Slide 1

Report
Understanding Other Cultures
What is Culture?
 Culture



Scholars have defined culture in more than
160 ways.
Culture is learned, shared and transmitted
from one generation to the next.
Culture is the ‘collective programming of
the mind’.
What is Culture?
 Most anthropologists agree




Culture is learned, not innate.
The various aspects of culture are
interrelated.
Culture is shared.
Culture defines the boundaries of different
groups.
Hofstede Dimensions





Power Distance
Individualism-Collectivism
Masculinity-Femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance
Long-term-Short-term Orientation
Large versus Small Power
Distance
 Large Power Distance


Employees believe their supervisors are
right even when they are wrong.
Employees do not take any initiative in
making non-routine decisions.
 Small Power Distance

A participative management style of
leadership is likely to be productive for this
types of organization.
Power Distance
Position
1
15/16
38
42/44
51
53
Country or
Region
Malaysia
France
USA
Germany
Denmark
Austria
Points
104
68
40
35
18
11
Individualism versus
Collectivism
 Individualism


People are only supposed to look after themselves
and their immediate family.
Organizations emphasize individual decision
making.
 Collectivism


People belong to groups that are supposed to look
after them in exchange for loyalty.
Organizations are likely to rely on group decision
making.
Individualism-Collectivism
Position
Points
1
2
Country or
Region
USA
Australia
3
Great Britain
89
15
Germany
67
50
Venezuela
12
53
Guatemala
6
91
90
Masculinity versus Femininity
 Masculinity

The degree to which dominant values in a society
emphasize assertiveness, acquisition of money
and status, and achievement.
 Femininity

The degree to which dominant values in a society
emphasize people relationships, concern for
others, and the overall quality of life.
Masculinity-Femininity
Position
Points
1
2
Country or
Region
Japan
Austria
3
Venezuela
73
9/10
Germany
66
15
USA
62
53
Sweden
5
95
93
Strong versus Weak
Uncertainty Avoidance
 Strong Uncertainty Avoidance


Employees tend to stay with their
organizations for a long time.
High resistance to organizational change is
expected among these employees.
 Weak Uncertainty Avoidance

Employees tend to change jobs more
frequently.
Uncertainty Avoidance
Position
Points
1
10/15
Country or
Region
Greece
France
29
Germany
65
43
USA
46
47/48
Great Britain
35
53
Singapore
8
112
86
Long-term/Short-term Orientation
Position
Points
1
2
Country or
Region
China
Hong Kong
3
Taiwan
87
14
Germany
31
17
USA
29
23
Pakistan
00
118
96
HOFSTEDE Country Comparisons
Country
Power
Distance
Individualism
Masculinity
UncertaintyAvoidance
Germany
35
67
66
65
USA
40
91
62
46
Sweden
31
71
5
29
France
68
71
43
86
Matrix: Power Distance/Individualism
•Great Britain
Individualism
•USA
•Canada
•Germany
•Austria
•Sweden
•Spain
•France
•Italy
•China
•Japan
•Mexico
Power Distance
Matrix: Power Distance/Uncertainty Avoidance
UncertaintyAvoidance
•Germany
•France
•Austria
•Belgium
•Sweden
•Great Britain
•Italy
•USA
•Spain
•Canada
•Greece
Power Distance
Cultural Analysis of the UK
Cultural
Dimension
Management
Issues
UK
Culture
Power Distance
LOW
Organizational Structure
Status Symbols
Role of Manager
Relatively Flat
Relatively Unimportant
Facilitator
Uncertainty Avoidance
LOW
Corporate Plans
Competition
Control Systems
Risk
Seen as Guidelines
Seen as Advantageous
Loose
Take
Individualism
HIGH
Decision-Making
Reward Systems
Ethics/Values
Organizational Concern
Individual
Merit-Based
Universalism
Employee Looks After Self
Masculinity
HIGH
Valued Rewards
Networking
Interpersonal Focus
Basis fro Motivation
Money, Rewards
Important for Performance
Task-Oriented
Ambition – Getting Ahead
The Role of Time






Every culture has their ‘Time Language’
Life Rhythm: slow or fast?
Punctuality: valued or not?
Lead Time: long or short?
Time Perspective: Past or Future?
Daily Time: cultural norms?
Life Rhythm: Examples of Fast and
Slow Communication
Slow
Fast





Magazines
Memos/Emails
Videos
TV
Use of First Names in
the USA





Books
Letters
Art/Theatre
Print Media
Use of Formality in other
Cultures
Monochronic/Polychronic Cultures
Orientation Towards Past, Present & Future
High and Low Context Cultures
High/Low Context
How much of the entire array of communication stimuli is
meaningful for the conversation:
 Cultural Scale:
Japanese...Arab...Mexican...Italian...French...English...
American...German


Professional Scale:

HR…Marketing...R&D...Technical...Engineers...Finance
Regional or Cultural
Differences






Child Labor – Good or Bad?
Religious Beliefs – Business Impact?
Expatriates – Trials and Tribulations
Women – Glass Ceiling
Compensation & Benefits – Leveling
the Playing Field
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act –
Where do you Draw the Line?
Child Labor Still Exists




Who? – Walmart, Nike, Disney, Gap,
McDonalds.
Where? – 61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, 7% in
Latin America.
How Many? ~250 million children between
5 and 14 work in developing countries; 120
million of them full-time.
How Much? – On average, these children
are paid about 30 cents an hour.
Major Religions of the World

Hinduism



Confucianism


Guides Personal and Social Behavior, Jen and Li
Buddhism



Caste System
Sacred Cow
Breaking the Laws of Karma
Samsura – Endless Cycle of Rebirth
Islam



No separation of Church and State
Five Pillars of Faith
Sunnis/Shiites Split

similar documents