Efficacy of Newbouldia laevis Extract and Nutrient Density on

Report
Efficacy of Newbouldia laevis Extract and Nutrient Density
on Gastrointestinal Nematode In Sheep Managed SemiIntensively
O. S. Sowande, S. O. Iposu, O. A. Sonibare, A. O. Oni, J. A. Olanite and A.
O.Yusuf
Introduction








Infection with gastro-intestinal nematodes is major
constraint to sheep production in Nigeria and elsewhere.
Increase resistance of gastrointestinal parasite to
conventional anthelmintics caused economic loses.
Suggested alternatives are:
biological control, grazing management (Marley et al.,
2006)
vaccination (Hein and Harrison, 2005)
nutritional management (Hoste et al., 2005; Iposu et al.,
2008)
genetic control (Grillo et al., 2007)
Plant extracts (Hounzangbe- Adote et al., 2005)
Objectives




To determine:
the effect of oral administration of extracts from N.
laevis on performance, faecal parasite egg counts in
semi-intensively managed sheep.
the effect of nutrient density on performance and faecal
parasite egg counts in semi-intensively managed sheep.
the effect interaction of oral administration of extracts
from N. laevis and nutrient density on performance and
faecal parasite egg counts in semi-intensively managed
sheep.
Materials and Methods

Leaves of matured Newbouldia laevis (Border tree) were collected, air dried, crushed and
extracted with 70% ethanol.

Newbouldia laevis extract was administered at 0, 30 and 60mg/BW.

Concentrate supplement were Low Energy, Low Protein(7.71 ME/KJ and 75.8g/kg CP) and
High Energy, High Protein (13.24 ME/KJ and 176.3g/kg CP).

24 WAD rams aged 12 - 15 months were used.

Grazing of Stylosanthes hamata, Pennisetum pedisellatum and natural pasture was allowed
6hrs/day

Data was collected on concentrate DMI, weight changes, faecal egg count, PCV, WBC, RBC,
Hb, glucose, total protein, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST).

