to publish.
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Elements of Technical Paper or Reports
(continued)
• References – Who did what?
– Check original references for accuracy and
appropriate content.
– Follow the journal’s guideline or company’s policy
on the style of references.
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Proposal
• Summary of Proposal
Briefly state the purpose of the proposal.
• Need
– Define the problem or need.
– State why addressing it is important.
• Proposed Solution
– Present a detailed solution.
– Explain its benefits.
– Restate the problem or need and the benefits
of the solution.
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Unit 4
Elements of Composition: Words,
Phrases, Clauses, Sentences,
Paragraphs, and Punctuation
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Parts of speech
1.
Words
It describes the class of words to which a particular
word belongs, according to its function in a
sentence. The eight parts of speech in the English
language are:
Nouns (common and proper; concrete and abstract;
singular and collective;count and noncount)
Pronouns (personal, demonstrative, relative,
interrogative, indefinite, and reflexive)
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Adjectives & Articles (a, an and the)
Verbs, Auxiliaries (be, have, do and modals)
and Verbals (gerund, infinitive, and participle)
Adverbs
Prepositions
Conjunctions (coordinating, correlative, subordinating, and
conjunctive adverb)
Interjections
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PART OF SPEECH
FUNCTION
noun, pronoun
name/referring
verb
asserting/acting
adjective, adverb
describing/modifying
preposition, conjunction
linking/joining
interjection
exclaiming
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The function of a word in a sentence always
determines its part of speech in that sentence.
Examples:
The government sent the city aid.
Governments aid citizens.
It is company policy.
He went home.
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2. Phrases
A phrase is a group of related words that is used
as a single part of speech and that does not
contain both a verb and its subject.
Classification
Gerund Phrases, Participial Phrases, Infinitive
Phrases, Prepositional Phrases, Appositive phrases,
and Absolute phrases
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3. Punctuation
Period, Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Question
Mark, Quotation Marks, Apostrophe, Parentheses,
Brackets, Slash, Hyphen, Ellipsis points, and
Exclamation Mark
4. Clauses
A clause is word group that contains a verb and its
subject and that is used as a sentence or as part
of a sentence. There are two basic kinds of clauses:
Independent (main) Clauses and Dependent
(subordinate) Clauses.
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5. Sentences
A sentence is word group that contains a subject
and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
Subject + Predicate
STRUCTURE:
PURPOSE:
Simple, Compound, Complex, and
Compound-complex
Declarative, Interrogative,
Exclamatory, and Imperative
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6. Paragraphs
Topic Sentence (Main Point),
Adequate Elaboration
Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence
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7. Composition
Frame work for a Composition
Introduction
 Engage the reader
 Set the tone
 Present the thesis statement
Body
 Give the major points
 Support the major points with
details
Conclusion
 Reinforce the main idea stated
in the thesis
 Tie the ideas together
 Leave the reader with a sense
of closure
Thesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity
(Focus or Consistency), and Coherence
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Pursuasive Essay
• Clearly state the issue and your position on it in the
introduction
• Use language appropriate to the audience you’re
trying to convince.
• Support your position with facts, statistics, and
reasons.
• Answer possible objections to your position.
• Provide clear reasoning
• Conclude with a summary of your position or a call to
action,
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Supplements to Unit 4
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NOUNS
A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
Common Nouns
Event
Holiday
City
Language
Proper nouns
Academy Awards, French
Revolution
Fourth of July, Mardi Gras
Houston, New York City
Spanish, Chinese
Concrete Nouns
Tree, car, pencil
Abstract Nouns
peace, courage, honor, citizenship
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Singular Nouns
Person, dog, flower
Collective Nouns
crowd, jury, family, flock,
committee
Count Nouns
One chair
Many chairs
Suggestions
Operas, songs
Noncount Nouns
furniture
a lot of furniture
advice
Music
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Remember that some nouns may be used as count or
as noncount nouns depending on their meanings.
Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns,
but they may be used as count nouns to express
specific meanings.
1. I have a paper due Monday.
2. Let’s use paper to make the present.
3. Dr. Chan will receive a special honor at the
graduation.
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4. We need a glass (glasses) for the juice.
5. She needs to find work.
6. War is as old as mankind.
7. Space is the last frontier for man to conquer.
8. It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good
preparation for a career in business.
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PRONOUNS
A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more
nouns or pronouns.
The word or word group that a pronoun stands for is
called the antecedent of the pronoun.
Examples: Jay enjoys hiking and camping; in fact
they are his favorite pastimes.
The students complained to the principal
about the dress code. They wished he had
consulted with them about it.
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Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking
(first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person),
or the one(s) spoken about (third person).
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First Person
Singular
I, me, my, mine
plural
we, us, our, ours
Second Person
you, your, yours
you, your, yours
Third Person
he, him, his, she,
her, hers, it, its
they, them, their,
theirs
Examples:
If I give you my address, will you write
to me?
We told them that they could go with us.
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Reflexive Pronouns
A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and
functions as a complement for emphasis, as an object
to rename the subject, or as an object of a preposition.
Singular
Plural
First Person
myself
ourselves
Second Person
yourself
yourselves
Third Person
himself, herself,
itself
themselves
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Examples:
I myself faxed the report to him.
I wrote this script myself.
Mary excused herself from the table.
He hit himself with the hammer.
Robert bought himself a pair of shoes.
They baked the pie for themselves.
Anna lives by herself.
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Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points out somebody or
something already mentioned or identified or something
understood by both the speaker and hearer.
this
Examples:
that
these
those
Is this the one you want?
That may be the only reasonable
solution.
These or those are the pictures from
our vacation.
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The new program comes as social-networking sites
grabble with how to build on their success among young
users and convert this into profit.
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Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.
who
whom
whose
which
what
Examples: Everyone knows many examples of energy and its
use, but what does the term energy really mean?
To whom should I direct your call?
Whose is this red sweater?
The department manager decided who
should be hired.
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Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause.
that
Examples:
which
who
whom
whose
I thanked the woman who helped me.
The college that I chose is in Ohio.
The birds, which usually have flown
south by this time of the year, were still
congregating in our backyard.
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Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a
thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically
named. In other words, the pronoun may not have a
specific antecedent.
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all
another
any
anybody
Common Indefinite Pronouns
both
few
nobody
each
many
none
either
more
no one
everybody most
nothing
several
some
somebody
someone
anyone
anything
everyone much
everything neither
something
such
Examples:
one
other
All of the members have voted.
Does everyone favor a weekly meeting?
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The fallen tree provided homes for several
of the creatures of the woods.
One should always be polite.
The cervical cancer vaccine is a
phenomenal breakthrough, one that has
the potential of eliminating this disease
almost completely.
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ADJECTIVES & ARTICLES
An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a
noun or pronoun.
Examples:
The tired and hungry hikers straggled
into camp.
The hikers, tired and hungry, straggled
into camp.
What time will you be back?
I much prefer this painting to that one.
This confusion is costly.
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A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer
to any member of a general group. A is used before
words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used
before words beginning with a vowel sound.
Examples:
A manual has been written on that subject.
He seems an unlikely candidate for the job.
The interviewer arrived an hour early.
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The is called the definite article because it refers to a
specific person, place, thing, or idea.
Examples:
The package was delivered yesterday.
Please open the door.
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VERBS
A verb is a word that expresses an action, a condition,
or a state of being.
There are two main types of verbs: action verbs and
linking verbs.
An action verb expresses action. The action may be
physical or mental.
Examples: The band marches onto the field. (physical)
The audience expects a great performance.
(mental)
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An action verb that has an object-a word or word group
that tells who or what receives the action of the verb is
called transitive verb.
Examples:
They posted a card on her door.
The rain lashed the windows.
This kid’s behavior in school
worried his parents.
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An action verb does not have an object is called
intransitive verb.
Examples:
The rain fell.
My cousin arrived yesterday.
He travels around the country with
the other musicians.
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A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word
group that identifies or describes the subject. Such a
word or word group is called a subject complement.
Common linking verbs:
Forms of Be Verb
am, are, is, was, were
Verbs That Express Condition
feel, look, smell, sound, taste appear, seem, remain,
stay, become (and get, turn, grow when they mean
“become”)
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Examples:
John is a student.
John is intelligent.
This food tastes delicious.
The children feel happy.
The weather became cold.
Note:The forms of be are not always used as linking
verbs. That is, they are sometimes used as
state-of-being verbs. In such cases, words that tell
where or when are generally used to complete the
meaning of the verb forms.
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Examples:
He is upstairs.
You should have been here yesterday.
Note: While action verbs may be transitive or intransitive,
linking verbs and state-of-being verbs are always
intransitive.
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A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called
auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A verb phrase
may be used to express a particular tense of a verb (that
is, the time referred to) or to indicate that an action is
directed as the subject.
Examples:
Sally is a nice person and you can
speak freely with her.
The stadium is filled to the capacity.
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Common Helping Verbs
Forms of Be am
been
are
being
be
is
was
were
Forms of
had
Have
Forms of Do do
has
have
does
did
Modals
can
could
might
must
should
will
may
shall
would
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Verbals
A verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The three kinds of verbals are the participle, the gerund, and the infinitive.
A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Three kinds of participles are the present participle,
the past participle and the present perfect participle. Present participles end in –ing. Most participles end in –d or
–ed. Others are irregularly formed. Present perfect forms
are formed by adding having or having been to the past
participles of verbs and indicate complete actions.
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Examples: The freezing rain made the road slick.
This medicine represents a significant
improvement compared with existing
therapies.
Bowing, the performers acknowledged
the applause.
Did I hear someone knocking the door?
First prize was an engraved trophy.
The lab tested samples of water taken
from wells in the area.
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Rested and relaxed, we returned to work.
Having completed his chores, Andy decided
to join his friends playing football in the park.
Having been declared the winner, she called
a press conference to thank her supporters.
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Note: A present participle should describe a person
or thing causing or stimulating an experience; a past
participle should describe a person or thing
undergoing an experience. Also a present participle is used
to indicate an on-going or active action whereas a past
participle a completed or passive one.
Examples:
The lecturer was boring.
The audience was bored.
A developing country
A developed country
Trained nurses
Experienced cardiologists
Exaggerated fears
One unshared pair of electrons
A teacher-dominated classroom culture
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A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as
a noun.
Examples:
Smoking is indisputably a danger to
one’s health.
Please stop whispering.
In answering, give specific examples.
During 2006, incomes from wages and
salaries rose 4.2% after adjusting for
inflation, the strongest year since 2000.
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His favorite hobby these days is playing video games.
Delivering long- and short-term results at the same time is
what good managers do for a living.
Among other things, figuring out where this one came
from will help us prevent future problems.
World powers hoped that approving the resolution quickly
and unanimously would signal that Iran will face stricter
sanctions each time it ignores a Security Council deadline to
suspend uranium enrichment, a process that can be used to
produce nuclear energy or nuclear weapons.
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Note:
Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a
gerund.
The issue is his whining.
Wang's pitching won the game.
His wife resented his going out and having
business lunches.
What did the teacher say about your
missing the test yesterday?
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An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a
noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives
begin with to. In addition to the present form, infinitives have a present perfect form. This form adds
to have or to have been to the past participle of a
verb and indicates a completed action.
Examples:
To error is human.
No one wants to stay.
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The survivors had little to celebrate.
Is everybody ready to go?
The rain seems to have stopped.
Kelly was happy to have been chosen.
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Sometimes, infinitives omit the word to.
Examples:
All you have to do is [to] write your
book this year.
Who dares [to] challenge a champion?
Help me [to] wash the car.
Let’s [to] wait here.
The clowns made us [to] laugh.
We saw him [to] leave.
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Note:
With verbs of perception such as see, hear, feel, smell,
notice, observe and watch, we can use a present participle
or an infinitive without “to” as its objective complement in a
sentence.
Examples:
I saw him running (or run) down the stairs.
He could feel his bed shaking (or shake)
during the earthquake last night.
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ADVERBS
An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb
or a clause.
Examples:
Teresa spoke eloquently.
Have you heard this melody before?
The brochure design used extremely
bright colors.
When Dell first started making PCs, it
entered an industry with lots of built-in
fat, namely reseller commissions and
retailer markups.
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The redesigned brake pad lasted much longer.
Surprisingly, the machine failed.
Frankly, I could do without it.
Sadly, he died before I managed to reach him
again.
Fortunately, I had enough money left to pay my
fare home.
Hopefully, it will be over by Christmas.
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PREPOSITIONS
A preposition shows the relation of a noun or pronoun,
called the object of the preposition, to another word.
Examples:
I found this information on the internet.
The manager sat behind the desk in
her office.
As of today, she hasn’t made her final
choice.
You can log on to this web site to
access the following information.
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Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note
down to 4.41 percent, the lowest interest rate on that
closely-watched bond since December.
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CONJUNCTIONS
A conjunction is a word that joins or connects words,
phrases, or sentences.
Coordinating Conjunctions
and
so
but
yet
for
nor
or
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Examples:
