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Report
2012 Keio SDM Spring/ Fundamentals of SDM
Why do we think together ?
Brainstorming, KJ method, Causal Loop Diagram
May, 2012
Toshiyuki Yasui, Ph.D. ([email protected])
Keio Advanced Research Center, Keio University
1
Sharing From Homework
• What kind of problems do you want to solve?
Categorize problems to select what problem your
team wants to solve.
• What kind of solutions do you have? (Homework:
Solo brainstorming: Ten ideas each and share ideas in
the team)
Toshiro
Taizo
ENERGY
SECURITY
Have you ever joined in
such a workshop ?
Forced to conclude at what
Organizers expected.
3
Have you ever joined in
such a workshop ?
Talk, talk, and talk.
No way-out. Get tired.
4
Why do we have a workshop ?
• We want to be involved in something in nature.
• We wants by ourselves to feel, sense and discover
something.
• We want to connect with others, with the nature,
and with the society.
• A facilitation* is to:
– Organize the platform,
– Connect the people,
– Draw something,
– Promote something.
(写真出所) 慶應SDM提供
(*support and enhance dialogues in a workshop )
(出所) 中野民夫(2003:32-36)
5
What image you share from this ?
6
What image you share from this ?
7
What image you share from this ?
8
Information and Experience
Information comes from experience.
No analyzed information gets me excited.
A information means for me like a feeling that
you and I sense at the same time the touch of
the same seat without considering.
(出所)深澤直人(2005:214-215)
9
See as a ‘stranger’
• What thought and anxiety can you see ?
(写真出所)2012年1月23日、筆者撮影
10
See as a ‘stranger’
• What thought and anxiety can you see ?
(写真出所)2012年1月23日、筆者撮影
11
Brainstorming: Cliché
Rush into the similar idea and end.
We have tips for a successful
Brainstorming session.
12
True Significance of Brainstorming
• A meeting to share the improvised idea.
– Osborne’s 4 principles for Brainstorming (Clark (1961))
• 1. Not be a critic, 2. Free and spontaneous, 3. The more the
better, 4. Do not ask for improvement by combination
• 2 types of brainstorming:
– Steam-shovel type,
– Spade type
• It is NOT a conference for free and simple idea-raising (Clark (1958))
– Participants shall consider deep in one theme and connect idea for
it.
• Identify the network and connectivity of ideas
– Brainstorming is in essence the spade type session.
– Categorizing and organizing ideas after the session is important.
– Significance on making ideas visionary and sharing them.
13
Stanford d School: Eight Principles of
Successful Brainstorming
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Defer Judgment.
Go for volume.
One conversation at a time.
Be visual.
Headline your idea.
Build on the ideas of others.
Stay on topic.
Encourage wild ideas.
(Source) Stanford d School(2009).
14
Existence of Collective Intelligence
Proved Scientifically
• Article in Science October 29, 2010 Issue (Williams Woolley et al. (2010))
– 699 participants formed groups of 2 to 5 members
• Works of puzzles, brainstorming and group decisions
• Measured participants’ intelligent performances after works by results of
computer-based checker games
• Performance improved by collective intelligence: statistically significant
– ‘C Factor’: intelligent capabilities drawn by co-works
• No correlation with individual intelligences
• Positive correlation with social sensitivity
– ‘reading in your eyes’ capability
• Positive correlation with the number of female members in the group
– A female is considered to have a high social sensitivity
• Negative correlation with the tables where a few monopolize the talks
15
Pass Around the Talks, Do Not Monopolize
Them, Never Anyone Be Silent.
Talking Stick:
Collective intelligence is a wisdom of ancestors.
Wisdoms
of Native Americans
(写真出所) Wikipedia Website
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redestab
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Essence of Brainstorming
Laugh
Inspiration
• Sometimes you cannot go well with certain topics and
members.
• If so,
– Change the topic or members.
– Or otherwise try another method for idea creation
17
Let’s have a brainstorming session.
Brainstorming topics:
Energy and Security
(which you selected in the previous lecture)
Please make two groups.