Data was arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial format in a completely randomized design.
Table 1: Effect of different dosages of Newbouldia laevis and protein-energy densities on the
performance characteristics of WAD sheep
PARAMETERS
Initial Weight (kg)
Final Weight (kg)
Weight gain (kg)
Weight gain (kgBW0.75)
Weight gain (gday-1)
Weight gain(gday1BW0.75)
Feed Conversion Ratio
Concentrate Intake (g/day)
Concentrate Intake
(g/kgBW0.75)
a,b,
Nutrient Densities
HEHP LELP SEM
10.53
14.55
4.02a
2.84a
46.21a
17.72a
6.71
310.04
72.27
N. laevis Extracts Levels
P 0mg 30mg 60mg
SEM
10.47 1.54 0.97 9.15 11.15 11.19 2.41
12.82 2.39 0.54 12.60 12.79 15.62 3.39
2.35b 0.96 0.03 3.45 1.64 4.43 1.36
1.90b 0.59 0.07 2.53 1.45 3.05 0.84
27.01b 10.70 0.03 39.66 18.85 50.92 15.12
11.85b 3.60 0.04 15.80 9.05 19.06 5.09
10.17 5.03 0.94 6.58 15.28 6.44 11.26
274.78 46.40 0.52 261.06 288.09 328.09 65.61
67.49 9.84 0.62 64.95 69.93 60.61 13.92
means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05).
P
0.56
0.61
0.46
0.42
0.46
0.42
0.24
0.60
0.50
Table 2: Effect of Nutrient densities and levels of Newbouldia. laevis extract on faecal egg
counts in WAD sheeep
st
DIETS
INCLUSION
LEVELS OF
N.leavis
-1
0mg kg BW
HEHP
LELP
0 day
1 month
th
25 day
nd
Egg
reduction
(%)
0 day
2 month
th
25 day
rd
Egg
reduction
(%)
3 month
th
0 day
25 day
1366.67+1514.37
100+173.20
93
633.33+503.3223
200+346.41
68
0
0
30mg kg
1
BW
-
2733.33+3370.95
2000+3377.
86
27
366.66 + 635.08
0
100
0
0
60mg kg
1
BW
-
633.33+503.3223
0
100
833.33+945.16
100+ 100
88
0
0
0mg kg-1BW
200+264.5751
33.33+
57.73503
83
300+519.61
0
100
0
0
233.33+404.1452
166.67 +
288.6751
333.33+351.
1885
29
966.66+1674.31
0
100
0
0
74
3633+2995.55
1066.67+611.01
71
0
0
-
30mg kg
1
BW
60mg kg
1
BW
1300+2165.641
Table 3: Effect of the Nutrient densities and Newbouldia laevis extract levels on the haematological parameters of
1
2
3
WAD sheep at 0 , 42 and 84 days of experiment
Nutrient Densities
N. laevis Extract levels
PARAMETERS
HEHP
LELP
SEM
P
0mg
30mg
60mg
SEM
P
PCV1 (%)
PCV2 (%)
PCV3 (%)
23.67
23.67
21.94
21.22
18.78
20.39
1.24
2.45
0.75
0.50
0.23
0.72
23.33
22.50
24.00
24.00
21.17
19.50
20.00
19.25
20.00
1.74
2.15
2.08
0.63
0.83
0.64
HB1 (g/dl)
HB2 (g/dl)
HB3 (g/dl)
8.11
8.07
7.46
7.25
6.26
6.95
0.43
0.90
0.26
0.48
0.24
0.72
7.967
7.683
8.167
8.18
7.18
6.63
6.89
6.63
6.81
0.59
0.74
0.71
0.65
0.84
0.63
9
11.44
8.62
12.75
7.17
8.89
10.75
2.14
0.14
1.00
0.09
0.91
0.37
8.13
8.03
12.19
8.83
7.31
10.76
10.97
10.91
12.34
11.83
12.61
11.44
0.62
0.50
0.83
12
7.75
8.27
8.41
6.83
7.31
8.18
0.46
0.48
0.12
0.59
0.63
0.88
7.377
9.205
9.420
7.72
6.43
7.72
6.36
7.73
7.75
0.59
0.97
0.78
0.64
0.51
0.60
NEUT1 (%)
NEUT2 (%)
NEUT3 (%)
70.94
58.72
44.67
68.81
45.78
50.56
1.07
6.47
2.95
0.82
0.32
0.55
79.167
51.667
55.000
69.83
47.83
41.33
60.63
57.25
46.50
4.47
6.29
4.75
0.28
0.83
0.50
LYMPH1 (%)
LYMPH2 (%)
LYMPH3 (%)
26.44
40.61
45.00
23.00
36.61
40.94
1.72
2.00
2.03
0.44
0.68
0.73
20.50
50.83
46.66
27.17
35.00
42.00
26.50
30.00
40.25
2.16
4.78
5.86
0.40
0.22
0.89
WBC1 (x10 /l)
9
WBC2( x10 /l)
9
WBC3( x10 /l )
RBC1 (x10 /l)
12
RBC2 ( x10 /l )
12
RBC3 ( x10 /l )
Table 4: Effect of the Nutrient densities and Newbouldia laevis extract levels on the biochemical
constituents of WAD sheep at 01, 422 and 843 days of experiment
Nutrient Densities
N. laevis extract levels
PARAMETERS
HEHP
LELP
30mg
60mg SEM
P
AST1 (iu/l)
AST2 (iu/l)
AST3 (iu/l)
40.22
37.34
40.01
34.92 2.65 0.38 35.83 37.00
33.38 1.98 0.66 40.30 33.27
41.29 0.64 0.89 43.12 30.02
39.89 2.88
32.53 4.36
48.81 4.86
0.85
0.74
0.31
ALT1 (iu/l)
ALT2 (iu/l)
ALT3 (iu/l)
24.33 21.69 1.32 0.52 26.33 20.33
14.64 a 7.77 b 3.44 0.03 13.45 10.05
16.58 18.65 1.04 0.64 16.62 16.90
22.38 1.97
10.31 1.42
19.33 2.12
0.46
0.55
0.86
TPROT1 (g/l)
TPROT2 (g/l)
TPROT3 (g/l)
57.56
64.07
57.99
52.76 2.40 0.56 55.42 60.43 49.63 3.96
51.16 6.46 0.31 65.20 54.17 53.49 6.13
60.22 1.12 0.83 69.30 49.783 58.23 5.12
0.56
0.68
0.32
55.48 2.50 0.59 53.55 60.87
46.79 8.79 0.13 65.28 48.00
59.94 0.63 0.92 66.07 49.08
0.37
0.42
0.50
GLUC1 (mg/dl) 50.49
GLUC2 (mg/dl) 64.36
GLUC3 (mg/dl) 58.69
SEM
P
0mg
means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05).
44.51 4.48
53.44 5.38
62.80 6.21
Conclusion

Grazing sheep should be supplemented with high
energy- high protein concentrate diet and drenched
with 60mg/BW Newbouldia laevis extract monthly
for improved performance and reduction of worm
burden.

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