Topic 6 * Alternative Sources of Energy

Report
GEOG 6 – Resources and Energy
Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
Topic 6 – Alternative Sources of Energy
A – The Search for Options
B – High Intensity Sources
C – Low Intensity Sources
Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography
A. THE SEARCH FOR OPTIONS
1.
2.
3.
Emergence of Alternative Sources
Fuel Efficiency
The Dominance of the Automobile
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Emergence of Alternative Sources
■ Alternative energy
• Supplement / replace an energy source with a new source:
• The existing energy source judged to be no longer sustainable.
• New source judged more convenient than the previous, but
comes with its own drawback.
• Have always existed:
• Wood to coal.
• Whale oil to petroleum.
• From non-renewable to renewable.
• Received increasing attention since the first oil crisis in 1973:
• Attention varies with fluctuations in the price of oil.
• Since 2005, renewed attention because of a surge in oil prices (e.g. wind,
solar).
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Emergence of Alternative Sources
■ Stocks and flows
• Stock: Existing capital accumulation.
• Flows: The nature and extent of new capital investments.
■ Fossil fuels stocks
• Dominate energy supply markets.
• Dominance likely to remain on the years to come.
■ Alternative energy flows
• Receiving a growing quantity of flows.
• These will eventually expand the alternative energy stocks.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel
Burning by Fuel Type, 1900-2009
4,000
3,500
3,000
Coal
Oil
Natural Gas
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
1900
1904
1908
1912
1916
1920
1924
1928
1932
1936
1940
1944
1948
1952
1956
1960
1964
1968
1972
1976
1980
1984
1988
1992
1996
2000
2004
2008
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Average Global Temperature and World Carbon
Emissions From Fossil Fuel Burning, 1800-2009
9,000
14.8
8,000
Million Tons of Carbon
14.6
7,000
Average global temperature
14.4
6,000
14.2
5,000
14
4,000
13.8
3,000
13.6
2,000
13.4
1,000
13.2
2000
1990
1980
1970
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870
1860
1850
1840
1830
1820
1810
13
1800
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Energy Efficiency
■ Transportation
• Minimize traveling distances (commuting, leisure freight).
• Improve fuel economy of vehicles.
• Shift from petroleum.
■ Buildings
• Temperature control systems (heating, cooling, ventilation).
• Insulation.
• Lighting and appliances.
■ Industry
• Product life cycle.
• Re-use and recycling.
• Improve industrial processes.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Average Gasoline Consumption for New Vehicles,
United States, 1972-2009 (in miles per gallon)
35
30
Cars
Light Trucks
Average
25
20
15
10
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Light-Duty Vehicles Sales in the United States, 19752008 (in 1,000s)
18,000
Trucks
16,000
Cars
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Vehicle Sales, United States, 1931-2009
12,000
10,000
10
Cars (Thousands)
9
Trucks (Thousands)
8
Median Age of Cars (Years)
7
8,000
6
6,000
5
4
4,000
3
2
2,000
1
-1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
0
2010
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Typical Energy Use for a Car
8%
12%
Momentum
5%
Exhaust
13%
Cylinder cooling
Engine friction
33%
Transmission and axles
Braking
29%
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Alternative Sources of Energy for Transportation
Source
Advantages
Drawbacks
Biodiesel
Renewable; biodegradable;
domestically produced; improved
lubricity in engine; reduced air
pollutant emissions.
May congeal at low temperatures; may damage engine
components; lower fuel economy; non- renewable fuels
are used in production; limited availability; may increase
nitrous oxide emissions.
Ethanol
Renewable; domestically produced; may
reduce harmful air pollutants.
Non-renewable fossil fuels are used in its production;
slightly decreases fuel economy.
Natural gas /
propane
Reduced air pollutant emissions.
Non-renewable fossil fuel; reduced driving range; limited
availability; larger fuel tanks.
Electricity
Zero tailpipe emissions; widely available.
High vehicle and battery costs; limited range and
performance; electricity production mainly from nonrenewable sources.
Hybrid electric
Increased fuel economy and reduced
pollution; good range and performance
Primarily fueled with non-renewable fossil fuels.
Synthetic fuels
Abundant supply exists.
Significant environmental damages from extraction and
processing; high carbon emissions; high production
costs.
Hydrogen
Zero tailpipe emissions.
Potential use of fossil fuels to produce; high cost of
vehicle.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
B. HIGH INTENSITY SOURCES
1.
2.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Biomass
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
■ Hydrogen
•
•
•
•
•
Considered to be the cleanest fuel.
Compose 90% of the matter of the universe.
Non polluting (combustion emits only water and heat).
Highest level of energy content.
Almost three times more than methane.
■ Nuclear fusion
• Currently researched but without much success.
• It offers unlimited potential.
• Not realistically going to be a viable source of energy in the
foreseeable future.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
■ Fuel cells
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Fuel
Fuel Cell
Catalytic conversion
Water
Electricity
• Convert fuel energy (such as
hydrogen) to electric energy.