The old man is extremely kind and
generous.
He will leave at eight and arrive at nine.
It was raining hard, and there was a
strong wind.
It was raining hard. And there was a
strong wind.
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There have been a series of studies over the
past 20 years which show that people in their
70s, 80s and 90s are functioning at a
substantially higher level than they were only 20
years ago, and there is a much lower
percentage of disability in older people than
there was 20 years ago. And of course, life
expectancy has gone up dramatically, as you're
well aware, for the last 80 years.
Mr. Bush needs to make clear to the Iraqi
leader that continued American support will
depend on his active cooperation. And that,
ultimately, the Iraqis have even more to lose
than the Americans from an unending civil war.
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This disease is incurable but treatable.
We missed the opening scene, but we enjoyed
the rest of the play.
The U.S. expansion has shown it can tolerate $50 oil with
hardly a hesitation. But how will it handle $60 oil when
the Federal Reserve has more than tripled short-term
interest rates over the past year, signs of corporate jitters
have resurfaced, and the dollar has rallied, making
exports once again more expensive on global
markets?
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A major change in the national diet is under way: Heartdamaging trans fat is rapidly disappearing from grocery
aisles and restaurant food, too. But are its replacements
really healthier?
He was tired, so he went to bed.
The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he
was afraid of the dog.
She did not study, yet she passed the exam.
Americans live longer than ever, yet more of us
are told we are sick.
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Correlative Conjunctions
both…and
either…or
whether…or
would
not only…but also neither…nor
rather…than
Examples:
Neither my sister nor my parents are here.
Both the students and the teacher are
planning to come.
I’m going to go swimming tomorrow
whether it is cold or not.
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A growing body of research suggests
that diversity in the workplace not only
helps companies stay in tune with their
customers, but also adds to the diversity
of ideas and attitudes.
In writing, we can error not only by
using the wrong words but also by
misusing the right words.
I would rather try something great and
fail than try nothing great and succeed.
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A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinating
clause and connects it to an independent clause.
Commonly Used Subordinating conjunctions
after
because
since
until
although
before
so that
when
as
how
than
whenever
as if
if
that
where
as much as
in order that though
wherever
as though
provided
unless
while
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Examples:
Please turn down the stereo so that I
can concentrate on my homework.
Before you write your paper, you must
submit an outline.
Robert enjoyed the movie as much as
Sarah did.
Because I have two cousins living in
San Francisco, I always have a place to
stay when I visit the West Coast.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
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A conjunctive adverb has the force of conjunction
because it joins two independent clauses. The most
common conjunctive adverbs are however, moreover,
therefore, further, then, consequently, besides,
accordingly, also, and thus.
Example:
The engine performed well in the laboratory;
however, it failed under road conditions.
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INTERJECTIONS
An interjection expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence.
Examples:
Hey! I think I know the answer.
Wow! Profits more than doubled last
quarter!
Well, we need to rethink the proposal.
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Unit 5
Diction
(Proper Words in Proper Places)
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5a Know the meanings of words
ab·sent
adjective
Definition:
1. not present: not attending a place or event, especially
when expected to
He was absent from school yesterday.
2. inattentive: not paying attention
His face took on an absent expression.
preposition
Definition: without: in the absence of
Absent a cure, or more effective drugs, Alzheimer’s disease91is
a march to oblivion.
Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other
mammals. So how does it combine to form people in some
cases and dogs or chimps in others? It's one of the big
mysteries of biology.
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5b Choose precise words
His remark left the audience in a confused state.
His remark bewildered the audience.
He went quickly down the street.
He scurried down the street.
China's top electronics makers on Wednesday unveiled
dozens of video players made with a homegrown DVD format
in a campaign to promote a Chinese alternative to foreign
technology.
Note:
Unveil
transitive verb expose something secret: to reveal
something that has been hidden or kept secret
93
Imply means “to suggest or state indirectly”; infer means to “to
draw a conclusion.”
John implied that he knew all about computers, but the
interviewer inferred that John was inexperienced.
Global sea-level rise is probably not going to happen as fast
as Gore implies in his movie.
94
5c Watch out the connotations of certain words
One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical
process is the use of cheap raw material.
One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical
process is the use of inexpensive raw material.
Talk is cheap unless you can deliver.
The words in each of the following groups have the
same denotation, but different connotations.
smile, beam, smirk
thin, slender, scrawny
laugh, chuckle, guffaw
look, peek, gawk
95
5d Use vivid words
The politicians spent hours talking about what was the proper choice
of action.
The politicians debated for hours what was the proper choice of
action.
5e Express idiomatic expressions correctly
Only experts can distinguish a master piece from a fake.
Many credit Thomas Edison with having invented the light bulb.
The author does a good job of tying motivational theory to obtainable
results.
96
The debate centers on the still-in-development process of
extracting material from days-old human embryos that can
morph into any tissue in the body.
97
Unit 6
Phrases
98
Phrases
A phrase is a group of related words, generally having
neither subject nor predicate and used as though it
were a single word. It cannot make a statement and
is therefore not a clause.
99
Knowledge of the phrase and how it is used will
suggest to you ways of diversifying and enlivening
your sentences. Variety in using sentences will
remedy the monotonous "subject first" habit. The use
of the participial phrase, for instance, will add life and
movement to your style because the participle is an
action word, having the strength of its verbal nature in
addition to its function as a modifier.
100
We classify phrases as gerund, participial, infinitive,
prepositional, appositive, and absolute. The following
sentences will show how the same idea may be
expressed differently by the use of different kinds of
phrases:
1. Sue swam daily. She hoped to improve her
backstroke.
2. By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her
backstroke.
101
3. Swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her
backstroke.
4. Sue's only hope of improving her backstroke
was to swim daily.
5. With a daily swim, Sue hoped to improve her
backstroke.
6. Sue knew of one way to improve her backstroke:
swimming daily.
7. Sue swam daily, hoping to improve her backstroke.
102
6a Gerund phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any
complement or modifiers it may have. The function of the
gerund phrase is always that of a noun:
1. Being late for breakfast is Joe’s worst fault.
2. Substituting vo = C into v = at + C gives us v = at + vo.
3. She finally succeeded in opening the camera.
4. Bill hated driving his golf balls into the lake.
5. His hobby, making furniture, is enjoyable and useful.
103
6b Participial phrase
A participial phrase consists of a participle and any
complement or modifiers it may have. It functions as
an adjective or an adverb:
1. Believed to have originated in Africa, AIDS has become an
epidemic, infecting tens of millions of people worldwide.
2. Given a list of potential school improvements and
asked which one they would most like their
children’s school to make, 24 percent of parents
selected smaller class size.
3. Having gotten a large bonus, the smiling, contented sales
104
representative worked harder than ever.
4. The Department of Education recently awarded 18
federal grants totaling more than $38 million to
provide financial incentives to educators.
5. In efforts directed toward the synthesis of this new
cancer drug, we put eight researchers work on this
project.
6. Note that electronegativity generally increases
going from left to right across a period and decreases
going down a group for the representative elements.
7. The first step is to calculate theΔH for the reaction
using the Hess law.
105
8. The woman improved her health running five miles a
day.
8. The oxidation potential for the dimer was lower
than that of the 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP)
monomer, suggesting that the oxidation potential
of the terminal phenolic group becomes lower as
the polymerization progresses.
106
6c Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any
complement or modifiers it may have. Infinitives function
as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns:
1. In 1995, Steve Fossett became the first person to
fly solo across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.
2. To be in Mr. Foster’s class was to learn the
meaning of discipline.
3. China's goal is to foster a higher-wage economy
built on science and innovation.
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4. Millie left early to avoid the heavy traffic.
5. To express the very large and very small quantities
we often run into in physics, we use scientific notation,
which employs powers of 10.
6. We decided to go for a long walk.
7. Her fiancé seems to be very pleasant.
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6d Prepositional phrase
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition
followed by a noun or pronoun used as its object,
together with any modifiers the noun or pronoun
may have. The prepositional phrase functions usually
as an adjective or an adverb:
109
1. The plan of the house is very simple.
2. The river runs through rich farmland.
3. Throughout the house there was an aroma of
corned beef and cabbage.
4. The conformations about the Re- Re bond, in
addition, are different for all three complexes.
4. We shouldn’t jump to a quick conclusion yet with
our test results still ambiguous.
110
6e Appositive phrase
An appositive is a word or phrase that explains,
identifies, or renames the word it follows.
An appositive phrase may be a noun phrase (that is, a noun
and its modifiers), a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or
a prepositional phrase:
111
1. Ascorbic acid, a valuable preservative, is ubiquitous
in processed and other foods.
2. Jean knew a way out of her difficulty: telling the truth.
3. His greatest ambition, to make a million dollars,
was doomed from the start.
4. The rustler's hideout, in the old cave by the river,
was discovered by the posse.
5. The core feature of planthood is autotrophy,
that is, the happy ability to make one’s own food.
112
6. The United States remains the leading source of
the carbon dioxide, the main emission linked to
global warming.
7. In 1995, Microsoft added a free Web browser to its
operating system in an attempt to fend off new
rivals, an effort ultimately blocked by the courts.
113
An appositive may be essential or nonessential; it is
essential if it positively identifies that which it renames,
frequently by use of a proper noun. Examples of both
essential and nonessential appositives occur in the
Sentences below:
1. In late 1990s, a Nobel laureate Professor Y. T. Lee
played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s
political and educational arenas.
2. In late 1990s, Professor Y. T. Lee, a Nobel laureate,
played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s
political and educational arenas.
114
Note: A modifying phrase must modify a
word or phrase appearing in the
sentence and be next to what it
modifies.
115
6f Absolute phrase
An Absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually a
noun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with any
objects or modifiers of the participle. It allows you to
add specific, concrete detail to a general statement with
greater economy than most alternative constructions.
Extremely flexible besides, it can be placed at the
beginning or end of a sentence, or often in the middle.
116
When the participle of an absolute phase is a form of
the verb be, the verb is frequently omitted entirely, so
that the absolute consists simply of a noun followed by
adjectives.
1. Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, we
trod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon.
2. If f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1 for all n, n being a real
number.
3. The theater being nearby, I decided to walk.
4. Their dinner finished, the two industrialists were
ready to talk business.
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5. The rain having stopped, we went to the beach.
6. He lay flat on the bed, his chin on his folded arms
7. Our opponent has chosen to ignore scientific principles, his
theories a wish list of insupportable propositions.
8. Our atmosphere is currently about 20 percent oxygen, all of it the
bounty of the planet’s green-skinned autotrophs.
9. His research complete, he began to write his report.
10. I shall do as I please, all things considered.
11. The driver of the wrecked car, one leg trapped beneath the
dashboard, body pinned firmly against the steering wheel, waited
patiently for the rescue squad.
12. About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their pincers full of
118
meat.
13. Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon,
running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their
breath whistling.
14. The little boy stood crying besides the road, his bicycle
broken, his knees bruised, and his confidence badly shaken.
15. The pianist played beautifully, her technique flawless, her
interpretation sure and sensitive.
119
Note: The following sentences are elliptical because of the omission
of the subject “we” understood in the context. They are not dangling.
1. The conclusions were premature, considering the lack of
available data.
2. Judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive photolysis of
compound 4 had occurred.
3. Assuming that each gas behaves ideally, the partial pressure of
each gas can be calculated from the ideal gas law:
P1=n1RT/V, P2=n2RT/V, P3=n3RT/V,
…
4. Taking this value as an upper limit, the two shortest
distances are sometimes too long for incipient hydrogen
bonds.
120
5. Building an new fab for more capacity would seem not only
superfluous, but also incredibly risky, given the high cost
involved, the fears of an industrywide chip glut, and the
increasingly fierce competition in the microprocessor market.
6. Stocks may be at record highs, but the value of the profits
from the rally are worth less given the sharp drop in the dollar
against foreign currencies.
7. Given that half of the 65-year-olds alive today will likely live
beyond age 83, outliving one's assets is an all-too-likely
possibility for some retirees.
121
What’s the problem with this sentence?
Using a pipette, 25 mL of 0.05 N aqueous HCl
solution was slowly added to the stirred mixture.
122
Supplements to Unit 6
123
Scheduled to give a keynote speech early the next morning, she didn’t want to sit in
the emergency room all night.
Long used as a substitute for saturated fats in baked goods, fried foods, salad
dressings, margarine and other foods, trans fats also have a longer shelf life than
other alternatives.
The war being over at last, the task of arranging the peace terms began.
New York has never been a cheap place to stay, but today's high prices are
remarkable, considering where the city has been.
A strike lasting close to a month or more would cause GM to burn up $8.1 billion in the
first month and $7.2 billion in the second month, assuming the company can't produce
vehicles in Mexico or Canada, according to Lehman Brothers analyst Brian Johnson.
124
Plants essentially eat the sun, transforming solar energy into sugars and starch
through the stepwise enzymatic stitchery of photosynthesis.
The federal government has financed research and development of energy
technology and alternative fuels for decades, often focusing on basic science, and
has a mixed record of incubating winners, including some widely used technologies.
Stocks like Microsoft and Dell look like buys, given their earnings growth and their
past P/Es.
Given the risks involved in such personal revelations, including job discrimination
and health insurance woes, no one knows how many people will take that route.
The big deterioration this month was unexpected, given that other readings on
consumer confidence have been showing strength.
125
Unit 7
Clauses
126
7a
Noun clauses
NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION
WORD
QUESTION
Where does she live?
What did he say?
When do they arrive?
Who lives there?
What happened?
Who is at the door?
Who is she?
Who are those men?
Whose house is that?
What did she say?
What should they do?
NOUN CLAUSE
(a) I don’t know where she lives.
(b) I couldn’t hear what he said.
(c) Do you know when they arrive?
(d) I don’t know who lives there.
(e) Please tell me what happened.
(f) I wonder who is at the door.
(g) I don’t know who she is.
(h) I don’t know who those men are.
(i) I wonder whose house that is.
(j) What she said surprised me.
(k) What they should do is obvious.
127
For anyone who has cancer, there is one moment that you
can never forget. It's when the doctor tells you, "It's cancer."
Now, the exact words may vary, but the impact is the same.
Your heart begins to pound; your brain screams out in
disbelief. Your hearing stops, too, but usually only after you
hear the words that so often come next: "There's no cure."
128
NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH
WHETHER OR IF
YES/NO QUESTION
Will she come?
Does he need help?
NOUN CLAUSE
(a) I don’t know whether she will come.