Note all popped ideas on the post-it and paste
them on the white board.
(写真出所)保井俊之(forthcoming)
18
KJ Method: Grouping the Ideas
Unconsciously
• Group Idea Creation
Method for Collecting
Requirements (Project
Management Institute
(2008)
• Late Prof. Jiro Kawakita,
a famous anthropologist
invented this method (川
喜田二郎(1986))
• Fit to a co-work, used
for creative problemsolving
• Unconsciously compare
and put a post-it to near
or to far.
Ends of Regional
Development
Means of
Regional
Development
Problems of
Regional
Development
E.g., KJ Method used in the Regional Development Project
(津々木晶子ら(2011))
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KJ Method: Let’s group ideas
Please group ideas popped from the brainstorming
Session.
Do not artificially organize them. Unconsciously
put them like ‘this is close’ and ‘this is far’.
(写真出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップにて、筆者撮影
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Recognize the links
• System Dynamics (SD), Business Dynamics
• (Legasto, Forrester, Lynais (1980), Sterman (2000) )
– Identify the links between elements of a system
– Analyze quantitatively or qualitatively influences by those links
– Applied to a social system analysis recently (Senge (1990))
• Causal Loop Diagram/ Causal Relations Diagram
• Causal Relations Diagram: CRD
– Loop
• A circulation in elements reinforce or balance the effects in
a system
– Leverage Point
• A key to solve a problem
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CRD: Example
Work until
midnight
Fixing errors
Midnight
Oil
Loop
Get customers
angered
Leverage
Point
Productivity
down
Errors
increased
22
Lets make a CRD.
• Get groups identified by the KJ method
connected by arrows.
• Find loops.
• Name the loops.
• Leverage Point: identify points where you can
stop the loops by holding that point.
(写真出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップにて、筆者撮影
23
Story-telling
• Storytelling
– Telling a story.
– Sharing a concept through the concrete story
with members of the group for achieving the
goals.
– Systematic methodology
– Applied to the sociology, business sciences,
political sciences, and other disciplines.
– Key to political leadership(Polletta (2006))
• Using narratives change the society
– ‘Who tells what and when’ significantly
influences the society.
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Corporate Strategy as Story
The corporate strategy as story emphasizes not
the difference but the inter-connectedness,
which are both essences of the strategy.
Not only the top construct the story, but also
the story is shared as the whole by the people
of the organization. This provides great meaning.
(出所)楠木建(2010:20, 64)
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Storytelling as Nurturing Creativity
• Persuasion and
Knowledge
Management from the
Storytelling
– E.g., Organizational
Reforms on IBM,
Xerox, World Bank
• Good Story (Brown et
al. (2005))
– Sustainability
– Building up
– Sense-making
– Feeling Comfortable
• 9 Principles of Storytelling
(ibid.)
– Be truth.
– Be minimum.
– Be happy-ending.
– Give up controlling.
– May have a cut block.
– Believe in yourself.
– Synthesize a story and
analysis.
– Tell just enough.
– Everyone be storyteller.
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Storytelling Formula By Syd Field
• Syd Field
– A play writer learned from Jean Lenoir, Sam Peckinpah
– Joined in the ‘God Father’ and ‘American Graffiti’
• A play is a story told by the scenes.
Syd Field
(写真出所: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syd_Field)
Syd Field (2009): Story telling paradigm of the screen plays
(出所: Adapted from Syd Field(2009))
Opening
Start
Act 1
Situation Settings
Plot Point 1
End
Act 3
Solutions
Middle
Act 2
Conflicts
Ending
Plot Point 2
27
Blake Snyder: Success on
Story Patterns
Blake Snyder
(写真出所: http://www.nwsg.org/pastevents.html)
• Blake Snyder: famous writer for Disney movies and Spielberg’s films
10 successful patterns of Film stories
(Snyder (2005: 21-42))
Name of Patterns
Examples
Monster in the House
‘Jaws’, ‘Exorcist’
Golden Fleece
‘Star Wars’, ‘Back to The Future’
Out of the Bottle
‘Liar, Liar’, ‘Bruce Almighty’
Dude with a Problem
‘Die Hard’, ‘Titanic’
Rites of passage
‘Ordinary People’, ‘Days of Wine and Roses’
Buddy Love
‘Dumb & Dumber’, ‘Rain Man’
Whydunit
‘Chinatown’,’ JFK’
The Fool Triumphant
‘Forrest Gump’, ‘Amadeus’
Institutionalized
‘M*A*S*H’, ‘The God Father’
Superhero
‘Superman’, ‘A Beautiful Mind’
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Yasuhiko Tanaka: Map a Movie
• Yasuhiko Tanaka
– Learned film making in the California State University
– California Media Festival 1st Prize
– Organized the ‘Hollywood Scenario School’ in many Asian countries.
