Poetry “The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” – William Wordsworth, Lyrical Ballads It looked extremely rocky for the Mudville nine that day; The score stood two to four, with but an inning left to play. So, when Cooney died at second, and Burrows did the same, A pallor wreathed the features of the patrons of the game. And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air, And Casey stood a watching it in haughty grandeur there. Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped; “That ain't my style,” said Casey. “Strike one,” the umpire said. A straggling few got up to go, leaving there the rest, With that hope which springs eternal within the human breast. For they thought: “If only Casey could get a whack at that,” They'd put even money now, with Casey at the bat. From the benches, black with people, there went up a muffled roar, Like the beating of the storm waves on the stern and distant shore. “Kill him! kill the umpire!” shouted someone on the stand; And it's likely they'd have killed him had not Casey raised his hand. But Flynn preceded Casey, and likewise so did Blake, And the former was a pudd'n and the latter was a fake. So on that stricken multitude a deathlike silence sat; For there seemed but little chance of Casey's getting to the bat. With a smile of Christian charity great Casey's visage shone; He stilled the rising tumult, he made the game go on; He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the spheroid flew; But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire said, “strike two.” But Flynn let drive a “single,” to the wonderment of all. And the much-despised Blakey “tore the cover off the ball.” And when the dust had lifted, and they saw what had occurred, There was Blakey safe at second, and Flynn a-huggin' third. “Fraud!” cried the maddened thousands, and the echo answered “Fraud!” But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed; They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles strain, And they knew that Casey wouldn't let the ball go by again. Then from the gladdened multitude went up a joyous yell— It rumbled in the mountaintops, it rattled in the dell; It struck upon the hillside and rebounded on the flat; For Casey, mighty Casey was advancing to the bat. There was ease in Casey's manner as he stepped into his place, There was pride in Casey's bearing and a smile on Casey's face; And when responding to the cheers he lightly doffed his hat No stranger in the crowd could doubt 'twas Casey at the bat. The sneer is gone from Casey's lips, his teeth are clenched in hate, He pounds with cruel vengance his bat upon the plate; And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go, And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey's blow. Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright, The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light; And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout, But there is no joy in Mudville: Mighty Casey has struck out. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt, Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt; - “Casey at the Bat” by Ernst Lawrence Thayer Then when the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip, Defiance glanced in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip. Types of Rhyme • Internal rhyme – a rhyme within a single line of poetry. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. • External rhyme – when the last words of two lines rhyme. For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore. Nameless here for evermore. Narrative Poetry Tells a story Has a plot, characters, setting, and theme like a short story Tends to be longer than other types of poetry Each stanza of the poem usually has the same number of lines Lines may or may not rhyme Repetition In poetry… The use of a phrase or word over and over throughout the course of a poem Refrain – a word or phrase that appears in the same position in all or many of the stanzas of the poem Chorus – several lines repeated at certain points in the poem Has the effect of contributing to the music of the poetry, emphasizing important ideas and establishing mood and tone The Ballad A poem that tells a story, usually of a single historical or legendary person Usually made up of four line stanzas; lines will often be 6 or 8 syllables each Stanzas usually have the same rhythm and rhyme scheme throughout the entire poem (abcb, aabb or abab) Often set to music Dramatic Poetry Poetry in which the speaker is clearly someone other than the poet - Dialogue in which more than one character speaks - Monologue Lyric Poetry Express their thoughts and feelings in a brief but musical way Usually a defined meter Closely related to song, often accompanied by it Meter The basic rhythmic structure of verses (which syllables are stressed, which are unstressed, how many per line) Scansion - the analysis of the metric structure of a poem The Song Of Hiawatha By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow By the shores of Gitche Gumee, Bright before it beat the water, By the shining Big-Sea-Water, Beat the clear and sunny water, Stood the wigwam of Nokomis, Beat the clear and sunny water, Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis. Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water. Dark behind it rose the forest, Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, Rose the firs with cones upon them; “The Charge of the Light Brigade” By Alfred, Lord Tennyson Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. “Forward the Light Brigade” Was there a man dismayed? Not though the soldier knew Someone had blundered. Slant Rhyme Also called “half rhyme” or “near rhyme” When there is consonance on the final consonants of the two words involved (generally at the end of a line of poetry) AKA words that “sort of” rhyme I.E: “ill” and “shell”; “dropped” and “wept” Sounds like… Alliteration - The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers / a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked Assonance – repetition of vowel sounds Do you like blue? Consonance – repetition of consonant sounds Rap rejects my tape deck, ejects projectile/ Whether Jew or gentile I rank top percentile Parallelism The use of a similar construction for one or more sentences/lines of poetry for a lyrical effect "The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessing; the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries." –Winston Churchill Figurative Language Language that uses figures of speech Has the effect of making something intangible tangible, helping others understand the comparison Metaphor: compares one thing to another (often implied) - Genius is a fountain Simile: compares one thing to another using like or as - This bread is like rubber Personification: gives human characteristics to something nonhuman - The sun is a wizard Tenor = target (subject to which qualities are attributed); Vehicle = source (subject from which attributes are borrowed) * TENOR is VEHICLE The Ode A form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse, originally popular in ancient Greece where odes were performed by a chorus - An address - Serious tone - Composed of the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode Diction I.E. Word choice Denotation – the literal meaning of a word Connotation – the associations made with a particular word An important element of establishing tone Poetic diction – the language appropriate for poetry (often uses an elevated vocabulary, simile, metaphor and other types of figurative language, loaded adjectives and adverbs) - Imagery = description that appeals to the 5 senses; a poet’s use of words to create mental pictures that convey experience - Onomatopoeia = words that imitate the sound they are describing “The Jabberwock” – John Tenniel Haiku A Japanese form of poetry First and third lines have five syllables each; the second line has seven syllables What is unsaid is more important than what is said Concrete Poetry Poetry in which the words are arranged to look like, or suggest, something about the subject being presented. Brainstorm: which subjects would lend themselves to forms of concrete poetry? l(a - ee cummings l(a le af fa ll s) one l iness Fire and Ice by Robert Frost Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice.