Varieties of Anarchism D. Allen Dalton ECON 325 – Radical Economics Boise State University Fall 2012 Anarchism: Godwin and Proudhon William Godwin (1756-1836) • Followed his father as a nonconformist minister • early influence of Rousseau and French materialists, Holbach and Helvétius • Turned to atheism and withdrew from the ministry • Supported himself by writing (ficition, politics, newspaper articles) William Godwin (1756-1836) • Married Mary Wollstonecraft • Daughter Mary – Married poet Percy Bysshe Shelley – Author Frankenstein • Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) • Caleb Williams (1794) • Of Population (1820) Virtue “The first object of virtue is to contribute to the welfare of mankind. The most essential attribute of right conduct therefore is, that it shall have a beneficent and salutary tendency. One further characteristic it is usual t add. Men, in the exercise of their rational faculties, are influenced by motives and inducements apprehended by the intellect… A beneficent action to which a man is incited by a knowledge of its beneficent tendency, is an act of virtue. The man who is in the frequent practice of such actions, is a worthy, virtuous and excellent man.” - Wm. Godwin, The Enquirer, p. 252 Godwin’s Teaching • Basis – “the general welfare” • On Law – Reason and arbitration rather than law and legislation • On the State – State is the suppression of private judgment • On Society – Society arises out of mutual assistance; the State arises out wickedness Godwin’s Teaching • Organization of the Stateless Society – “Government” by common deliberation in small societies; federation in assemblies • On Wealth – Inequality of wealth (“Empire of Accumulated Property’) is against the common welfare – Hampers intellectual progress – Hinders moral perfection – Great cause of crime Godwin’s Teaching • On Rights – Active and Passive Rights – All rights (actions) fall under the province of morality; duty to act for the “general welfare” – Active: “right to do as one wills” is a fiction – Passive: “sphere of personal judgment” – The “right to property” is founded on the principle of private judgment Godwin’s Teaching • On Property – Classes of property and their relation to inequality of wealth – Subsistence and Means of intellectual and moral improvement; Inexpensive gratifications; Expensive gratifications inessential to healthful and vigorous life – Last which causes the “present system of accumulated property,” augmenting the hardships of the laboring classes and reducing the general welfare Godwin’s Teaching • Economics – Labor as the source of all value; labor as the measure of value; classical view of the relation of propertied classes and working classes • On Transition – Reason and persuasion not force; even for acts that are against the general welfare, except in cases of indispensable urgency (the importance of “private judgment”) P.J. Proudhon (1809-1865) • Trained as printer, worked as merchant • Pamphleteer and activist • 1848, elected to National Assembly • Twice imprisoned for offenses against the press laws • 1849, founded People’s Bank • Opponent of Bakunin and Marx • First to adopt the description of “anarchist” Justice “Justice is respect, spontaneously felt and mutually guaranteed, for human dignity, in whatever person and under whatever circumstances we find it compromised, and to whatever risk its defense may expose us.” - Proudhon, Of Justice, vol. I, p. 182 “All the most rational teachings of human wisdom about justice are summed up in the famous adage: Do to others what you would have done to you; Do not to others what you would not have done to you.” -Proudhon, What Is Property?, p. 18. Proudhon’s Teaching • Basis – Justice as the measure of all human actions. • On Law – Rejects state legislation in favor of the legal norm of contracts – Recognizes the variety and variability of human interests – Contracts more suitable to such a situation than law • On the State – “The government of man by man is slavery.” Proudhon’s Teaching • On Society – Without the State, society ruled by agreements; government of man is replaced by the administration of things- the social life is “anarchy,” “federation,” “the Republic.” • On Rights – makes a distinction between rights under Justice and rights under laws; only some existing individual rights by law conform to rights under Justice Proudhon’s Teaching • On Property – “Property is Theft!” “Property is Liberty!” – The central question is relationship to Justice – the balance of interests – achievable only through contract – Property by contract is to be substituted for Property from law – Evolution of position – property as abuse v. possession as use to reciprocity and mutualism as the foundation of justice in property Proudhon’s Teaching • Economics – Labor is the source of all production and value. – Inequality arises from inequity in exchange. – Under justice, products must exchange for products. – Law of reciprocity as foundation of social life under anarchy • On Transition – “Popularize the idea.” – Examples of anarchy within the current regime – “The People’s Bank.” Proudhon’s Teaching • The People’s Bank – Idea and Foundation – History • January – March 1849 • Membership of 27,000; receipts of 18,000 francs • Never reached stage where it could actually begin business under its charter • “Never more than a project in search of finances…” - Woodcock, Proudhon, p. 144 – Forerunner of credit unions and mutual banking Anarchism: Stirner and Bakunin Max Stirner (1806-1856) • Born Johann Kaspar Schmidt in Bavaria • Studied philosophy and theology in Berlin and Erlanger • Passed Gymnasiallehrer in 1835, but received no government appointment • 1839 – teacher at young ladies school • Associate of the Young Hegelians during the 1840s Max Stirner (1806-1856) • Wrote under pseudonym of Max Stirner and also wrote several anonymous works • The Ego and His Own (1845) – Attack on communism and the leftist Young Hegelians, including Feuerbach and Bauer – Defense of egoistic individualism • Resigned from teaching upon publication; lived his later years on the edge of poverty, twice ending up in debtor’s prison Egoism “Men are such as they should be – can be. What should they be? Surely not more than they can be!” - Ego and His Own, p. 435 …my relation to the world is this: I no longer do anything for it ‘for God’s sake’, I do nothing ‘for man’s sake’, but what I do I do ‘for my sake’.” - Ego and His Own, p. 426 Stirner’s Teaching • Basis – individual’s own welfare • On Law – Law only exists through individual recognition of favor to own interests; sacred law v. individual welfare; “rights” v. self-ownership • On the State – State can not exist independent of the sacredness of law; state’s behavior can not be judged sacred – based on violence State and Individual “The State has never any object but to limit the individual, to tame him, to subordinate him, to subject him to something general; it lasts only so long as the individual is not all in all, and is only the clear-cut limitation of me, my limitedness, my slavery.” - Ego and His Own, p. 298 Stirner’s Teaching • Organization of the Stateless Society – “the union of egoists.” Individuals are held together by the advantage which each individual receives at every moment from the union. • On Property – As it exists, it is sacred; but it is not – for as it exists it is not favorable to the individual’s welfare. Property relations must exist based on competence. Self-Ownership and Union “What a difference between freedom and selfownership! I am free from what I am rid of; I am owner of what I have in my power. …Each must say to himself, I am all to myself and I do all for my sake.” - Ego and His Own, p. 207,214 “…the union exists for you and by you, society contrariwise claims you for itself and exists even without you; in short, society is sacred, the union is your own; society uses you up, you use up the union.” - Ego and His Own, p. 417-8 Stirner’s Teaching “To what property am I entitled? To any which I empower myself. I give myself the right of property in taking property to myself…” “Property…must be torn from ghostly hands and become my property…” “…I must have as much as I am competent to appropriate to myself.” - Ego and His Own, p. 339, 349 Stirner’s Teaching • On Transition – An inward change of mankind from an obedience to the sacred to egoism; afterwards a violent transformation of social conditions will occur. Stirner rejects no methods in the violent transformation. Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) • Artillery school, St. Petersburg, became officer, resigned commission • Left Russia in 1840, over next decade involved himself in revolutionary activities across Europe; in Paris, associated with Proudhon • Twice sentenced to death, Saxony and Austria, imprisoned • In 1851, deported to Russia; escaped Siberia to London in 1865 • From 1868 to death, moved about Europe continuing activities Evolutionary Progress “History consists in the progressive negation of man’s original bestiality by the evolution of his humanity.” - God and State, p. 16 Bakunin’s Teaching • On Law – Enacted law belongs to a lower stage of human evolution and has the aim of the exploitation