• No combustion is involved.
• Composed of an anode and a
cathode.
• Fuel is supplied to the anode.
• Oxygen is supplied to the
cathode.
• Electrons are stripped from a
reaction at the anode and
attracted to form another
reaction at the cathode.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
■ Storage issues
• Hydrogen is a highly combustive gas.
• Find a way to safely store it, especially in a vehicle.
■ Delivery issues
•
•
•
•
Distribution from producers to consumers.
Production and storage facilities.
Structures and methods for transporting hydrogen.
Fueling stations for hydrogen-powered applications.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
■ Hydrogen production
Fossil Fuels
Steam
Reforming
Water
Electrolysis
• Not naturally occurring; secondary
energy resources.
• Producing sufficient quantities to
satisfy the demand.
• Extraction from fossil fuels:
• From natural gas.
• Steam reforming.
• Electrolysis of water:
Biomass
Pyrolysis
• Electricity from fossil fuels not a
environmentally sound alternative.
• Electricity from solar or wind energy
is a better alternative.
• Pyrolysis of the biomass:
• Decomposing by heat in an oxygenreduced atmosphere.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
■ Main potential uses
• Transportation:
• Most likely replacement for the internal combustion engine.
• Efficiency levels are between 55% and 65%.
• Stationary power stations:
• Connected to the electric grid; supplemental power and backup.
• Grid-independent generator.
• Telecommunications:
• Reliable power for telecom systems (e.g. cell phone towers, internet
servers).
• Micro Power:
• For consumer electronics (e.g. cell phones and portable computers).
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Biomass
■ Nature
• Biomass energy involves the growing of crops for fuel rather than
for food.
• Crops can be burned directly to release heat or be converted to
useable fuels such methane, ethanol, or hydrogen.
• Has been around for many millennia.
• Not been used as a large-scale energy source:
• 14% of all energy used comes from biomass fuels.
• 65% of all wood harvested is burned as a fuel.
• 2.4 billion people rely on primitive biomass for cooking and heating.
• Important only in developing countries.
• Asia and Africa: 75% of wood fuels use.
• US: 5% comes from biomass sources.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Energy Consumption, Solid biomass (includes fuel
wood) 2001
Mexico
Myanmar
France
Philippines
Canada
Sudan
Kenya
Tanzania
South Africa
Thailand
Congo, Dem Rep
Ethiopia
Viet Nam
Pakistan
Brazil
Indonesia
United States
Nigeria
India
China
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Global Biomass
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Biomass
■ Biofuels
• Fuel derived from organic matter.
• Development of biomass conversion technologies:
• Alcohols (ethanol) and methane the most useful.
• First generation biofuels:
• Food-based.
• Plant materials like corn, starch or sugar from cane.
• Second generation biofuels:
• Cellulosic based.
• Waste materials like plant stalks composed of cellulose.
■ Requirements for sustainable biomass use
• Production of biomass through low input levels:
• Labor, fuel, fertilizers and pesticides.
• Production of biomass on low value land.
• Low energy of conversion into biofuels.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Biomass Energy Sources
Sources
Fuels
Uses
Forest products
Wood, woodchips
Direct burning or charcoal
Agricultural residues
Husks, shells, stems
Direct burning
Energy crops
Sugarcane, corn
Ethanol, gasification
Trees
Palm oil
Biodiesel
Animal residues
Manure
Methane
Urban wastes
Waste paper, organic wastes
Direct burning, methane
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Global Ethanol Production, 1975-2009 (million
gallons)
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Biomass
■ Potential and drawbacks
• Competing with other agricultural products for land.
• Could contribute to reducing carbon emissions while providing a
cheap source of renewable energy:
• Burning biofuels does create carbon emissions.
• The burned biomass is that which removed carbon from the atmosphere
through photosynthesis.
• Does not represent a real increase in atmospheric carbon.
• Genetic engineering:
• Create plants that more efficiently capture solar energy.
• Increasing leaf size and altering leaf orientation with regard to the sun.
• Conversion technology research:
• Seeking to enhance the efficiency rate of converting biomass into energy.
• From the 20-25% range up to 35-45% range.
• Would render it more cost-competitive with traditional fuels.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
C. LOW INTENSITY SOURCES
1.
2.
3.
Solar Energy
Wind Power
Geothermal Energy
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Solar Energy
■ Definition
• Radiant energy emitted by the sun.
• Large amount of solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface.
• 10 weeks of solar energy equivalent to all known fossil fuel
reserves.
■ Advantages
•
•
•
•
Widely available energy source.
Limited environmental footprint.
Limited maintenance.
Affordable.
■ Drawbacks
• Limitations in temporal availability (e.g. night).
• Reconversion of existing facilities.
