AQ_Gas_Overview - International Energy Agency

Report
Annual Natural Gas
Questionnaire
Overview
Energy Statistics Training
Paris, 4-8 March, 2013
Ana-Luísa São-Marcos, HP Chung
Annual Gas Statistics
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Statistics
Plan of the presentation
 Background to Natural Gas Statistics
 Definitions; Global trends in Natural gas; Production, supply
and consumption
 Structure of the Questionnaire
 Structure and presentation; basic concepts, overview of the
tables, relations within the questionnaire
 Data treatment
 Submission; verification; specific problems
 Access Natural Gas information/data
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Statistics
Basics
Natural
Gas
comprises gases occurring in underground
deposits, whether liquefied or gaseous,
consisting mainly of methane. It includes:
• Associated gas –
found in
association with
crude oil
• Non-associated gas
– originating from
fields producing
hydrocarbons only in
gaseous form
• Shale gas is included
• Colliery gas –
methane removed
from coal mines and
coal seams
© OECD/IEA 2013
Gaseous gas
Natural
Gas
Same methane
(CH4) content
Liquefied gas
Different
physical state
Volume of natural gas varies
with temperature and pressure
At the IEA
measured at 15
degrees Celsius
and 1 atm
Liquefied gas shrinks more
than 600 times in volume
Cooled at -160
degrees Celsius
and 1 atm
© OECD/IEA 2013
World total primary energy supply (1971-2010)
Mtoe
16%
21%
2721
Mtoe
GAS
977
Mtoe
* Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, heat, etc
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural gas production from 1971 to 2011
billion cubic metres (bcm)
1971
2011
2.7 x
3388 bcm
1226 bcm
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural gas production from 1971 to 2011 by region
billion cubic metres
1226 bcm
3388 bcm
36%
71%
* Asia excludes China
© OECD/IEA 2013
•Collecting
•Processing
•Disseminating
1 product = Natural Gas
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas - Production
NGL
Other Separation
(offshore wells)
Extraction of
Crude Oil and
Associated Gas
Associated Gas
Gas Flared or
reinjected
Wellhead
Separation
(onshore wells)
Removal of Liquids
in Natural Gas
Processing Plants
Marketed
Production
Annual Gas
Questionnaire
NonAssociated
Gas
Extraction of
Non-Associated Gas
Vented
Coal Mines
Crude Oil
Annual Oil
Questionnaire
Removal of
Sulphur and
Impurities
Colliery Gas
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas - Supply and Consumption
Transformation
Exports
Stock Build
Energy
Distribution
Losses
Marketed
Production
Inland
Consumption
Transport
Imports
Stock Draw
Residential
Commercial
Agriculture
Industry
© OECD/IEA 2013
Questionnaire structure
Gas balance
Production
Imports
Exports
Stock Change
Supply
Inland Consumption (Calculated)
Statistical Difference
Transformation
…
Energy Sector
…
Final Consumption
Transport
…
Industry
…
Other Sectors …
Demand
Inland Consumption
(Observed)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Questionnaire structure
Gas balance
Table 1
Table 2a
Production
Imports
Exports
…
Table 3
Table 4
Statistical Difference
Transformation
…
Energy Sector
…
Final Consumption
Transport
…
Table 2b
Industry
…
Other Sectors
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 & 4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 &4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Supply of Natural Gas, Table 1
Year &
Country
Million m3 (at
15°C, 760 mm Hg)
A
TJ
(Gross Calor.