I don’t know if she will come.
(b) I wonder whether he needs help.
I wonder if he needs help.
(c) I wonder whether or not she will come.
(d) I wonder whether she will come or not.
(e) I wonder if she will come or not.
(f) Whether she comes or not is unimportant to
me.
129
NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THAT
STATEMENT
He is a good actor.
The world is round.
She doesn’t understand
spoken English.
The world is round.
NOUN CLAUSE
(a) I think that he is a good actor.
(b) I think he is a good actor.
(c) We know (that) the world is
round.
(d) That she doesn’t understand
spoken English is obvious.
(e) It is obvious (that) she doesn’t
understand spoken English.
(f) That the world is round is a
fact.
(g) It is a fact that the world is 130
Other experts challenge the idea that a warmer world
means more and stronger storms.
Today, because of the growing consensus that the
nation must wean itself from imported oil and sharply
curb climate-altering carbon emissions, new energy
options are in vogue.
Retail sales in the U.S. rose less than forecast in August,
adding to concerns a softening labor market and a
deeper housing slump will curtail demand.
Note: The “that” may be omitted when the “that clause”
is the object of a verb or functions as an appositive.
131
Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses
as their objects
•
Delete the preposition when be + adjectives + preposition phrases are used
with that-noun clauses. The adjectives (e.g., afraid, certain, delighted, glad,
interested, pleased, positive, satisfied, and surprised) here express personal
feelings or states of the mind.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
I am convinced that my sister would attend this party.
I am afraid that he won’t make it.
We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in the reaction.
President Bush said he was confident the nation would stand
with him despite "gut-wrenching" televised images of fallen
Americans.
Educators were still not aware that there are better ways to teach
science.
Oil traders are nervous that any escalation in violence in the
Middle East may disrupt oil supplies from the region, which holds
two-thirds of global reserves.
We are concerned that a lot of our retirees will end up losing their
health benefits.
Scientists are actually pretty grateful by and large that Gore has
succeeded in bringing the issue of global warming to the public's
132
attention.
Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their
objects
(Continued)
• When the that-clause refers to a statement of fact, the words the
fact are inserted between the preposition and the clause.
The fire was due to the fact that someone had dropped a lighted cigarette.
Note:
except that: with the exception of the fact that, or if it were not for the fact that
The pyridine molecule is like benzene except that a nitrogen atom
replaces one of the carbon atoms in the ring.
The twins looked identical, except that one had dyed his hair.
I would come, except that I have another engagement.
133
in that: introduces an explanation of a statement
She's unusual for a commuter in that she's never late for work.
Surfuric acid is unique among the common acids in that it is a strong
acid in its first dissociation step and a weak acid in its second step.
134
whoever
who(m)ever
whatever
whichever
whenever
wherever
however
(a) Whoever wants to come is welcome.
Anyone who wants to come is welcome.
(b) He makes friends easily with who(m)ever he meets.
He makes friends easily with anyone who(m) he meets.
(c) He always says whatever comes into his mind.
He always says anything that comes into his mind.
(d) There are four good programs on TV at eight o’clock.
We can watch whichever program (whichever one) you
prefer.
We can watch any of the four programs that you
prefer.
(e) You may leave whenever you wish.
You may leave at any time that you wish.
(f) She can go wherever she wants to go.
She can go anyplace that she wants to go.
(g) The students may dress however they please.
The students may dress in any way that they please.
135
USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES
(a)The teacher demands that we be on time.
(b) I insisted that he pay me the money.
(c) I recommended that she not go to the concert.
(d) It is important that they be told the truth.
(e) I suggested that she see a doctor.
(f) I suggested that she should see a doctor.
136
COMMON VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS
FOLLOWED BY THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN
A NOUN CLAUSE
Advise
(that)
ask(that)
propose(that) it is
essential(that)
Recommend it is
(that)
imperative(that)
Demand request(that) it is
(that)
important(that)
insist(that) suggest(that)
it is critical(that)
it is
necessary(that)
it is vital(that)
137
7b Adjective clauses
RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT
(a) I thanked the woman
who
(b) I thanked the woman
that
(c) The book
which
(d) The book
that
helped me.
(usual)
helped me.
(less usual)
is on the
table is mine.
(less usual)
is on the
table is mine.
(usual)
138
A function is a rule that assigns to each element in the
domain one and only one element in the range.
139
RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE
OBJECT OF A VERB
(a) The man
(b) The man
who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones. (usual)
that
I saw was Mr. Jones. (less usual)
(c) The man
(d) The movie
Ø
which
(e) The movie
that
(f) The movie
Ø
I saw was Mr. Jones. (usual)
we saw last night wasn’t very
good. (less usual)
we saw last night wasn’t very
good. (usual)
we saw last night wasn’t very
good. (usual)
140
RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT
OF A PREPOSITION
(a) She is the woman
about whom
I told you.
(b) She is the woman
who(m)
I told you about.
(c) She is the woman
that
I told you about.
(d) She is the woman
Ø
I told you about.
(e) The music
to which
we listened
(f) The music
which
we listened to last night was good.
(g) The music
that
we listened to last night was141
good.
last night was good.
USING WHOSE
(a)I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.
(b) The student whose composition I read writes well.
(c) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable.
142
USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
(a) The
building
where
he lives
is very old.
(b) The
building
in
which
he lives
is very old.
The
building
which
he lives
in is very old.
The
building
that
he lives
in is very old.
The
building
Ø
he lives
in is very old.
143
USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
(a) I’ll never forget when I met you.
the day
(b) I’ll never forget on
I met you.
the day
which
(c) I’ll never forget that
the day
(d) I’ll never forget Ø
the day
I met you.
I met you.
144
The housewife-traders were so secretive that
many market analysts did not realize how
widespread the trend had become until this
summer, when the police arrested a Tokyo
housewife accused of failing to pay $1.1 million
in taxes on her foreign exchange earnings.
She called My Home Doctor a second time
when her daughter had a respiratory infection.
145
Note: THAT can be a conjunction used to introduce
a clause expressing cause or result.
•
I felt hurt that you should think such a thing.
•
This result was shocking and totally smashed all
the good reasons (that) we initially went into palm oil.
•
The reason (that) we care about cancer is that it is a killer.
•
One reason that students are filing more applications is the increasing
use of the Common Application, a form that can be completed and filed
via the Internet.
•
The eroding economics of practicing basic medicine was a reason (that)
fewer medical students were going into primary care, which pays much
less than specialties.
•
It made such a noise that we had to cover our ears.
146
USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY
PRONOUNS
(a)There is someone (whom) I want you to meet.
(b) Everything he said was pure nonsense.
(c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome.
(d) Paula was the only one I knew at the party.
(e) Scholarships are available for those who need
financial assistance.
147
USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
(a) In my class there are 20 students, most of whom
are from Asia.
(b) He gave several reasons, only a few of which
were valid.
(c) The teachers discussed Jim, one of whose
problems was poor study habits.
(d) Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the maker of the most
prescribed diabetes pill, is developing three new
drugs to target the world's fastest-growing disease,
each of which carries sales potential of $1 billion
a year.
148
USING NOUN + OF WHICH
We have an antique table, the top of which has jade
inlay.
149
Note:
Generally an adjective clause must be placed right
beside the word it describes. However, when the
adjective clause is too long, a compromise will be
made as long as the role of the modifier for the
adjective clause is clear (see the following example).
A new kind of medical practice is flourishing nationwide
that offers to go to where the patients are — whether a
home, an office or a hotel — to treat ailments as diverse as
a sprained ankle or a bad case of bronchitis.
150
USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE
SENTENCE
(a) Tom was late.
(b) That surprised me.
(c) Tom was late, which surprised me.
(d) The elevator is out of order.
(e) This is too bad.
(f) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad.
151
Their consensus was that chip sales will be flat to
slightly up this year, which doesn't bode well for
chipmakers or companies that make chipmanufacturing gear.
Treasury prices rallied at the expense of stocks
Friday - after news that the economy shed 4,000 jobs
last month, which jolted economists who were
expecting a gain of at least 110,000 positions.
The Democrats want to actually pass some things
that people actually care about, which would never
happen if this dragged on.
152
Intel also reiterated plans to build graphics capabilities
into Nehalem processors, a sign that it is mounting a
challenge to AMD chips scheduled to come out in early
2009.
Orders to U.S. factories surged in March by the largest
amount in a year, an encouraging sign that the recent
slowdown in manufacturing may be ending.
Dialysis is a dreary experience, one in which people
with failed kidneys sit for hours hooked to machines that
cleanse their blood, assisted by technicians who often
have to work a second job to make ends meet.
153
The embryonic stem cells have the ability to transform into
a "dazzling array of specialized cells," the Web site says —
the property that scientists and others say offers the
potential for the development of treatment for diseases as
varied as juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
The Intel factory, slated to go online in 2010, will produce
12-inch wafers with circuitry 90 nanometers thick, which is
a generation behind the current top of the line, chips with
65-nanometer circuits. Later this year U.S. plants will begin
producing 45-nanometer chips, a factor which probably
helped Intel win approval for the project from the U.S.
government.
154
The Fed's last rate increase occurred in June 2006 and
since that time the central bank has left rates unchanged,
a stance that is expected to remain intact when Fed
officials meet next week.
Scientists have identified a gene that makes roundworms
live longer when they eat less, a finding they hope could
lead to drugs that promote human longevity, but without
the pain of strict dieting.
Iran appears to be enriching uranium on a far larger scale
than before, a finding that may affect effort by diplomats
to stem Tehran’s program.
Most have agreed that data is best understood by experts,
a view that might not prove popular with patients.
155
New York City produces almost 1 percent of the nation's
greenhouse gas emissions -- an amount that puts it on par
with Ireland or Portugal -- according to a city study.
House and Senate negotiators reached an agreement
Wednesday to boost aid to college students, a deal that
calls for slashing roughly $20 billion in government
subsidies to banks that issue student loans.
The bill calls for research on alternative techniques to
derive stem cells without the use of human embryos, an
approach that is certainly worth pursuing but is deemed
less promising by most experts.
156
A RELATIVE PRONOUN NEXT TO AN
INTERRUPTER CLAUSE AND ONE ADJECTIVE
CLAUSE
Thomas M. Siebel, founder of Siebel Systems, pledged
$100 million this year to support basic research that he
hopes will reduce dependency on carbon-based fuels.
A major draw of Duke is that we have an athletic prowess
which separates us from Harvard, Princeton, Yale, which I
know are schools the administration tends to compare
Duke to.
157
The Environmental Protection Agency, which Knatz
says should be doing more to help clean up America's
ports, did not respond to our interview requests.
New technology is allowing energy producers to
capture speedier wind that environmental activists
say has the potential to provide 20 percent of the
state's electricity within 10 years.
People are living longer, and the extra years of life,
which I think have been one of the crowning
achievements of the last century, have to be financed
somehow.
158
In his testimony on Friday, Mr. Nifong faulted himself for
his inflammatory public statements last winter, which he
said were intended to pressure witnesses to come
forward when the police investigation stalled.
"In retrospect we got it wrong partly because the truth
was so implausible," he writes. The truth Tenet refers to,
we now know, is that no unconventional weapons would
be found in Iraq.
Hydrogen peroxide, the chemical that the German
police say two terrorism suspects planned to use to
make bombs, is a simple molecule — two oxygen atoms
and two hydrogen atoms — with myriad uses.
159
Dr. Lipkin, whose focus is human disease, became involved
because the quest for a cause for the beehive collapses
employed new genetic sifting techniques that he said might
also prove useful in investigating outbreaks of human
diseases.
Still, Mr. Broad dedicates his biggest gifts to areas that he
thinks lack government support, like the $25 million he
gave to the University of Southern California last year to
found an institute for integrative biology and stem cell
research, or the tens of millions he dedicated to complete
the new Disney concert hall in Los Angeles.
160
Yet Jaffe feels strongly that her patients need
someone to hunt down lower-cost options, negotiate
with insurers, and find other ways to help them to get
the medical care she thinks they need.
161
John didn't disclose who he thought should lead the ticket.
I am pleased that after reviewing all the evidence the
Executive Directors of the World Bank Group have
accepted my assurance that I acted ethically and in good
faith in what I believed were the best interests of the
institution, including protecting the rights of a valued staff
member.
This new catalyst has changed the reaction pathway.
That's what I think takes place now.
162
More Examples Involving Noun/Adjective Clauses:
What we're facing now is a crisis that is by far the most
serious we've ever faced.
He takes issue with what he describes as unfair accusations
that his company’s profits are built on a product that causes
harm to patients.
The Food and Drug Administration is changing the rules on
who can serve on its advisory committees. Some members
who have advised the agency on drugs and medical devices
have had financial dealings deemed to represent conflicts of
interest.
163
How we cope with crises in our lives is as individual as
we are.
Many of the hardest-hit regions are where the poor
live — in Africa and in many other parts of the tropics.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a
United Nations scientific group, will report in May on
what kinds of things can be done to lessen the impacts
of climate change.
Federal regulators should relax restrictions on which
patients are included in clinical trials of a widely used
treatment for a common heart malfunction, a panel of
experts told the Food and Drug Administration on
Thursday.
164
In those dark hours of the night, when we're left alone with
our greatest fears, when the power of the disease seems
strongest, it's important to remember that others are
always with us, even if we don't even know them.
These are the kinds of things that we expect to see more of
as a result of global warming.
A thermometer is an instrument that measures the
temperature by expansion and contraction of mercury or
alcohol in a capillary tube and bulb.
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without
being consumed itself.
165
The standard enthalpy of formation ( H f ) of a
compound is defined as the change in enthalpy that
accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at
25℃ from its elements with all substances in their
standard states at that temperature.
The rewards teachers receive for outstanding
performance range from a few hundred dollars to
$10,000 or more in a few districts.
For the union, guarantees for future investment are
pivotal to ensuring the sacrifices it makes today will pay
off tomorrow.
166
7c Adverb clauses
(a)When we were in New York, we saw several plays.
(b) We saw several plays when we were in New York.
(c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
(d) He went to bed because he was sleepy.
(e) INCORRECT: When were in New York. We saw
several plays.
(f) INCORRECT: He went to bed. Because he was
sleepy.
167
USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE
AND EFFECT
because
(a) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
(b) He wet to bed because he was sleepy.
now that
(c) Now that the semester is over, I’m going
to rest a few days and then take a trip.
(d) Jack lost his job. Now that he’s
unemployed, he can’t pay his bills.
since
(e) Since Monday is a holiday, we don’t have
to go to work.
(f) Since you’re a good cook and I’m not, you
should cook the dinner.
168
SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND
WHEREAS
(a)Mary is rich, while John is poor.
(b) John is poor, while Mary is rich.
(c) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.
(d) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor.
COMPARE
(e) While I was studying, the phone rang.
169
EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB
CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES
(a) If it rains, the streets get wet.
(b) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.
170
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF
WHETHER OR NOT
(a) I’m going to go to swimming tomorrow whether or
not it is cold.(OR: whether it is cold or not.)
EVEN IF