of the laboring classes by rulers. • On the State – The State is a necessary evil as man transforms himself from beast to human. Man takes the first step from beast to humanity by religion; the State is the product of religion. God and State “No State is without religion, and none can be without religion.” “There is a class of people who, even if they do not believe, must necessarily act as if they believed. This class embraces all mankind’s tormentors, oppressors, and exploiters. Priests, monarchs, statesmen, soldiers, financiers, office-holders of all sorts; policemen, gendarmes, jailers, and executioners; capitalists, usurers, heads of business, and house-owners; lawyers, economists, politicians of all shades…” - God and State, p. 9, 11 Bakunin’s Teaching • On Society – Complete humanity can only be achieved in society; only joint labor can free humanity from nature; liberty arises from mutuality. • On Rights – All rights and duties are founded in liberty, which arises from mutuality. “A free society can not be held together by authority, but only by contract.” - Proposition, p. 155 Bakunin’s Teaching • On Property – Unlimited private property is a result of the State and serves only to exploit the laboring classes.In the future society ruled by contract, private property will only extend to objects of consumption; landand capital will be social property. Bakunin’s Teaching • Economics – “I am not a Communist, but a Collectivist.” – Simple justice demands that enjoyment corresponds to the quantity of goods produced. – Organization formed from below by free union. Land and capital owned by “industrial and agricultural associations.” Bakunin’s Teaching • On Transition – A social revolution is near that will destroy all institutions of inequality and establish economic and social equality. Bloody revolution often necessary due to human stupidity; but are always an evil. “If one would make a thorough revolution, therefore, one must attach things and relationships, destroy property and the State: then there is no need of destroying men and exposing one’s self to the inevitable reaction…” Anarchism: Spooner and Tucker Lysander Spooner (1808-1887) • Born on farm in Athol, Massachusetts • Trained, but not educated in law; set up practice in Worcester, led to repeal of college requirement for licensing • Founded American Letter Mail Company in 1844, challenging US Post Office monopoly; commercially successful but government legal actions forced out of business • Abolitionist, The Unconstitutionality of Slavery (1846) Lysander Spooner (1808-1887) • Essay on the Trial by Jury (1852) • Condemned the Civil War and Reconstruction and the hypocrisy of the Republican Party • No Treason pamphlets (1867-1870), including No Treason No. 6: The Constitution of No Authority • Vices are Not Crimes: A vindication of Moral Liberty (1875) • Natural Law, Or the Science of Justice (1882) Justice “The science of mine and thine – the science of justice – is the science of all human rights… It is the science which alone can tell any man what he can, and cannot, do; what he can, and cannot have; what he can, and cannot, say, without infringing the rights of any other person… …obedience to this one only universal obligation: viz., that each should live honestly towards every other. The ancient maxim makes the sum of a man’s legal duty to his fellow men to be simply this: ‘To live honestly, to hurt no one, to give to every one his due.’ “ - Natural Law, p. 1 Spooner’s Teaching • Basis – Natural Law, the Science of Justice; acts of initiatory coercion violate justice • On Law – Man-made legislation not confirming to the Natural Law are null and void, and are themselves illegal. • On the State – Founded in violence; necessarily opposes justice • On Society – The sum of voluntary associations by which men seek to maintain justice and protect themselves against wrongdoers Spooner’s Teaching “The fact is that the government, like a highwayman, says to a man: 'Your money, or your life.' And many, if not most, taxes are paid under the compulsion of that threat. The government does not, indeed, waylay a man in a lonely place, spring upon him from the roadside, and, holding a pistol to his head, proceed to rifle his pockets. But the robbery is none the less a robbery on that account; and it is far more dastardly and shameful. The highwayman takes solely upon himself the responsibility, danger, and crime of his own act. He does not pretend that he has any rightful claim to your money, or that he intends to use it for your own benefit. He does not pretend to be anything but a robber. He has not