Value)
B
Average GCV
(kJ/m3)
Average NCV
(kJ/m3)
C
D
Indigenous Production
1
0
Associated Gas
2
0
Non-Associated Gas
3
0
Colliery Gas
4
0
From Other Sources
5
0
Total Imports (Balance)
6
0
Total Exports (Balance)
7
0
International Marine Bunkers
8
0
Stock Changes (National Territory)
9
0
Inland Consumption (Calculated)
10
0
0
Statistical Differences
11
0
0
Inland Consumption (Observed)
12
0
Opening Stock Level (National Territory)
13
0
Closing Stock Level (National Territory)
14
0
Memo:
Gas Vented
15
Gas Flared
16
Memo: Cushion Gas
Cushion Gas Closing Stock Level
17
Memo: From other sources
From Other Sources - Oil
From Other Sources - Coal
From Other Sources - Renewables
18
19
20
0
0
Recoverable Gas
0
0
0
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Supply – Table 1
 Indigenous Production
• dry marketable production (after purification and extraction of
NGL and sulphur)
• Exclude gas vented and flared, losses, reinjected quantities
 Imports and Exports
• are considered imported or exported when having crossed the
physical boundary of a country
• Exclude transit and re-exports
 Stock changes and levels
• stock levels of recoverable gas, i.e. excluding cushion gas
• change of stock is opening - closing stock level of recoverable
gas
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Units: Natural gas data are collected in
 Volume : million m3 - under Standard Conditions (15
degrees Celcius and 760 mm Hg)
 Energy unit : TJ - Gross Calorific Value
Conversion
 specific kJ/m3 calorific value
• Indigenous Production
• Imports
• Exports
• Inland Consumption (calc)
• Inland Consumption (obs)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 &4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Inland Consumption, Table 2a
Inland Demand (Total
Consumption)
Inland Demand (Total Consumption)
Transformation Sector
Unit: TJ (GCV)
Consumption
A
1
2
Main Activity Producer Electricity Plants
3
Autoproducer Electricity Plants
4
Main Activity Producer CHP Plants
Autoproducer CHP Plants
Main Activity Producer Heat Plants
Autoproducer Heat Plants
Transformation
sector
5
6
7
8
Gas Works (Transformation)
9
Coke Ovens (Transformation)
10
Blast Furnaces (Transformation)
11
Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Plants (Transformation)
12
Non-specified (Transformation)
13
Energy Sector
14
Coal Mines
15
Oil and Gas Extraction
16
Petroleum Refineries
Coke Ovens (Energy)
Energy sector
17
18
Blast Furnaces (Energy)
19
Gas Works (Energy)
20
Own Use in Electricity, CHP and Heat Plants
21
Liquefaction (LNG) / Regasification Plants
Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Plants (Energy)
Non-specified (Energy)
Distribution Losses
Total Final Consumption
Only TJ,
conversion in
m3 is done at
the IEA using
Calorific
value from
Table 1 –
Inland
consumption
obs.
Distribution losses
22
23
24
25
Total final consumption
26
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Inland Consumption - Table 2a
 Transformation Sector
• Natural Gas used for producing another type of energy
(electricity, heat) which is then used for final
consumption
Example: Electrical power company (Main electricity
producer)
 Energy Sector
• Natural Gas consumed by Energy Industry to support
extraction or transformation activity.
Example: Liquefaction plants, Petroleum refineries
 Distribution Losses (losses due to transport & distribution)
 Total Final Consumption (end-use sectors)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 &4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Sector\Plant
Electricity plant
CHP plant
Heat plant
All production and all
fuel used
All electricity
and heat
produced and
all fuel used
All heat
produced and
all fuel used
All electricity
produced and
only heat
sold with
corresponding
fuel used
Only heat
sold and
corresponding
fuel used
Transformation
Main activity
producer
Autoproducer
Industry
Natural gas consumed in heat
and CHP plants for the
production of heat used by
the plant itself.
© OECD/IEA 2013
Inland Consumption, Table 2b
Unit: TJ (GCV)
Energy Use
Energy Use
Total Final Consumption
Total Final Consumption
Transport Sector
Road
A
Non-Energy Use
B
1
2
3
of which Biogas
4
Pipeline Transport
5
Non-specified (Transport)
6
Industry Sector
7
Iron and Steel
8
Chemical (including Petrochemical)
9
Non-Ferrous Metals
10
Non-Metallic Minerals
11
Transport Equipment
12
Machinery
13
Mining and Quarrying
14
Food, Beverages and Tobacco
15
Paper, Pulp and Printing
16
Wood and Wood Products
17
Construction
18
Textiles and Leather
19
Non-specified (Industry)
20
Other Sectors
Non-energy Use
Transport sector
TJ
(GCV)
Industry sector
21
Commercial and Public Services
22
Residential
23
Agriculture/Forestry
24
Fishing
25
Non-specified (Other)
26
Other sectors
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Final Consumption - Table 2b (= delivered to final consumers)
 Different Use
• Energy Use
Report Natural Gas used as fuel (E.g. Compressed
natural gas for use in road vehicles, natural gas used
in households for heating purposes)
• Non-Energy Use
Report Natural Gas used as a raw material for
producing other products (Petrochemical Industry)
E.g. Natural gas used as feedstock to make hydrogen
 3 Sectors
• Industry Sector (steel plants, cement plants, …)
• Transport Sector (CNG in fuel stations, …)
• Other Sectors (Households, hospitals, offices, …)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 & 4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Imports/Exports, Tables 3 and 4
Million m3
COUNTRY OF
DESTINATION
Pipeline+
LNG
=
Australia
1
Austria
2
Belarus
3
TJ (GCV)
Total Exports
of which: LNG
Total Exports
of which: LNG
A
B
C
D
….