(b) I have decided to go to swimming tomorrow. Even
if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.
171
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN
CASE AND IN THE EVENT THAT
(a) I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should)
need to reach me.
(b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me,
I’ll be at my uncle’s house.
172
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
UNLESS or EXCEPT WHEN
(a) I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.
(b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.
(c) He dislikes the game except when he wins.
173
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING
ONLY IF
(a) The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.
If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic.
If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic.
(b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
174
More examples for Adverb Clauses:
Engineers are working on methods for capturing the carbon
dioxide emitted when coal is burned.
In the semiconductor industry, prices are always falling as
chip companies scramble to cram more semiconductors into
less space, allowing them to deliver more computing power
per buck.
I'm sure most people, whether they're 40 or 60 or 75, would
say the same thing: They are not ready to die.
Because multiplying any quantity by unity leaves the quantity
unchanged, we can introduce conversion factors wherever
we find them useful.
175
If we have a contract that enables us to be competitive
we will invest; if not we will disinvest in the U.S. and use
our money where we think we can get a better return.
Where there’s life, there’s hope.
176
Unit 8
Sentences: Structures and
Patterns
Subject + Predicate
177
8a
Simple Sentence–one independent
clause.
Five Basic Sentence Patterns
S + Vi
1. The phone rang.
2. This method won’t work.
3. Many people swim daily.
178
4. These two sisters don’t get along.
5. One loses by conceit and gains by modesty.
6. Useful solvents result when propylene oxide reacts
with alcohols to form glycol ethers.
7. You can go broke by not spending money on
insurance where you should.
8. The price of oil fell to its lowest level in two months
on Wednesday as evidence builds that the high cost
of gasoline and other fuels is sapping demand.
179
9. Many lawmakers say their hope is growing that
Congress will pass an immigration bill next year.
10. Evidence could surface of a previously unknown
victim — a homeless person, perhaps, or an illegal
immigrant.
11. Evidence also emerged that some detainees had
been involved in shipments of weapons to illegal
armed groups in Iraq.
12. If the hypothesis holds up that the drop in hormone
use is the main cause, as seems likely, it should
persuade even more women to curb their use except
180
when absolutely necessary.
13. A consensus is building across the political
spectrum that rewarding teachers with bonuses or
raises for improving student achievement, working
in lower income schools or teaching subjects that
are hard to staff can energize veteran teachers and
attract bright rookies to the profession.
14. The policymaking FOMC meets on June 29-30 and
expectations have risen that, as the economy gains
momentum, they soon will raise rates at least a
quarter percentage point to keep inflation
pressures in check.
181
15. Productivity improves as companies, unable to pass
along costs as higher prices, are forced to operate
more efficiently.
16. The business of manufacturing intermediates and
active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for
commercial drugs is still suffering due to overcapacity
and the dearth of new products at the end of the
pharmaceutical industry’s pipeline.
182
16. Oil prices rose Monday after the foiled
weekend attempts to bomb Iraq's key Basra
crude export terminal revived fears of more
attacks on the country's oil infrastructure.
183
S + Vi + C
1. This is a formula for success: underpromise and
overdeliver.
2. We are not at an impasse now.
3. Our bus was late.
4. The price seemed reasonable.
5. The food tasted good.
184
6. The appropriate place to really render honors, and to
acknowledge the sacrifice that somebody has made
is at the gravesite.
7. For cancer survivors, the prospect of death is no
longer a cerebral awareness but is an unavoidable
part of daily life.
8. The whole point is that you withdraw the stimulus
when you no longer need it.
185
9. There are concerns insurers may be seeking to
exclude from the pool applicants at risk for a
disorder, even if it’s a relatively small risk.
10. Google's software, which is expected to be
introduced soon, according to several people with
knowledge of the company's plans, is the clearest
indication to date that the company, based in
Mountain View, Calif., hopes to extend its search
business to compete directly with Microsoft's control
of desktop computing.
186
11. Corporations are well positioned to benefit from
strong economic growth.
12. It is apparent that smoking can cause cancer.
13. It is one of my goals to visit South America.
14. It will be necessary for him to sign these papers.
15. It is a fact that English is the principal language of
the business community throughout much of the
world.
187
16. It has been well known that Mr. Powell was the
most skeptical among Mr. Bush's senior advisers
about the wisdom of invading Iraq.
17. It was ironic to some investors that stocks were
sagging at a time when oil prices were falling more
sharply than they have been in some time.
188
18. As the new session of Congress begins this week,
it appears as murky as ever whether some
confluence of forces will draw together and push
Congress to do what it did more than a decade ago
and pass national energy legislation.
189
19. For some people, fear of getting the disease is
nearly as debilitating as the ailment itself. But a
growing health-care movement known as
predictive medicine, aided by recent advances in
human genetics, is starting to ease some patients‘
minds – or at least provide tailored strategies for
better managing their risk and their care, experts
say.
190
S + Vt + O
1. The student reads a book.
2. A storm has delayed the plane.
3. A translucent object reflects some light and transmits some light.
4. The Fed cuts short-term rates to boost economic
growth and raises them to try to ward off inflation.
191
5. This case provides evidence that long-term freezing
can successfully preserve sperm quality and fertility.
6. The increase in energy cost over the past few years
has hurt chemical companies that depend on natural gas
for feedstock and fuel.
7. Monetary and fiscal stimuli have created excess
liquidity that must be leached during an economic
rebound.
192
8. Still, many companies are planning further job
cuts in order to boost profit, as excess production
capacity makes it difficult to raise prices in many
industries.
9. This new piece of legislation established new
protections for the unborn by making it a separate
crime to harm a fetus during an assault on the
mother-to-be.
193
10. MTBE makers are facing a growing number of lawsuits
in dozens of states and cities where their product has
wound up in drinking water, most likely from leaking
gasoline storage tanks. The bill would give them liability
protection from these suits in return for an MTBE phaseout
by 2014.
11. Greenspan has no idea right now when he will have to
raise the overnight federal funds rate from its four-decade
low of 1 percent.
12. The bill’s fate appears to continue to rest with these
five senators.
194
13. Catalysis continues to grow in importance in the
production of fine chemicals.
14. Potential impact on the environment has become
as large a factor as economics in the design of new
chemical products and processes.
15. Chinese mine owners regularly flout safety
regulations to meet insatiable demand for a fuel
powering the country's booming economy.
195
16. Following a diet and exercise regime similar to
that for diabetics and people with heart disease
may delay the onset of Alzheimer's.
17. Group of Seven nations should indicate steps
they can take to achieve sustainable global
economic growth and to reduce geopolitical risks,
including the situation in Iraq.
196
S + Vt + Oi + Od and S + Vt + Od +
( to or for) + Oi
1. My father often gives me a gift.
2. The boy wrote his parents a letter.
3. My aunt will send us the money.
4. This change provided me a unique opportunity to
experience life as a sixth-grader in an American Junior
High school.
197
5. My brother bought two books for me.
6. Please offer your seat to anyone in need.
7. I would recommend it for kids who have a lot of
initiative and who are truly interested and not just
looking for something to do.
8. The central bank lowered interest rates to almost
zero in March 2001.
9. Being the oldest, Jane set an example for her
brother and sister.
198
10. Crystallization usually affords highly purified
solids from relatively impure solutions in a single
processing step.
11. The Fed isn't going to wean the economy from lifesupport until there's enough personal income being
generated to sustain economic growth without
excessive monetary stimulus.
12. A new power plant chimney that converts
greenhouse gases into helpful substances could have a
huge impact on global warming.
199
13. Bush has dismissed congressional proposals as "the
same old tax-and-spend policy that the Democrats have
tried before."
14. As public servants, we owe it to American taxpayers to
complete our work responsibly.
15. The report cites as examples the sharply reduced use
of chemical pesticides to grow gene-altered, pest-resistant
cotton, and the rising incomes of small cotton farmers in
countries, such as China and South Africa, which have
embraced the technology.
200
16. In the coming weeks, the city will be required to
disclose to us many more details about its
preconvention surveillance of groups and activists, and
many will be shocked by the breadth of the Police
Department’s political surveillance operation.”
17. The nurse would record an agreed-upon time in the
appointment book and pass on to the patient
instructions like not eating or drinking from midnight
before the day of the requested procedure.
18. The swift move would promote to the supreme
Court’s top job a newcomer who currently is being
considered as one of eight associate justices.
201
S + Vt + O + C
1. This interest-rate thing has me all confused.
2. We got that message loud and clear.
3. Eric called his friend a liar.
4. The power of creativity and intelligence can
make the world a better place.
202
5. Research on human embryonic stem cells
holds the potential to cure Alzheimer's,
Parkinson's disease, spinal injuries, diabetes
and other conditions.
6. The man and his wife, who chose to remain
anonymous, wanted their case publicized to
encourage young cancer patients to have hope
for the future.
203
7. You should do research on what risks the
manager takes, and how he or she expects to
make money.
8. He let his opportunities slip.
9. On Tuesday, stocks took a dive when Fed
Chairman Alan Greenspan let slip that deflation
was no longer a concern.
204
10. The Energy Department revised upward earlier
estimates of heating costs for households using oil
and propane this winter, citing continued high
prices for energy supplies.
11. Mr. Chirac made clear that he still viewed the
war and its aftermath very differently than his
American counterpart did.
12. Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with any
significant immediate spare capacity, has already
made clear it will be pumping real extra volumes of
some 700,000 bpd, irrespective of quotas.
205
13. Intel’s new chips will make possible higherspeed computing, more reliable storage and
more advanced audiovisual standards and will
represent fundamental change in the internal
structure of the standard PC.
206
14. The report, by the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, explicitly
rejects as too extreme the position embraced by
many environmental and advocacy groups that
have called for bans on genetic engineering of
plants and animals. Many of these groups are
opposed in principle to a technology in which
genes are deliberately transferred from one
species to another to confer new traits.
207
15. The Bush administration’s regulatory czar,
John Graham publicly dismissed as unproven
the idea that the hormonal system could be
disrupted by multiple low-dose exposures to
industrial chemicals.
16. I would like to make (it) clear that the new
superconductors have many useful properties.
17. Powell has made it clear that he wants to
know how this could have happened.
208
18. The evolution of more complex national and
global financial markets during the past quarter-
century has made it easier and cheaper to finance
a business or home purchase, while spreading
financial risk more widely.
19. Every Fed official who takes to the podium
makes it clear he'd like to see the unutilized
resources (of labor) reduced.
209
20. Over the years, counterfeiters have found it
financially advantageous to substitute diethylene
glycol, a sweet-tasting syrup, for its chemical
cousin glycerin, which is usually much more
expensive.
21. Central heating systems have made it
possible to live and work comfortably in winter.
22. The French, Russian and Canadian
representatives made it clear that they will not
supply troops for Iraq but that they are willing to
210
help with reconstruction.
8b
Compound Sentence–two or more
independent clauses.
1. A barrel of oil now costs more than $40, but when
adjusted for inflation, that price is less alarming.
2. Life is limited and there is an end to it.
3. Glucose is to industrial biotech what crude oil is to
petrochemicals.
4. Across China, villages are becoming aware of
new environmental laws, but they're usually too
poor and powerless to stand up to local officials.
211
8c
Complex Sentence–one independent
clause and one or more dependent clauses.
1. By searching in wild and wonderful
environments, microbiologists hope to find new
genes that might be of use to investors and
customers.
212
2. But what biotechnology mostly cannot do yet is
produce either feedstock or finished product more
cheaply than the petrochemical industry.
3. Asian stocks fell after a gain in oil and gasoline futures
renewed concern higher energy prices may damp global
growth.
213
Original
DDT became available for public use in 1945, and it is
the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides, and
perhaps it is the best known insecticide.
Better
DDT, which became available for public use in 1945, is
the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides—
and perhaps the best known insecticide.
214
8d
Compound-complex Sentence–two or
more independent clauses and one or more
dependent clauses.
1. John was close to his sister Linda when they
were young, but now they seldom see each
other.
2. Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality
protein, but it also contains complex
carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as
high as more processed carbohydrates.
215
3. Once the pathways have been selected, and the
new enzymes designed, it is just a question of
adding the relevant genes to E. coli, removing the
genes for the undesired pathways, and seeing
whether the result lives up to expectations.
4. Yes, high fuel costs could ultimately endanger
the economic recovery, but there is no reason to
believe that they will do so at this level.
216
5. Samuel Johnson was known for his concern
about the environment and in 1975 SC Johnson
& Sons Inc. voluntarily stopped using
chlorofluorocarbon propellants in aerosol
products, three years before the U.S.
government banned the ozone-depleting
substances.
217
6. In the business world, chief executives must
know when their strategies aren’t working and
react, or they go out of business.
218
7. Money that might have gone toward other
purchases would be drained away paying for fuel,
and indirectly, higher fuel costs would gradually
add to inflation as they work their way through the
economy, business people here said.
219
Unit 9
Punctuation Rules
220
1. THE PERIOD (.)
a. Use a period to end a sentence.
He is a student.
Take this medicine three times a day.
b. Use periods after initials and abbreviations.
K. D. Tau, A.M. Fig. i.e. R.F.D. U.S.
Exceptions: Many abbreviations made up of the first letters of
words that name an organization are written without period (UN,
WHO, TVA).
Periods are also often omitted after many technical abbreviations
221
(PC, IT).
2. THE QUESTION MARK (?)
Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence.
Is it time for the train to arrive?
Did you see the eclipse?
3. THE EXCLAMATION POINT (!)
Use an exclamation point after a forceful or
emotional statement and sometimes after a command.
Listen to me! Watch out! Shut that door!
222
4. THE COMMA (,)
a. Use a comma to separate independent clauses
that are connected by a coordinating
conjunction (“for,” “and,” “nor,” “so,” “but,”
“or,” and “yet”).
We left the house early to drive to the airport, but heavy traffic
caused us to miss our plane.
223
Note: The comma is often omitted from a compound sentence if
its clauses are very short.
I called and she answered.
224
b. Use a comma to separate an introductory
clause or phrase.
Although they had only two weeks to travel, they managed to
see many villages in Mexico.
After hiking for three hours, we stopped to rest.
In the middle of the first semester, he began to understand the
principles of economics.
Note: The comma is often omitted following a very short
introductory prepositional phrase.
At work he was friendly and industrious.
225
c. Use commas to set off any adverbial phrase
between the subject and the verb.
Bloated budget deficits, if not curbed, could pose a danger to
the economy's long-term health, he warned.
The court, in a manner surprising to all, excluded the press
from the courtroom.
226
d. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses or
phrases within a sentence.
The new church, which was built with donated
funds, will open next week.
e. Use commas to set off conjunctive adverbs.
Minnesota’s experience shows, however, that an incentive
plan created with union input can draw teacher support.
As a matter of fact, I never expected him to
complete his studies.
The house is, for the most part, very satisfactory.
227
f. Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses
in a series.
We gave them food, clothing, and shelter for the
night.
At the beach they learned to swim, to fish, and to
water ski.
g. Use a comma to separate elements of place
names.
Leningrad, Russia, used to be named St. Petersburg.
228
h. Use a comma to separate day and year when
you state a precise date (month, day, and year).
The convention was to be held on March 18, 1984, in