• ‘becoming a good play writer is nothing but becoming a good storyteller.’(田中靖彦(2009))
Mapping a movie
(田中靖彦(2009:29, 145)を筆者一部修正 )
[Movie Title]
ACT 1
(set up)
Plot Point 1
[Plot Point 1]
[Mid Point]
[Plot Point 2]
ACT 2
(conflict)
Mid Point
Analysis on the Map
ACT 3
(solution)
Plot Point 2
[LOGLINE]
[External Goal]
[Internal Goal]
Overlap my map
And the example
Amending the
Skelton of Story
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Storytelling : Journey to the Commons
• (…) even the greatest forces of
intimate life—the passions of the
heart, the thoughts of the mind,
the delights of the senses—lead
an uncertain, shadowy kind of
existence unless and until they are
transformed, deprivatized and
deindividualized, as it were, into a
shape to fit them for public
appearance. The most current of
such transformations occurs in
storytelling (…).
(Source) Arendt (1958:50)
Hannah Arendt:
Modern Philosopher
(写真出所)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hannah_Arendt.jpg
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From CRD to Story: #1
Wish to be
there
Wonderful
Work-life
Balance
Wonderful Work-Life Links Loop
Making
Links
Leverage Point
‘The Best of the
Bests’ Town
Dreams for
balancing
Cultures
and Sports
(出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップより筆者作成
31
From CRD to Story: #2
Wish to be
there
Wonderful
Work-life
Balance
Wonderful Work-Life Links Loop
Making
Links
Leverage Point
‘The Best of the
Bests’ Town
Dreams for
balancing
Cultures
and Sports
(出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップより筆者作成
32
From CRD to Story: #3
Elements inside: ‘The Best of the
Wish to be
Bests’ Town
there ・Nursery in the woods
・Playground
・Links like a tree
Wonderful
・Work and Life
Work-life
・How to support
Balance
Wonderful Work-Life Links Loop
Making
Links
Leverage Point
Dreams for
balancing
Cultures
and Sports
(出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップより筆者作成
33
From CRD to Story: #4
Elements inside:
・Nursery in the woods
・Playground
・Links like a tree
・Work and Life
・How to support
Making
Links
• Make a story:
– The nursery deep in the
woods.
– Kids playing on the
wooden swings.
– Parents come to pick
them up after works.
– Parents and kids in the
sunset with a swing.
– Days in Fukushima with
work-life balance.
34
From CRD to Story: #5
Like this
Image ?
• Story
– In the nursery deep in the woods, kids are playing on the
wooden swings.
– A father comes to pick his son after his work on the sunset.
– They enjoy days in Fukushima with better work-life balance.
(出所) ふくしま未来ミーティング(2011年12月11日; 福島大学)ワークショップより筆者作成
35
Let’s make a story.
• Please make a story from your CRD, following
examples.
36
Conclusions
• Workshop: get involved, connect one by one-self.
• Brainstorming: making ideas visionary and sharing
– Collective intelligence exists.
– A good brainstorming session has laughs and
inspirations.
• KJ Method: Unconscious grouping of popped ideas.
• Causal Loop Diagram: Recognizing links of elements.
A leverage point matters.
• Storytelling: sharing the concept. Focus upon the
connectedness.
– A good story have a fixed pattern.
37
Homework
• Please go out to talk with the people on
the streets.