© OECD/IEA 2013
Imports / Exports - Tables 3,4
 Requested Data
• 2 Units: Million m3 and TJ
• Total imports and LNG => pipeline is derived
 Geographical Breakdown
• 70 import origins
• 65 export destinations
 Trade
• Importance of the ultimate origin or destination
• Transit trade and re-exports are not to be included
© OECD/IEA 2013
A special case in trade reporting
Imports LNG
Regasification
process (value
added activity)
Country A
Exports Gaseous gas
Country B
This is not transit and should be reported in both Imports
and Exports tables
© OECD/IEA 2013
Table 1
Table 2a
Inland consumption
Supply
Table 2b
Total final
consumption
Tables 3 &4
Exports/Imports
Table 5
Gas storage capacity
© OECD/IEA 2013
Gas storage capacity, Table 5
Name
Type
Working
Capacity
(mcm)
Peak
Output
(mcm/day)
Gas security – important energy
policy issue in gas consuming
countries
TOTAL
In case of supply disruption
it is crucial to know the available
storage facilities in one region.
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Definitions and Basic Concepts
Gas Storage Capacity – Table 5
Location of the storage
Type of storage
• Depleted oil and gas fields
• Aquifers
• Salt Cavities
• for LNG if it is above, in or below ground and # tanks
Technical Characteristics
• Working Capacity = total gas storage capacity minus
cushion gas
• Peak Output = maximum rate at which gas can be
withdrawn from storage
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Relations between the tables
Oil
Oil
questionnaire
questionnaire
Table
Table 1
Coal
Coal
questionnaire
questionnaire
Table
Table 1
Renewables
Renewables
questionnaire
questionnaire
Table
Table11
LPG
Imports = Total Imports
Table
Table 33
Imports
by Origin
Origin
Imports by
Manufactured
gases
Biogases
Exports = Total Exports
Table
Table 1
Supply
Supply
Table
Table 44
Exports
Destination
Exports by
by Destination
Inland Consumption
(observed)
= Inland Consumption
Table
Table22
Inland Consumption
Inland Consumption
==Transformation
Energy+ +Distribution
Distribution
Transformation ++Energy
Losses
Total Final
FinalConsumption
Consumption
Losses + Total
Electricity
and Inputs to Gross Electricity
Electricity and
Table
2a
Table 2a
and Heat Production
Heat
Heat
Inland
questionnaire
questionnaire
Net
Inland
Consumption
bySector
Sector
Consumption
by
Table
6a
6c
Table 6a - 6c
Table
Table2b
2b
Total
Consumptionbybysector
sector
Total Final
Final Consumption
Energy
Energy-use
-use
Non -energy
Non
-energy
use
use
© OECD/IEA 2013
What happens when data arrive
at IEA?
OECD …
World …
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Data treatment
What happens when data arrive at IEA?