San Francisco, California.
i. Use commas to set off a contrasted element.
The boy’s uncle, not his aunt, will meet you at the
airport.
229
j. Put a comma before etc.
Please bring your report, e-mail files, meeting minutes, etc., to my
office.
k. Put a comma after the clarifying devices i.e. and
e.g.
The problems on the control system cannot be attributed to shoddy
Technology alone (i.e., human error has played a large role).
Several endangered species (e.g., the red wolf and the snowy owl)
are being introduced into the park.
230
l. Use commas to set off interrupters or parenthetical
expressions.
Carl Sandburg, the biographer of Lincoln, won
the Pulitzer Prize.
The committee’s decision, to say the least, sparked
considerable controversy.
231
m. Use commas to set off direct address.
Come inside, Michael, and join us.
You see, my friends, the problem is not a simple
one.
n. Use commas to set off absolute elements.
Rain or shine, he plays tennis every day.
I wonder what will happen next, his ambition
being what it is.
232
o. Use a comma to set off interjections.
Well, I decided to try to turn the boat around.
Oh, how beautiful the tropical sunset is!
p. Use a comma to prevent misreading.
In the morning, light began to flood our room.
The problem is, is there time to shower before
lunch?
q. Use a comma after last names when the
normal order of names is reversed.
Kennedy, Howard J.
233
r. Use a comma as a thousands separator in numbers
of 1,000 and higher.
1,200
15,000 750,000 45,000,000 (or $45 million)
s. Use commas to set off dialogue from nondialogue
components in a sentence.
He said, “I have found the key.”
“If you leave this afternoon,” he said, “you will
arrive in plenty of time.”
234
t. Use a comma to indicate omitted text in a
parallel construction.
To error is human; to forgive, divine.
In the U.S., we have two research centers; in China, one; in
Europe, three.
235
5. THE SEMICOLON (;)
a. Use a semicolon to connect two main clauses
when there is no coordinating conjunction.
The debate was drawing to a close; each team
gathered together to prepare its final remarks.
I closed the book; I had grown tired of reading.
236
b. Use semicolons to separate coordinate elements
containing internal punctuation.
The extra $22 billion includes $4 billion for veterans' health
care and administrative services; $2 billion for port security;
$3 billion for education; nearly $1 billion for sewage
and water treatment improvements; and money for
local law enforcement, housing for the poor, and road and
bridge upgrades.
237
6. THE COLON (:)
a. Use a colon before a word, phrase, sentence, or
several sentences that clarify, explain, amplify, or
summarize the preceding expression.
Voters approved the controversial amendment by an extremely
narrow margin: 20,100 in favor and 19,899 against.
The different affinities of atoms for the electrons in a bond are
described by a property called electronegativity: the ability of
an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
238
Figure X. Variable-temperature proton-decoupled 31P NMR
spectra of compound YY: top, 350 K; middle, 303 K; bottom,
273 K.
I have one objection to this advertisement: it is far too
technical for its intended audience.
Your first draft is like a rich uncultivated field for the
farmer: it is waiting for you to bring it into full bloom.
After a week of meetings with Chinese energy, environmental
and clean-car experts, I’m left with one big, gnawing question:
can China go green without going orange?
239
b. Use a colon to introduce a list. Make sure
that the expression preceding the colon is a
complete sentence.
Our research focuses on two areas: inexpensive feed
stocks for ethanol production and new catalysts for
bio-processes.
c. Use a colon to introduce a quotation.
The advertisement for the Hawaiian trip read as
follows: “Visit six islands and learn for yourself
what Paradise of the Pacific means.”
240
d. Use a colon to express direct ratio.
a ratio of 50:1
5:2:1
e. Use a colon after the salutation of a
business letter, between a title and subtitle,
between a chapter and verse reference from
the Bible, and between the hour and minute
figures in time designations.
To Whom It May Concern:
Science Problems: A Handbook for Students
according to Ecclesiastes 3:9
10:50 A.M.
241
7. THE APOSTROPHE (‘)
An apostrophe is used for these reasons:
a. Use an apostrophe to indicate the possessive case,
except for personal pronouns.
1. If the word (either singular or plural) does not end
in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s.
the girl’s dress
yesterday’s problem
the car’s upholstery
242
2. If the singular ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the
apostrophe and s unless the second s makes the
pronunciation difficult; in such case, add only the
apostrophe.
Lois’s coat
Charles’s dog
but
Moses’ story
Aristophanes’ comedies
(The addition of a second s would change the
pronunciation of Moses to Moseses and Aristophanes to Aristophaneses.)
243
3. If the plural ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add only the
apostrophe.
ladies’ dresses (dresses for ladies)
boys’ shoes (shoes of the boys)
five dollars’ worth
4. In compound words, make only the last word
possessive.
brother-in-law’s books (singular possessive)
mothers-in-law’s books (plural possessive)
someone else’s book
244
5. In noun of joint possession, make only the last
noun possessive. In nouns of individual possession, make
both nouns possessive.
Jane and Alice’s book (joint possession)
Jane’s and Alice’s books (individual possession)
245
6. An apostrophe indicates the omission of a letter
or a number.
shouldn’t
doesn’t
can’t
o’ clock
the gold rush of ‘49
246
7. An apostrophe and s form the plural of letters,
figures, symbols, and words. (Such forms are
also italicized.)
Writers should cross their t’s and dot their i’s.
Count to 100 by 5’s
Try to cut down on the number of and’s you
use in your writing.
We live in the 80’s.
247
8. THE DASH (—)
a. Use a dash to indicate a sudden break in
thought.
She had her reasons — or did she?
Could he — I mean, would he be willing to
work with us?
Her eyes lighted up with love — or was it pity? — when
she read the letter.
248
b. Use a dash before an appositive or brief
summary.
The best universities and colleges have stuck to their
missions — hiring the most qualified professors, offering the
highest-quality courses, and providing the broadest possible
educations not only for the world of work but also for public
service and personal development.
He asked Congress to set an immediate freeze on emissions of
carbon dioxide — that's the main pollutant responsible for
trapping heat in the atmosphere.
Doctors are looking at cancer more and more as a chronic
disease — something people can live with for a longer period
249
of time.
These three experimental parameters — activity, selectivity,
and life span — should be considered for the selection of a
catalyst employed in a commercial chemical process.
c. Uses dashes (instead of commas or parentheses) to
set off strong parenthetical element.
The new chip — which took us two years to complete its
design — will be in commercial production next month.
The president — reversing his position — now opposes this
legislation.
250
d. Uses dashes to set off a parenthetical
expression when that expression interrupts
the flow of thought.
If you wish to stress the idea — the decision is up to
you — then use dashes rather than commas or parentheses.
251
9. THE HYPHEN (-)
a. Hyphenate two or more words as a compound
noun, verb or adverb or as a compound modifier
of a noun:
a well-known actor
a risk-taking strategy
broad-based efforts
hydrogen-powered cars
short-sighted thinking
technology’s cost-effectiveness
birth-control movement
cross-link two polymers
vacuum-dry this material
Many U.S. hospitals aren't set up to provide state-of-the-art treatment
for heart attacks on a 24/7 basis.
252
Phrases hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated
when they appear in the predicate unless they are
permanent compounds:
He is a well-liked man.
He is well liked.
She is old-fashioned. (Permanent compound)
It is an up-to-date book.
This book is up to date.
253
b. Place a hyphen between the numerator and
denominator of a fraction unless either part
contain a hyphen:
two-thirds
five-eighths
but: twenty-two sixteenths
In an expression like one half of and in a fraction
intended as merely roughly approximate, the hyphen
is generally omitted:
About three fourths of the students attended the
game.
254
c. Hyphenate compound numbers between
twenty and one hundred:
thirty-five
sixty-three
ninety-nine
d. Use a hyphen to avoid ambiguity.
resign (to quit)
re-sign (to sign again)
re-collect
re-cover
re-form
re-treat
refund (to give money back)
re-fund (to bring money in again)
recollect
recover
reform
retreat
255
e. Use a hyphen to indicate a season that straddled
two calendar years.
The winter of 1883-84 was especially severe.
f. Use a hyphen to designate a continuous period of
two or more years.
The presidency of George Bush (1988-1992) was good for the
domestic economy.
256
g. Use a hyphen to indicate “suspended compounds”
(where the important element is omitted in all but
the last term).
The lumber is available in 8-, 16-, and 32-foot lengths.
The national test scores for 4th- and 8th-graders show modest
improvements in math, but flat scores in reading.
h. Use a hyphen to denote a precise numerical
measurement.
a two-hour test
a ten-year-old brother.
12-inch-diameter pipe
six-game winning streak.
257
i. Use a hyphen at the end of the first line to
mark the separation of syllables when a word
is divided between two lines. Never divide
one-syllable words.
In your essay you should avoid using fragment sentences.
258
j. In compounds not covered by the above rules, a
writer must depend chiefly upon memory of the
individual words and upon help from a reliable,
up-to-date dictionary. As with spelling in
general, hyphen usage cannot be reduced to a
logical system. The general tendency is to use the
hyphen only if joined elements are not felt to be
thoroughly fused or if the omission of the mark
between separate elements might cause a
misreading.
259
10. PARENTHESES ( )
a. Use parentheses to enclose numbers in a series.
The treaty stipulated that the countries would (1)
cease fighting, (2) respect each other’s boundaries,
and (3) resume trade.
260
b. Use parentheses to introduce acronyms and
abbreviations (including abbreviations of
measurement).
The organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) cannot agree on a quota.
261
c. Use parentheses to set off parenthetical,
supplementary, or illustrative material.
He said (and we assumed that he was sincere) that he would
attend the ceremony without fail.
As we drove down the mountain road (could this truly be
called a road?), our brakes began to smoke.
262
11. BRACKETS ([ ])
Brackets are used to set off editorial corrections or
additions to quoted matter.
On his desk he found a note: “Do not try to find
me for i [sic] will be far away when you read this.”
(A bracketed sic-meaning thus-tells the reader
that the error appears in the original and is not a
misprint.)
The Cardinal sent a message to his
trusted subordinate in Rome [Bishop Francetti] to
ask for further information.
263
12. THE SLASH (/)
a. Use the slash to indicate “per” in technical
abbreviation.
m3/sec
kg/cm2
b. Use the slash to indicate a twelve-month
period overlapping two calendar years.
academic year 2006/2007
fiscal year 1999/2000
264
c. Use the slash in the expression “and/or” only
after other alternatives have been considered.
The crash was caused by mechanical failure and/or pilot
error.
d. Use a slash to represent a ratio or to connect
components of a mixture.
dissolved in 4:1 isopropanol/water
the methane/oxygen/argon (1/50/400) matrix
265
13. ELLIPSIS POINTS (…)
a. To show omission of a word or words from
a quoted sentence, use ellipsis points (three
spaced periods).
The senator said, “The American public … can’t be
fooled for long.”
266
No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption
of power….The time has come to consider how we might bring
about a separation, as complete as possible, between Science and
Government in all countries.
- Jacob Bronowski
…Remember that the fear of failure is the most paralyzing of all
human emotions. The fear of failure stops us from trying, from
daring, from succeeding. It must be confronted. Don’t grow old
saying, “I wish Ihad. I should have. Why didn’t I?” Failure is not to
be dreaded, but to confront, reject, and overcome.
- Mark Shields
267
14. QUOTATION MARKS (“ ”)(‘ ’)
Follow these rules in punctuating quoted material:
a. Use double quotation marks to enclose a direct
quotation from both spoken and written sources.
He said, “Wait for me at the corner.”
The handbook says, “Students are responsible
for keeping their rooms clean.”
Notice that indirect quotations are not punctuated:
He said that I should wait for him at the corner.
268
b. Use single quotation marks to enclose a
quotation within a quotation.
She replied, “Look for the letter that ends ‘Most
sincerely yours.’”
269
c. Use quotation marks to set off titles of poems,
songs, and of articles short stories, ad other
parts of a longer work.
The class liked the story “A Rose for Emily” in
our text Stories for Our Time.
“Get me to the Church on Time” is a song from
the musical play My Fair Lady.
Look for the article in Time titled “A New
Approach to the Monetary Problem.”
270
d. Use quotation marks to set off words used in a
special sense.
What he calls “stylish” I would consider to be
very out of date.
The professor referred to the student as a “frisky
colt.”
271
e. Always place a comma or period inside quotation
marks.
“If you try again,” she said, “I think you will
succeed.”
Although he told us that he is “restless,” I think
a more appropriate word would be “lazy.’
He said, “The note read ‘No milk today.’ ”
The desire of consumers for better access to a doctor
has also given rise to “concierge medicine,” in which
they pay thousands of dollars annually to get convenient,
no-wait appointments.
272
f. Always place a colon or semicolon outside
quotation marks.
I looked blankly at my music instructor when
he said “Andante”; I did not understand the
meaning of the term.
He gave us what he called his “recipe”: think
well, listen carefully, speak cautiously.
273
g. Place a question mark, dash, or exclamation
point inside the quotation when it applies only to
the quotation. Place it outside the quotation
when it applies to the whole statement.
He asked, “Will you be ready to recite tomorrow?”
Did you hear her say, “I overslept yesterday”?
He cried out, “I will never agree to that!”
I can’t describe the horror of that “unfortunate
incident”!
274
h. Use a comma to separate an opening quotation
from the part of the sentence that follows unless
the quotation ends with a question mark,
exclamation point, or dash.
“This case is closed,” he said firmly.
“Is it time to eat?” she asked.
“I can’t believe it!” he exclaimed. “Our house
can’t have burned down!”
“You’ve misunderstood–” he began. “I meant
something quite different.”
275
i. When a quotation is interrupted by explanatory
words (he said, or similar ones), use a comma
after the first part of the quotation. In choosing
the punctuation mark to place after the
explanatory words, follow the rules for
punctuating clauses and phrases.
“I have been told,” he said, “of the dangers of
skiing.”
276
“You follow directions well,” the supervisor said.
“Your first two weeks with us have been very
satisfactory.”
“Michael was an imaginative tour leader,” the girl
said; “every day brought some new adventure.”
277
j. In punctuating explanatory words preceding a
quotation, be guided by the length and
formality of the quotation.
No punctuation She cried out “Wait!” and ran for the bus.
Punctuation
with a comma
Punctuation
with a colon
The clerk said politely, “If you need any
help, please call on me.”
The politician began his lengthy speech with
these words: “Never is the history of our
country had there been a greater need for
unity among us.” Never have the words
‘United we stand, divided we fall’ had
greater meaning than they do today, my 278
Unit 10
Variation of Sentences:
Expansion, Transformation, Reduction,
Sentence combining, Inversion, and Ellipsis
279
10a Expansion
1. One-Word Additions
John hit the ball.
Big John hit the slow ball
Big John, the catcher, hit the slow ball.
Big John, the reserve catcher, hit the
slow ball.
Big John, the reserve catcher,
powerfully hit the slow ball.
280
2. Multiword Additions: Phrases
His knees shaking with nervous energy, big
John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the
slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the
ninth to win the ALC championship game
before 50,000 screaming fans.
281
3. Multiword Additions: Clauses
His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John,
the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball
over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win
the ALC championship game before 50,000
screaming fans, who drank large vats of cheap
beer, which were provided by a local brewery.
282
Legislation overhauling U.S. college student aid by slashing
subsidies to lenders and using the money to boost student
assistance by $20 billion was approved by Congress on
Friday.
The killings have outraged many Iraqis, who long have
resented the presence of armed Western security
contractors, considering them an arrogant mercenary force
that abuses Iraqis in their own country.
Doctor delivery is one of many new approaches springing
up to address the demand for faster, more convenient
medical care.
283
10b Transformations
The empty house looked quite frightening.
Empty, the house looked quite frightening.
The house, empty, looked quite frightening.
284
Causing injuries for which she sues, the scale
struck the plaintiff.
The scale, causing injuries for which she
sues, struck the plaintiff.
The scale struck the plaintiff, causing injuries
for which she sues.
Desperate, the young mother called for help.
Below, the traffic looked like a necklace of ants.
285
No matter how long it takes, our medical
team will do our best to save your child’s life.
Our medical team, no matter how long it
takes, will do our best to save your child’s life.
286
This is one of the admiralty texts that are
worth reading.
Of the admiralty texts that are worth reading,
this is one.
Much is expected from those to whom much is
given.
From those to whom much is given, much is
expected.
287
The S&P 500 gained 11.8% a year between
1982 and 2001. But only investors who
stayed the course managed to earn that big
a return.
288
10c Reduction
1. Noun Clauses
I don’t know what I should do.