• Please interview with 10 persons to ask
for the validation on your solutions today.
Please use fully what you learned today.
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References
Arendt, H. (1958) The Human Condition, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press (邦訳: ハンナ・アレント著, 志水速雄訳(1994) 『人間の条件』 ちくま学芸文
庫)
Brown, J.S., Denning, S., Groh, K., Prusak, L. (2005) Strorytelling in Organizations: Why Storytelling Is Transforming 21st Century Organizations and management,
Oxford, UK: Butterwotrh-Heinemann (邦訳: ジョン・ブラウン他著、高橋正泰、高井俊次訳 (2007) 『ストーリーテリングが経営を変える: 組織変革の新しい道』
同文舘)
Clark, C. (1958) Brainstorming, New York: Doubleday (邦訳: 小林達夫訳 (1961) 『アイデア開発法: ブレインストーミングの原理と応用』 ダイヤモンド社)
Field, S. (2005) Screenplay: The Foundations of Screenwriting, Buena Park, CA: Delta (邦訳: シド・フィールド著. 安藤紘平、加藤正人、小林美也子、山本俊亮訳
(2009) 『映画を書くためにあなたがしなくてはならないこと: シドフィールドの脚本術』 フィルムアート社)
Legasto, A., Forrester, J., Lynais, J. (1980) System Dynamics, New York: North Holland Pub. Co.
Polletta, F. (2006) It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Senge, P. M. (1990), The Fifth Discipline: the Art & Practice of the Learning Organization, New York: Currency Book, Doubleday. (邦訳: ピーター・M・センゲ著,
守部信之他訳(1995) 『最強組織の法則: 新時代のチームワークとは何か』徳間書店)
Snyder, B. (2005) Save the Cat!: The Last Book On Screenwriting That You’ll Ever Need, Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions
Stanford d.School (2009) ‘Rules for Brainstorming’, d.school news, Stanford University d.School Website (http://dschool.typepad.com/news/2009/10/rules-forbrainstorming.html)(2011年11月24日アクセス)
Sterman, J.D. (2000), Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World, Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Williams Woolley, A., Chabris, C.F., Pentland, A., Hashimi, N., Malone, T.W. (2010) ‘Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human
Groups’, Science, 29 October 2010, Vol.330, pp.686-688.
川喜田二郎(1986) 『KJ法: 渾沌をして語らしめる』 中央公論社
楠木建(2010) 『ストーリーとしての競争戦略』 東洋経済新報社
紺野登(2010) 『ビジネスのためのデザイン思考』 東洋経済新報社
佐藤郁哉 (1992) 『フィールドワーク: 書を持って街へ出よう』 新曜社
佐藤郁哉(2002) 『フィールドワークの技法: 問いを育てる、仮説をきたえる』新曜社
佐藤郁哉 (2008) 『質的データ分析法: 原理・方法・実践』新曜社
田中靖彦 (2009) 『ハリウッドストーリーテリング』 愛育社
津々木晶子, 保井俊之, 白坂成功, 神武直彦「システムズ・アプローチによる住民選好の数量化・見える化: 中心市街地の新しい政策創出の方法論」『関東都
市学会年報』第13号, pp.110-116
中野民夫(2003) 『ファシリテーション革命: 参加型の場づくりの技法 』 岩波アクティブ新書69
西川麦子(2010) 『フィールドワーク探求術: 気づきのプロセス、伝えるチカラ』 ミネルヴァ書房
深澤直人(2005) 『デザインの輪郭』 TOTO出版
Project Management Institute (2008) 『プロジェクトマネジメント知識体系ガイド 第4版』 Project Management Institute
松田素二, 川田牧人(2002) 『エスノグラフィー・ガイドブック: 現代世界を複眼で見る 』 嵯峨野書院
箕浦康子(1999) 『フィールドワークの技法と実際: マイクロエスノグラフィ入門』ミネルヴァ書房
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保井俊之(forthcoming) 『「日本」の売り方: 協創力が市場を制す』(仮) 角川oneテーマ新書
Thank you for your
listening !
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