 Questionnaire in excel format received via E-mail on
Generic Account
 Or data can be uploaded or entered into a web-based
version of the questionnaire (EDC)
 Data are loaded in the IEA databases
 Data are checked
• Arithmetically
• Internal consistency
• Inter-fuel comparison
• Time Series Check
• Comparisons of monthly and annual data
• Comparisons with national publications
© OECD/IEA 2013
Some specific problems regarding gas reporting
 Trade
increasing difficulties with liberalised market
transit trade is often reported as import / export
spot purchases
exchange contracts
 Units
measurement in million cubic metres under Standard
conditions - often reported under Normal conditions
data in TJ often reported as Net rather than Gross
© OECD/IEA 2013
Accessing Natural Gas information
 Natural Gas Information (hard copy, pdf)
 CD-ROM
 On-line Data Service
• Pay-Per-View
• Data download
 Derived publications/analysis:
• Energy Statistics of OECD Countries
• Energy Balances of OECD Countries
• CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Exercise Preparation Key Points
 Units of Measurement
 Calorific Values
 Weighted Average
 Production
 Trade: Imports and Exports
 Electricity and Heat Generation
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Units of Measurement
 Energy- Terajoule (TJ)
 Physical- Volume: 106 cubic meters (Mm3)
 Volume varies with temperature and pressure
Standard Condition
Normal Condition
15 ⁰C (288.15 K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm)
0 ⁰C (273.15 K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm)
Conversion Factors
1 m3
x 0.948
0.948 m3
x 1.055
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Units of Measurement
 Energy- Terajoule (TJ)
 Physical- Volume: 106 cubic meters (Mm3)
 Volume varies with temperature and pressure
Standard Condition
Normal Condition
15 ⁰C (288.15 K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm)
0 ⁰C (273.15 K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm)
Conversion Factors
1 m3
x 0.948
0.948 m3
x 1.055
Same energy content
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Units of Measurement
In the questionnaire, data must be reported:
 For volume:
Mm3 in the standard condition
 For energy:
TJ on the basis of Gross Calorific Value
(GCV)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Calorific Values
The calorific value is heat value obtained from one
volume unit of gas (e.g. TJ/Mm3)
Gross Calorific Value (GCV) includes all the heat released
by the fuel
Net Calorific Value (NCV) excludes the latent heat of
vaporization
The difference between NCV and GCV is typically about
10% for natural gas.
For natural gas: NCV ≈ 0.9 GCV
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Calorific Values
Calorific values of gas may differ for different flows such
as:
Production from different fields or same field but
different reservoirs
Imports from different countries
Calorific values change over time (e.g. imports from
different countries)
Use a weighted average that takes into account the
proportional magnitude of each component rather than
treating the components equally
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Weighted Average Calorific Value
Definition:
where: CV = Calorific Value (e.g. kJ/kg)
Quantity = Physical Quantity (e.g. kg)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Weighted Average Calorific Value
Example:
Country A
Fields
Site 1
Production
10 Mm3
Calorific Value
30 TJ/Mm3
Energy
300 TJ
Site 2
Total
20 Mm3
30 Mm3
35 TJ/Mm3
?
700 TJ
1 000 TJ
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Weighted Average Calorific Value
Example:
Country A
Fields
Site 1
Production
10 Mm3
Calorific Value
30 TJ/Mm3
Energy
300 TJ
Site 2
Total
20 Mm3
30 Mm3
35 TJ/Mm3
33.3 TJ/Mm3
700 TJ
1 000 TJ
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Production Flow
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Production Flow
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Production Flow
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Production Flow
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Trade: Imports and Exports
Imports: ultimate origin of gas (country of production)
Exports: ultimate destination (country of consumption)
Transit and Re-exports not include in trade balances
Example:
Russia exports 200 m3 of natural gas. The pipeline goes
through Ukraine before reaching Poland. Ukraine
consumes 100 m3 and the rest goes to Poland. Then,
Poland consumes 50 m3 of the natural gas and exports 50
m3 to Czech Republic
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Russian
Federation
200 m3
Ukraine
100 m3
Consumed
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Russian
Federation
Poland
50 m3
Consumed
200 m3
100 m3
Ukraine
100 m3
Consumed
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Russian
Federation
Poland
50 m3
Consumed
50 m3
Czech Rep.
50 m3
Consumed
200 m3
100 m3
Ukraine
100 m3
Consumed
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Trade: Imports and Exports
Example:
Russian Federation
Country
Exports
Czech Rep.
50 m3
Poland
Ukraine
50 m3
100 m3
Ukraine imports 100 m3 from Russian Federation
Poland imports 50 m3 from Russian Federation
Czech Rep. imports 50 m3 from Russian Federation
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Electricity and Heat Generation
Generation plants are classified by output:
Electricity-only plants
CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants
Heat-only plants
Generation plants are also classified by function:
Main Activity Producers (ex. Nuclear power plant)
Autoproducers (ex. Steel mill producing electricity)
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Exercise Preparation Key Points
 Units of Measurement
 Calorific Values
 Weighted Average
 Production
 Trade: Imports and Exports
 Electricity and Heat Generation
© OECD/IEA 2013
Natural Gas Questionnaire
Thank you
[email protected]
© OECD/IEA 2013

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