I don’t know what to do.
Pam can’t decide whether she should go or stay
home.
Pam can’t decide whether to go or (to) stay home.
Please tell me how I can get to the bus station.

Please tell me how to get to the bus station.
289
Jim told us where we could find it.



Jim told us where to find it.
We are all surprised that this catalyst is so
active in this reaction.
We are all surprised about this catalyst’s
high activity in this reaction.
His parents were upset that he did so poorly
in the school.
His parents were upset with his poor
performance in the school.
290



I couldn’t understand that he didn’t want to
come.
I couldn’t understand his (him) not
wanting to come.
That they ran away to get married shocked
everyone.
Their running away to get married
shocked everyone.
I will no longer tolerate that you are late to
work every morning.
I will no longer tolerate your (you) being
late to work every morning.
291
2. Adjective Clauses
CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE
PHRASE
(a) CLAUSE:
PHRASE:
(b) CLAUSE:
PHRASE:
(c) CLAUSE:
PHRASE:
The man
who
is talking to John is from
Korea.
The man
talking to John is from
Ø
Ø
Korea.
The ideas which are presented in that book
are good.
The ideas
Ø
Ø presented in that book
are good.
Ann is the woman
who is responsible for
the error.
Ann is the woman
Ø
Ø responsible292for
(d) CLAUSE: The
books
that are on that shelf are mine.
PHRASE: The
Ø
Ø on that shelf are mine.
books
(e) CLAUSE: English has an that consists of 26 letters.
alphabet
PHRASE: English has an
Ø Consist- of 26 letters.
alphabet
ing
to come with us is
(f) CLAUSE: Anyone who wants
welcome.
PHRASE: Anyone
Ø
wanting to come with us is
welcome.
293
(g) George Washington, who was the first
president of the United States, was a
wealthy colonist and a general in the
army.
(h) George Washington, the first president of
the United States, was a wealthy colonist
and a general in the army.
(i) Paris, the capital of France, is an
exciting city.
294
(j) I read a book by Mark Twain, a famous
American author.
295
Note: If an adjective clause that contains be +
a single adjective is changed, the
adjective is moved to its normal position
in front of the noun it modifies.
Clause:
Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, softer,
mushy fruit.
Correct Phrase: Fresh fruit tastes better than old, softer,
mushy fruit.
Incorrect phrase:
Fruit fresh tastes better than old, softer,
mushy fruit.
296
She has two children, ages 7 and 10.
The general demanded absolute obedience, instant and
unquestioning.
Typewriters, once common in schools and offices, are
rarely seen or used now.
Wolves—once feared and killed—are being reintroduced into
the environment.
297
Many compound adjectives used immediately before
a noun can be viewed as reduced forms of adjective
clauses.
Environment-friendly transportation
cellulose-rich material
Temperature-dependent reactions
tumor-free time
Structure-specific sensors
oxygen-sensitive catalysts
Flood-prone mountain valleys
energy-efficient technology
Water-soluble materials
298
Data-gathering devices
time-consuming work
Life-threatening diseases
record-setting stock market
performance-enhancing drugs
Oxygen-transporting hemoglobin
lead-containing paint
Problem-solving techniques
money-making machines
Diarrhea-causing virus
risk-taking strategies
Record-setting hurricane season
mind-boggling issues
record-breaking adventurer
Rate-limiting step
Company-operated stores
Information-based economy
coal-fired power plants
debt-burdened students
Foundation-supported programs
hydrogen-powered cars
custom-built homes
government-subsidized vaccines
299
Performance-related bonuses
Market-oriented incentives
human-induced global warming
Chinese-made toys
Fastest-growing markets
slow-growing crystals
Far-reaching influence
forward-thinking strategy
Fast-spreading disease
Broad-based support
Foreign-born immigrants
Well-defined policy
long-anticipated challenge
short-lived species
far-fetched statement
a well-paid job
so-called new invention
Exceptions:
Cutting-edge research
300
For ADJECTIVE CLAUSES that use
WHICH to modify a whole sentence
Water around the island started to recede Thursday, which
lessened the danger to others who remained stranded.