• Can be capital intensive for large projects.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Solar Energy
Level of insolation
(latitude & precipitation)
Solar cells
Sun
Mirrors
Concentration
Water
Evaporation
Conversion
Steam
Turbine
Electricity
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. The Global Solar Energy Balance
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Global Solar Energy Potential
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Solar Energy
■ Photovoltaic systems
• Semiconductors to convert solar radiation into electricity.
• Better suited for limited uses that do not require large amounts of
electricity.
• Costs have declined substantially:
• 9-10 cents per kilowatt-hour.
• Compared to about 3-5 cents for coal fired electrical power.
• Economies of scale could then be realized in production of the
necessary equipment.
• Roofs of buildings (e.g. warehouses) suitable locations to
effectively install solar panels.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Photovoltaic System
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. World Photovoltaic Annual Production and Price
1975-2009
12,000
90
80
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
70
Production (Megawatts)
Prices (Dollars per Watt)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Photovoltaic Production by Country or Region, 19952009 (Megawatts)
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
Others
United States
Germany
Taiwan
Japan
China
2,000
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Solar Energy
■ Solar thermal systems
• Parabolic reflectors to focus solar radiation onto water pipes:
• Concentrating the sunlight 1000 times.
• 212-750F (100-400C), Generating steam that then power turbines.
• Require ample, direct, bright sunlight.
• Drawback of the solar thermal systems is their dependence on
direct sunshine, unlike the photovoltaic cells.
■ Limitations
•
•
•
•
Inability to utilize solar energy effectively.
A record of 25% efficiency rate reached in 2008.
Low concentration of the resource.
Need a very decentralized infrastructure to capture energy.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Solar Thermal System
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Wind Power
Sun
Heat
Air
Pressure
differences
Wind
Major prevalent wind
systems
Wind mills
Site suitability
Fans
Turbine
Electricity
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Wind Power
■ Potential use
• Growing efficiency of wind turbines.
• 75% of the world’s usage is in Western Europe:
• Provided electricity to some 28 million Europeans in 2002.
• Germany, Denmark (18%) and the Netherlands.
• New windfarms are located at sea along the coast:
• The wind blows harder and more steadily.
• Does not consume valuable land.
• No protests against wind parks marring the landscape.
• United States:
• The USA could generate 25% of its energy needs from wind power by
installing wind farms on just 1.5% of the land.
• North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas have enough harnessable wind energy
to meet electricity needs for the whole country.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Wind Power
• Farms are a good place to implement wind mills:
• A quarter of a acre can earn about $2,000 a year in royalties from wind
electricity generation.
• That same quarter of an acre can only generate $100 worth or corn.
• Farmland could simultaneously be used for agriculture and energy
generation.
• Wind energy could be used to produce hydrogen.
■ Limitations
• Extensive infrastructure and land requirements.
• 1980: 40 cents per kwh.
• 2001: 3-4 cents per kwh.
• Less reliable than other sources of energy.
• Inexhaustible energy source that can supply both electricity and
fuel.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Evolution of Wind Turbine Technology
6000
140
5000
120
100
4000
80
3000
60
2000
Rated capacity (kW)
Rotor Diameter (m)
40
1000
20
0
0
1980 1985 1990 1996 1999 2000 2005 2008
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. World Wind Energy Generating Capacity, 1980-2009
(in megawatts)
180,000
160,000
140,000
Cumulative Installed Capacity
Net Annual Addition
120,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Cumulative Installed Wind Power Capacity in Top Ten
Countries and the World, 1980-2009 (Megawatts)
40,000
35,000
30,000
U.S.
Germany
China
Spain
India
Italy
France
U.K.
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
2. Cumulative Installed Offshore Wind Power Capacity
by Country, 2009 (Megawatts)
Japan
Norway
China
Ireland
Finland
Belgium
Germany
Sweden
Netherlands
Denmark
United Kingdom
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
3. Geothermal Energy
■ Geothermal plants
• 2-4 miles below the earth's surface, rock temperature well above
boiling point.
• Some areas where the natural heat of the earth’s interior is much
closer to the surface and can be more readily tapped.
• Closely associated with tectonic activity.
• Hydrogeothermal:
• Taping the aquifer.
• Fracturing the rocks, introducing cold water, and recovering the resulting
hot water or steam which could power turbines and produce electricity.
• Injection well:
• In situations where there is no aquifers (hot dry plants).
• Drilling a pipe to about 5,000 meters (16,000 feet).
• Injecting a liquid (often water) through the pipe.
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
3. World Geothermal Power in Installed Capacity, 19502009 (in megawatts)
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
1950
1952
1954
1956
1958
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2007
0
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
3. Geothermal Energy
■ Geothermal heat pumps
Winter
House
5 feet
55o F
Summer
House
• Promising alternative to
heating/cooling systems.
• Ground below the frost line
(about 5 feet) is kept around
55oF year-round.
• During winter:
• The ground is warmer than the
outside.
• Heat can be pumped from the
ground to the house.
• During summer:
• The ground is cooler than the
outside.
• Heat can be pumped from the
house to the ground.
5 feet
55o F
© Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue

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