Water around the island started to recede Thursday,
lessening the danger to others who remained stranded.
In a d6 metal ion, both low- and high-spin complexes are
possible, which depends on the value of Δ. A high Δ leads
to the low-spin form.

In a d6 metal ion, both low- and high-spin complexes are
possible, depending on the value of Δ. A high Δ leads to
the low-spin form.

The nickel-catalyzed reaction occurs at room temperature,
making it ideal for coupling of chiral compounds, which
racemize when subjected to high temperature, as happens
with palladium.
301

American manufacturers say the yuan is undervalued by as much as 40
percent, making Chinese products cheaper for Americans and U.S.
goods more expensive in China.

Young people switch jobs and even careers frequently, meaning they
don't build up enough years with a single employer to qualify for a
big pension payment.

A landmark report by the world's leading climate scientists and
government officials, published in Paris last week, warned global
warming will continue for centuries, creating a far different planet in
100 years.

Scientists recently announced the discovery of important genetic clues
to diabetes, opening a new chapter in the study of the fast-growing
disease.

Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity in 1916,
profoundly affecting the study of physics and cosmology for years.
302

Microsoft's sales and profits jumped in the latest quarter, helped
by strong results for database software and its gaming
business.

The market for video sharing and social networking sites has
been sizzling, reflected by the $1.65 billion Google recently
paid for YouTube.

Medicare already costs four times as much as it did in 1970,
measured as a percentage of the nation's gross domestic
product.

An international group of ecologists and economists warned
yesterday that the world will run out of seafood by 2048 if steep
declines in marine species continue at current rates, based on a
four-year study of catch data and the effects of fisheries
collapses.

"Based on AMD's preannouncement last week and Intel's
result, we believe that there is clear evidence of Intel gaining lost
share at a rapid pace," Jefferies & Co. analyst John Lau wrote in
a research note. He rates Intel a buy and AMD a hold.
303
More Examples:
As in America, higher education costs are hammering other
developed nations, forcing a reassessment of who pays and
how.
Experts point to many short-term reasons the United States is
running low on gasoline, causing prices to rise: many oil
companies are doing maintenance work on refineries; new federal
rules make fuels cleaner but costlier; and a string of delays, fires
and accidents in the industry have reduced supplies just when
drivers are starting to hit the road for summer vacations.
Rates for 30-year mortgages this week sank to their lowest point
since late May, providing a ray of sunlight for would-be home
buyers.
304
The U.S. economy unexpectedly lost jobs in August for the first
time in four years, increasing speculation that the Federal
Reserve will have to reduce interest rates to counter an
economic slowdown.
College costs have soared in recent years in the United States,
forcing students to rely increasingly on loans and driving
growth for banks and specialized student lenders.
Democrats described the legislation as costless to taxpayers,
saying the rate cuts would be offset by a reduction of
nearly $21 billion in subsidies paid by the government to
lenders in the federal loan program.
A hot air balloon burst into flames over western Canada,
burning two passengers to death while their families looked
on, police said Saturday.
305
Some services may even wheel in a mobile X-ray machine or an
ultrasound machine, depending on the ailment, or perhaps pull
out kits to test for strep throat or to draw blood.
306
The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I.Q.s
than their younger siblings, researchers are reporting, based on a
large study that could effectively settle more than a halfcentury of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q.
and birth order.
Some 350,000 or so Americans currently need dialysis; that
population is growing about 3 percent a year, fueled by a rise in
diabetes.
Amgen offers discounts and rebates to dialysis companies based,
in part, on how much Epogen they use and how much that
use increases year to year.
307
3. Adverb Clauses
(a) ADVERB CLAUSE:
(b) MODIFYING
PHRASE:
(c) ADVERB CLAUSE:
(d) MODIFYING
PHRASE:
(e) CHANGE POSSIBLE:
While I was walking to class, I
ran into an old friend.
While walking to class, I ran into
an old friend.
Before I left for work, I ate
breakfast.
Before leaving for work, I ate
breakfast.
While I was sitting in class, I fell
asleep.
While sitting in class, I fell
308
asleep.
(f) CHANGE
POSSIBLE:
(g) NO CHANGE
POSSIBLE:
(h) NO CHANGE
POSSIBLE:
While Ann was sitting in class, she
fell asleep. (clause)
While sitting in class, Ann fell
asleep.
While the teacher was lecturing to
the class, I fell asleep.
While we were walking home, a frog
hopped across the road in front of us.
(i) INCORRECT:
While walking home, a frog hopped
across the road in front of us.
(j) INCORRECT:
While watching TV last night, the
309
phone rang.
CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO
MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
(a) CLAUSE: Since Maria came to this country,
she has made many friends.
(b) PHRASE: Since coming to this country, Maria
has made many friends.
310
(c) CLUASE: After he (had) finished his
homework, Peter went to bed.
(d) PHRASE: After finishing his homework, Peter
went to bed.
(e) PHRASE: After having finished his homework,
Peter went to bed.
(f) PHRASE: Peter went to bed after finishing his
homework.
311
EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF “DURING THE
SAME TIME” IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL
PHRASES
(c)
While I was walking down the street, I ran into an
old friend.
While walking down the street, I ran into an old
friend.
Walking down the street, I ran into an old friend.
(d)
Hiking through the woods yesterday, we saw a bee
(e)
Pointing to the sentence on the board, the teacher
explained the meaning of modifying phrases.
312
(a)
(b)
EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN
MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES
(a)
Because she needed some money to buy a
book, Sue cashed a check.
(b)
Needing some money to buy a book, Sue
cashed a check.
Because he lacked the necessary
qualifications, he was not considered for the
job.
Lacking the necessary qualifications, he was
not considered for the job.
313
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Having seen that movie before, I don’t want
to go again.
Having seen that movie before, I didn’t want
to go again.
Because she was unable to afford a car, she
bought a bicycle.
Being unable to afford a car, she bought a
bicycle.
Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.
314
USING UPON+-ING IN MODIFYING
ADVERBIAL PHRASES
(a) Upon reaching the age of 21, I received my
inheritance.
(b) When I reached the age of 21, I received my
inheritance.
(c) On reaching the age of 21, I received my
inheritance.
315
Reduction of Adverb Clauses to
Prepositional Phrases
When we keep the temperature constant, the reaction rate is
proportional to the concentration of reactant B.
At constant temperature, the reaction rate is proportional to
the concentration of reactant B.
Because several public transportation projects, such as the
MRT, had been completed, commuting to work has become
easier for people living in the suburbs.
With the completion of several public transportation
projects, such as the MRT, commuting to work has become
easier for people living in the suburbs.
316
More examples:
1. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
2. When found to be forged, the data was withdrawn from the paper
immediately.
3. When discussing the effects of global warming, scientists do care
very much about how precise the details are.
4. Though old, he still has a dream.
5. Though a fair man, my boss often required us to work far into the
night.
6. If made into law, the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act would bar
prejudicial treatment based solely on genetic data, such as
genetic predisposition to disease.
7. These problems can be treated if caught in time.
317
8. Today we are much better with therapies that are more
specific, and also with supportive care and pain
management that makes the course of cancer therapy,
although not easy, much more tolerable.
9. Intel Corp. said a new line of computer processors due out later
this year will be about 40 percent faster than current chips when
running computer games, videos and other heavy workloads.
10.When faced with product concerns from Asian trading partners,
China adopts an assertive tone.
318
4. Simple Sentences with Compound
Verb
• The court reversed the lower court and ruled that
consent is not required.
The court reversed the lower court, ruling that
consent is not required.
• The helicopter flew low over the forest, and spotted
the missing prisoner just before dark.
The helicopter flew low over the forest, spotting the
missing prisoner just before dark.
319
More examples:
• The National Science Foundation believes in
nanotech's future, estimating the market impact will
exceed $1 trillion by 2015.
• The first Chinese person in space returned safely to
Earth early Wednesday, landing as planned on the
soft grass of Inner Mongolia.
• Cheney planned to return to Jordan later Sunday,
ending his weeklong trip to the Middle East with
talks with Jordan's King Abdullah.
320
• Microsoft Corp. introduced a new version of its Office
software Tuesday, betting that enhanced tools for
collaboration will entice companies to spend $150-to$500 for copies of the upgrade.
• Some oil executives are now warning that the current
shortages of fuel could become a long-term problem,
leading to stubbornly higher prices at the pump.
• The next morning I read what I wrote the day before,
making only the most superficial changes, and then
continue on my way. This is all you have to do.
• For other women, trading offered a more modest sort
of independence, giving them a chance to build up
savings separate from their husbands’ accounts.
321
Winds of 160 mph slammed the city of Puerto
Cabezas, Nicaragua, peeling roofs off shelters and a
police station, knocking down electric poles and
destroying or damaging some 5,000 homes —
many of them made of wood with roofs of corrugated
metal or palm branches
322
10d Sentence Combining
To make your writing flow, you may need
to combine some of your short, related
sentences. This technique helps you write
concisely and express the relationships
between the ideas clearly.
323
1. Inserting Words
• Separate Sentence He was in an
exuberant mood. His
mood was contagious.
• Combined Sentence His exuberant
mood was contagious.
• Separate Sentence Butter the pan. Pour
the cake batter into
the pan.
• Combined Sentence Pour the cake batter
into the buttered pan.
324
2. Inserting Phrases
· Prepositional Phrases
Separate Sentence
Great Salt Lake is an
inland body of saltwater.
The lake is in northwestern Utah.
Combined Sentence Great Salt Lake is an
inland body of saltwater
in northwestern Utah.
325
• Participial Phrases
• Separate Sentence Migrant laborers
move constantly.
They search for work.
• Combined Sentence Searching for work,
migrant laborers
move constantly.
326
Separate Sentence
The hikers struggled on.
They were gasping for
breath and nearly
exhausted.
Combined Sentence The hikers, gasping for
breath and nearly
exhausted, struggled on.
327
Separate Sentence
The Boston Red Sox won
the American League
pennant Wednesday night.
It trounced the New York
Yankees 10-3 in Game 7
of the AL Championship
Series at Yankee Stadium
and completed an
unprecedented comeback.
328
Combined Sentence
The Boston Red Sox
won the American
League pennant
Wednesday night,
trouncing the New
York Yankees 10-3 in
Game 7 of the AL
Championship Series
at Yankee Stadium
and completing an
unprecedented
comeback.
329
Separate Sentence
The ship was badly
damaged by the storm.
The ship finally reached
a safe harbor.
Combined Sentence
Badly damaged by the
storm, the ship finally
reached a safe harbor.
330
Separate Sentence Water around the island
started to recede Thursday.
This lessened the danger
to others who remained
stranded.
Combined Sentence Water around the island
started to recede
Thursday, lessening, the
danger to others who
remained stranded.
331
Separate Sentence
Globalization brings
people and institutions
in distant parts of the
world closer economically. It enhances
their opportunities to
trade goods, services
and labor.
332
Combined Sentence
Globalization brings people
and institutions in distant
parts of the world closer
economically, enhancing
their opportunities to
trade goods, services and
labor.
333
• Appositive Phrases
Separate Sentence
Combined Sentence
Neil Armstrong is best
known for his historic first
steps on the moon. Neil
Armstrong is a former U.S.
astronaut
Neil Armstrong, a former
U.S. astronaut, is best
known for his historic first
steps on the moon.
334
Separate Sentence
Chinese calligraphy is done
with a brush. Chinese
calligraphy is the oldest
form of calligraphy.
Combined Sentence
Chinese calligraphy, the
oldest form of calligraphy,
is done with a brush.
335
• Absolute Phrases
Separate Sentence
He returned, shuddering, five
minutes later. His arms were
soaked and red to the elbows.
Combined Sentence
He returned, shuddering, five
minutes later, his arms
soaked and red to the elbows.
336
Separate
Sentence
The motorcycle on the sidewalk
speeded and skidded obliquely into
a plate-glass window. The front
wheel was buckling and climbing
the brick base beneath the window.
Combined
Sentence
The motorcycle on the sidewalk
speeded and skidded obliquely into
a plate-glass window, the front
wheel buckling and climbing the
brick base beneath the window.
337
3. Using Compound Subjects, Verbs and
Predicates
Separate Sentence
Asia is home to the leopard.
Africa is home to the leopard.
Combined Sentence
Asia and Africa are home to
the leopard.
338
Separate Sentence
A volcano begins as molten
rock beneath the earth’s
surface. It gradually rises
upward.
Combined Sentence
A volcano begins as molten
rock beneath the earth’s
surface and gradually rises
upward.
339
Separate Sentence
Mrs. Braxton could sponsor
our class trip. Mrs. Braxton
could recruit parents to help
her.
Combined Sentence
Mrs. Braxton could sponsor
our class trip or recruit
parents to help her.
340
Separate Sentence
Combined Sentence
Volcanoes can create land
area. Glaciers can also create
land area. They both can
destroy land area.
Volcanoes and Glaciers can
create and destroy land
area.
341
4. Creating a Compound Sentence
Use coordination when two ideas are about
equally important.
Veins carry blood to the heart. Arteries
Separate Sentence
carry blood away from the heart.
Combined Sentence
Veins carry blood to the heart, but
arteries carry blood away from the
heart.
Veins carry blood to the heart; arteries
carry blood away from the heart.
Veins carry blood to the heart;
however arteries carry blood away
from the heart.
342
Separate Sentence
The Panama Canal is a
valuable engineering
achievement. Ships using the
canal can shorten their journeys
by thousands of miles.
Combined Sentence The Panama Canal is a
valuable engineering
achievement, for ships using
the canal can shorten their
journeys by thousands of miles.
343
5. Creating a Complex Sentence
Use subordination to help the main idea stand
out and to clarify relationships in a sentence.
Adjective Clauses
Separate Sentence
The student received a grant.
She wanted to study genetics.
Combined Sentence
The student who wanted to
study genetics received a
344
grant.
Separate Sentence
Marie Curie won the Nobel
Prize for chemistry. She
founded the Radium Institute in
Paris.
Combined Sentence
Marie Curie, who founded the
Radium Institute in Paris, won
the Nobel Prize for chemistry.
345
Separate Sentence
Here is a machine called a
respirator. The machine helps
patients breathe.
Combined Sentence
Here is a machine called a
respirator that helps patients
breathe.
346
Separate Sentence
Political campaigns need
committed and hard-working
volunteers. Political
campaigns are very exciting.
Combined Sentence
Political campaigns, which
are very exciting, need
committed and hard-working
volunteers.
347
Adverb Clauses
Separate Sentence
Sailing ships were sometimes
trapped in the Sargasso Sea.
There wasn’t enough wind to
sail.
Combined Sentence
Sailing ships were sometimes
trapped in the Sargasso Sea
when there wasn’t enough
wind to sail.
348
Separate Sentence
The soldiers stood respectfully
at attention. The flag was raised
high above the army base.
Combined Sentence
The soldiers stood
respectfully at attention while
the flag was raised high above
the army base.
349
Separate Sentence
Jerry enjoyed the New York
Philharmonic’s performance.
He usually attends rock
concerts.
Combined Sentence Jerry enjoyed the New York
Philharmonic’s performance
although he usually attends
rock concerts.
Although Jerry usually attends
rock concerts, he enjoyed the
New York Philharmonic’s
350
performance.
Separate Sentence
Children are receptive to
computers. They learn about
them at an early age.
Combined Sentence
Children are receptive to
computers because they learn
about them at an early age.
351
Noun Clauses
Separate Sentence
Someone will arrive first.
That person will get the
best seat.
Combined Sentence
Whoever arrives first will
get the best seat.
352
Separate Sentence
The players were informed.
The game had been forfeited.
Combined Sentence
The players were informed
that the game had been
forfeited.
353
Original
Our new headquarters building, which is scheduled to be
completed next year, will enable us to provide each
employee with a private office , which should significantly
improve productivity.
Better
When we move into our new headquarters building next
year, each employee will have a private office. As a result,
productivity should improve significantly.
354
Original
The results of the survey among managers that was
conducted to determine the relationship of dollars spent on
training to improved productivity last month are
summarized below.
Better
Last month we surveyed managers to determine the
correlation between training dollars and productivity. This
report summarizes the results of the survey.
355
10e Inversion
1. Complete inversion
----- + V + S
•Such was the force of the explosion that all the
windows were broken.
•So deep are their differences that few
observers think the early 2005 deadline
attainable.
356
• To make sure your hard-earned savings don't
go to waste, here are four strategies education
experts recommend.
• Speak of the devil; here comes Tom.
• There remains much room for improvement.
357
• At stake was a vast effort to remake the
program that provides health insurance for 40
million elderly and disabled Americans.
• At stake are public health standards
addressing fine pollution particles 2.5
micrometers or smaller, which lodge in
people’s lungs and blood vessels.
• At issue now is a ruling last month by the
World Trade Organization's highest panel,
which found the tariffs illegal.
358
• In the audience at the General Assembly, sat
Ahmed Chalabi, this month's president of the
Iraqi Governing Council, and President
Jacques Chirac of France, who opposes
Bush's plan for Iraq.
• With the pickup in the world economy has
come an unexpectedly high jump in global
demand for oil. Demand is up 3.5 percent
this year, Mr. Goldstein said, far more than
many experts who track oil markets predicted.
359
• On the evolutionists' side is a legal team put
together by the American Civil Liberties Union
and Americans United for Separation of Church
and State. These groups want to put intelligent
design itself on trial and discredit it so
thoroughly that no other school board would
dare authorize teaching it.
• In the medical examiner's freezer may lie the
remains of a victim who was never reported
missing
360
• Among the most politically attractive elements in the
plan is a proposal to double the use of ethanol, a cornbased fuel additive popular with farmers in midwestern
states such as Iowa, South Dakota and Minnesota.
• The good news is that there is a better sense today of
what it takes to end hunger. Among the practices being
used to help the hungry include focusing on economic
and agricultural growth, lowering population growth,
lowering HIV infection rates, improving access to water
for irrigation and creating social safety nets to ensure
that those who can't grow or buy food still get enough to
eat.
361
• We discover physics by learning how to
measure the quantities involved in physics.
Among these quantities are length, time, mass,
temperature, pressure, and electric current.
• Among the measures being discussed are
installing security camera above the front door
of every office or lab and asking students to be
more alert to outsiders inside the chemistry
building.
362
• Among the proposals being considered by the
administration was making permanent early
reporting requirements to detect any big influx of
steel into the United States.
• Among the hardest hit areas of the U.S.
economy was manufacturing, already losing
thousands of jobs each year to dramatically
cheaper labor next door in Mexico and Latin
America and across the Pacific to China and
Vietnam, as well.
363
• Among the experiments that led John Dalton to
propose the atomic theory were his studies of
mixtures of gases.
• Behind much of the opposition to the state visit
by President Bush is a feeling among many
Britons that while the part of the association
based on shared language, history, culture and
economy remains solid and enduring, the
political and diplomatic costs have become too
high.
364
• But behind them lies a detention system that
treats all prisoners as terrorists regardless of
their supposed offenses, and makes brutal
interrogations all too common.
• Also in question was exactly when Rumsfeld
informed Bush of the extent of the abuse.
• The president is a man on whom falls a heavy
responsibility, whether he likes it or not.
365
• Following are the stories of how Warner, who
will begin college in the fall, and Moore, who is
headed to law school, arrived at their decisions.
• No less sobering, commanders said, were new
reports of children playing roles in guerrilla
attacks.
• Joining us now to talk more about this is
Michael Rothman, senior energy market
specialist at Merrill Lynch. And he joins us from
his firm’s trading floor. Hi, Mike.
366
• Joining me is Reginald Dumas, the United
Nations' special adviser on Haiti.
• Lying beneath 20,000 feet of mud and rock, and
topped by more than 6,000 feet of ocean, are oil
and gas reserves that were previously
inaccessible.
• More troubling to some experts is the likelihood
of an accelerating loss of quality scientists.
367
• Also contributing to the bullish sentiment early on was
the economic data, which provided further support for
the accelerating economy and boded well for the
manufacturing sector and the state of the consumer.
• The counties in violation included most of California, a
ring of states around the Great Lakes, and a
concentration of Northeast states from the Washington,
D.C., area to Boston. Also failing the federal test are
parts of eastern Tennessee, Georgia, and North
Carolina, as well as the Dallas, Houston, and San
Antonio areas.
368
• Fueling the spring rally has been the end of the Iraqi
war, indications that the Federal Reserve will keep
interest rates low for the foreseeable future and a
few early signs that the economy may be picking up
steam.
• Also newly recommended are a vaccine against
hepatitis A, a booster shot for chickenpox, a booster
shot against whooping cough, and yearly flu shots
until a child’s fifth birthday instead of only until the
second birthday.
369
• Attached is the file you requested.
• Cut out of the process, as usual, was Colin
Powell's State Department. So were military
lawyers for the uniformed services.
• Set at the top two corners of the stage were
huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white
lights.
370
• Displayed in the glass case was a rare emerald.
• Crushed in the collision of these two grandiose
dreams are all the smaller dreams of fallen
soldiers, to raise kids and watch baseball and
grill hot dogs on the Fourth of July.
• Included in this study is the possible site location
should the construction of such a facility be
deemed feasible.
371
• "Microsoft is at or nearing a stage of maturity.
Analysts are expecting slower growth rates and
so is the market," said Michael Cohen, director
of research with Pacific American Securities.
• Although obesity can increase the risk of a host
of health problems, skeptics argue, so do
smoking and high cholesterol, which are not
considered diseases.
372
• As those wholesale prices went up, so did
pump prices.
• As Microsoft goes, so does the PC sector.
• As violence deepens, so does pessimism.
373
• As growth increases, so will the pressure for
firms to expand their payrolls.
• If ethanol can be made cheaply from cellulose,
so can a lot of other bulk chemicals.
374
• Analysts say the cost of crude is now a less
important factor in U.S. gasoline prices than
are the high consumer demand, limited refining
capacity and concerns about possible
shortages in blending components for
reformulated gasoline.
• Manual laborers are more strongly opposed to
immigrants than are white-collar workers,
whose jobs are not seriously threatened by
outsiders that swarm into this country.
375
• It was recently reported that many young
parents today plan to have fewer children
than did their parents or grandparents.
• Communication satellites transmit information
more reliably than do ordinary short wave
radios.
376
• Henry James is as famous as is his
philosopher brother William.
• They point out that the effects of the
refinancing boom are beginning to wane, as
are the effects of the tax cut.
• In addition to energy stocks, producers of
other raw materials are classic hedges against
inflation, as are companies that own valuable
real estate.
377
• Nearly 40 percent of engineering faculty
members in the United States are foreign-born,
as are a third of American Nobel Prize winners.
• The ambassador will be extremely influential,
as will U.S. advisers who will remain attached
to Iraqi ministries.
378
• Being a leader in the new Iraq is a dangerous job.
One member of the national Governing Council has
been assassinated, as have the deputy mayor of
Baghdad and judges in Najaf and Mosul.
• If protected properly, a sewing machine usually lasts
as long as does a typewriter.
• Mr. Love plans to testify at today's hearing, as do a
number of consumer advocates and members of
AIDS groups who have protested Abbott's pricing of
Norvir.
379
2. Half inversion
Be + S; Do/Does/Did + S +V; Have/Has/Had
+ S + P.P.
; Modal + S + V
•Should the war drag on for a long time, it would
have a disastrous effect.
•Had I been there, I could have done something to
help.
380
• Rarely have I eaten better food.
• Hardly ever does he come to class on time.
• Seldom do I sleep pass seven o’clock.
• There’s an old adage that no one in Washington
can tell the difference between $1 million and
$1 billion. Seldom has that Beltway learning
disability been more vividly demonstrated than
in the weeks since Katrina.
381
• Not until then, he added, would the United States
transfer authority from the American-led occupation
to Iraq itself.
• Not once could President Bush admit to a concrete
mistake on either the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11,
2001, or the invasion of Iraq under false pretenses
and the current deadly chaos there.
• "Not since the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights was adopted in 1948 has there been such a
sustained attack on (its) values and principles," Khan
told the press conference.
382
• Never has one of my doctors said, "Sorry, I have to
go, no more time." They have always been willing to
talk with me as long as I need them. That is
invaluable.
• Never will I do that again.
• The Maine lobstermen labor long on capricious seas,
but these are their glory days. Never in modern times
have they harvested so many red-clawed lobsters.
383
• "Never has the Democratic Party been more
united than it is today," Kerry said. "Never
have we been more poised to win a victory in
November.“
• Never have stress levels for high school
students been so high about where they get in,
or about the idea that if you don’t get into a
glamour college, your life is somehow ruined.
384
• Never, other than during the two world wars, has
there been such a concerted effort by opinionforming institutions to indoctrinate Americans, 83
percent of whom now call global warming a " serious
problem."
• No longer are a Porsche in the driveway, a country
club membership and high-speed Internet access
considered necessities.
385
• Nowhere is the impact of this troubling pattern
more evident than in the oil industry.
• Nowhere has this newfound confidence been
on display more than in China’s rapidly
improving international relations.
386
• The principles of open competition, however,
dictate that the company with the best product,
marketed most effectively, ought to win.
Nowhere would there be an asterisk that says
if you can't win fair and square with customers,
go complain to every court you can find until
you snatch victory.
387
• However, the chairman of the Joint Intelligence
Committee, John Scarlett, assured the ISC that he
did not "at any time feel under pressure, nor was
he asked to include material that he did not
believe ought to be included in the dossier,"
Thursday's report said.
388
• Bush's speech was not nearly as discouraging
as some had feared, but nor did it move the
Iraq controversy any closer to a viable solution.
• He did not speak, nor did he move.
389
• Four Cabinet members, appearing at an unusual
joint news conference, said the administration
would not accept a petition filed last month by
the AFL-CIO calling for stiff tariffs on Chinese
imports to punish China for allegedly exploiting
workers. Nor, they said, would they accept a
petition readied by some industry associations
that would threaten China with sanctions to force
a rise in the value of the Chinese currency.
390
• He would not say whether the United States
agreed with Israel's contention that the site
was a training camp for terrorists, nor would
he say whether the Bush administration would
veto a U.N. resolution condemning Israel's
airstrike.
• "They were not involved in leaking classified
information, nor did they condone it,"
391
McClellan said.
• Citizen soldiers can no longer expect to do only
the minimum training — one weekend a month
and a two-week session each summer — nor
expect to rarely, if ever, get called to active duty.
• "Occidental does not have the complications of a
refining and marketing segment, nor is it of a scale
that forces it to take multi-billion-dollar bets to see
growth," Grubert said, as the majors have in
places such as Russia and the Middle East.
392
• Harlow said that "the committee has yet to
take the opportunity to hear a
comprehensive explanation of how and
why we reached our conclusions," nor has
it accepted an offer made Wednesday by
Tenet to hear from him and senior
intelligence officials.
393
• "The president grieves the loss of every
American soldier," said a White House
spokesman. "He sends a note to the families,
but beyond that he cannot issue a statement
at the time every soldier dies, nor can he go to
every memorial service that he'd like to go to.
394
• Unlike the programs to eradicate smallpox and
polio -- the only WHO efforts remotely
comparable -- this goal is not one that when
reached will allow public health officials to
move on to other tasks. Nor is it achieved
through bursts of intense effort, such as
investigating disease outbreaks and mounting
vaccination campaigns.
395
• I don't have a lot of faith that they can expand
their market share considerably, nor am I
impressed with the demographics over the
next five to 10 years.
• Bush offered no hint of his administration's
preference for those leaders, nor did he say
who would choose them.
396
• There is nothing wrong with political passion.
Nor is there anything wrong with criticizing the
administration's conduct of the war.
• "We have set a deadline of June 30. It is
important that we meet that deadline. As a
proud and independent people, Iraqis do not
support an indefinite occupation and neither
does America," Mr. Bush said, warning any
change in this deadline would fuel suspicion of
American objectives in Iraq.
397
• Not only are we concerned with apprehending
those individuals who commit computer crimes
but also in limiting the damage done by these
criminals to private industry and the public.
• Not only do you need to be involved in a lot of
different things, but you need to be the head
because you need to show a commitment.
398
• Not only does continued strife in the Middle East
increase the possibility of a disruption in oil
supplies, but cheap oil is steadily being used up.
That means that over the next decade oil prices
should inevitably rise.
• Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality protein,
but it also contains complex carbohydrates that
don't raise blood sugar as high as more
processed carbohydrates. It has fiber, folic acid (a
key B vitamin), healthy fat and antioxidants that
399
help protect against cancer.
Not only did China design, build and launch the
satellite for Nigeria, but it also provided a huge
loan to help pay the bill.
400
• Only then can they find a cure.
• Only yesterday did I understand his
predicament.
• Only in this way can we learn English well.
• Only by working hard can we make substantial
contributions to scientific discovery.
401
• Only when the public were alerted to the problem
by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) did
industry suddenly find substitutes for
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
• Reports in China have repeatedly hinted that only
if China gets its way on chicken exports to the
United States will Beijing lift its four-year-old ban
on importing U.S. beef.
402
• Last week, China urged the US to stop selling
weapons to Taiwan and honor its commitment
to the “One China” policy. “Only by doing so
can the interests of both China and the US be
safeguarded and peace and stability across the
Taiwan Strait be maintained,” a foreign ministry
spokesman said.
• Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
403
• Only when people can be satisfied with what
they have, will they be able to feel complete
happiness.
• Only after these life stages (i.e., getting
through school, getting married, having young
kids, and then sending their kids to college) do
"people start to think seriously about saving or
putting money into their 401(k)s. The problem
is if you put it off that long, then it's very hard to
get big piles" of savings.
404
• So diligently does he work that he often forgets
to eat and sleep.
• So entrenched have hatreds become that
neither side believes the other will ever accept
their existence.
• So entranced with the video games do young
students become that parents often have to
restrict their children’s allowances to limit their
play.
405
If you can keep a secret, so can I.
406
10f Ellipsis
• In Illinois, there are seventeen such
institutions; in Ohio, twenty-two; in Indiana,
three.
• John elected to attend Stanford; Mary,
Harvard.
• Some were punctual; others, late.
• One manager comes from UNC, another from
407
Duke, and a third from GW.
• From its inception, Lake Powell, the nation’s
second-largest artificial lake, after Lake Mead
in Nevada, was a powerful symbol across the
West. Some saw it as a statement of human
will and know-how, others of arrogance.
• The weather here gets more humid than (it
gets) in my hometown.
408
• This year, we’ve gotten much less rain than
(we got) last year.
• Many children respond better to rewards than
punishments.
• Our reaction was faster than (it was or we)
anticipated.
• The war could last much longer than originally
predicted.
409
In Lu's view, the shame, stigma and silence
surrounding mental health treatment among
Asian immigrants appears to be greater than
among other ethnic groups.
High school students who take this core
curriculum – four years of English and three
each of mathematics, science and social
studies – are better prepared for college.
410
• David likes winter as much as (he likes)
summer.
• Our goal is (to) maximize the reaction yield.
• Your president (’s) calling us a rogue nation
and disrespecting our 5,000 years of
civilization is offensive. How many years of
civilization do you have?
411

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