acquired impudence enough to profess to be merely a 'protector,' and that he takes men's money against their will, merely to enable him to 'protect' those infatuated travellers, who feel perfectly able to protect themselves, or do not appreciate his peculiar system of protection… Spooner’s Teaching …Furthermore, having taken your money, he leaves you, as you wish him to do. He does not persist in following you on the road, against your will; assuming to be your rightful 'sovereign,' on account of the 'protection' he affords you. He does not keep 'protecting' you, by commanding you to bow down and serve him; by requiring you to do this, and forbidding you to do that; by robbing you of more money as often as he finds it for his interest or pleasure to do so; and by branding you as a rebel, a traitor, and an enemy to your country, and shooting you down without mercy, if you dispute his authority, or resist his demands. He is too much of a gentleman to be guilty of such impostures, and insults, and villainies as these. In short, he does not, in addition to robbing you, attempt to make you either his dupe or his slave. “ - No Treason, No. 6: The Constitution of No Authority, p. 19 Spooner’s Teaching • On Rights – Individuals possess rights inherently due to their nature as human beings “…incapable of being blotted out, extinguished, annihilated, or separated or eliminated from his nature as a human being, or deprived of their inherent authority or obligation.” - Natural Law, p. 2 “To deny the obligation of justice is…to deny the existence of any moral obligation whatever among men, in their relations to each other.” - Natural Law, p. 3 Spooner’s Teaching • On Property – Lockean view; property in justice must be separated from property by legislation • Economics – Money monopoly source of capitalist exploitation of labor “All the great establishments, of every kind, now in the hands of a few proprietors, but employing a great number of wage labourers, would be broken up; for few, or no persons, who could hire capital, and do business for themselves, would consent to labour for wages for another." - A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p. 41 Spooner’s Teaching • On Transition – Jury nullification important source of citizen power in ending unjust laws; use of law to overturn legislation; transition must be peaceful – in accordance with the Science of Justice Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939) • Born in South Dartmouth, Massachusetts • Studied technology; became acquainted with Josiah Warren, Equitable Commerce (1852); “Cost the limit of price” • Turned to publishing; began publishing “Liberty” in 1881 • Instead of a Book (1893) • 1908 fire destroys printing equipment and 30-year stock of books and pamphlets; retires to France Egoistic Utilitarianism “The Anarchists are not only utilitarians, but egoists in the farthest and fullest sense.” - Instead of a Book, p. 21 “Equal liberty means the largest amount of liberty compatible with equality and mutuality of respect, on the part of individuals living in society, for their respective spheres of action.” - Instead of a Book, p. 65. Tucker’s Teaching • Basis – Fulfilling one’s self-interest is the basis of human happiness; equality is necessary for a stable society. • On Law – Law is necessary for maintaining equal liberty; the people, through the jury, are the judges of facts, law, justice of law, applicability and punishment. Tucker’s Teaching • On the State – The State is opposed to Equal Liberty; the State is an organization that aggresses against Equal Liberty and claims authority over all those within a geographic area. All acts of government are dependent upon taxation and therefore invasive. The State monopolizes defense services. Competition would serve individuals better. Tucker’s Teaching • On Society – Society is man’s dearest possession. Society is inseparable from individual life. • Organization of the Stateless Society – Society will be held together by contract through the voluntary association of individuals; such voluntary associations can have “no dominion over a territory.” Voluntary “taxation” as well as payments for service may exist to support the voluntary associations. Tucker’s Teaching • The Stateless Society (cont.) – Mutual insurance companies, mutual banks, and competitive voluntary defense associations will all be prominent institutions replacing the State. Tucker’s Teaching • On Property – Property per se, is unobjectionable. What matters is the distribution of property. Under the current system, the distribution of property is built upon Four Monopolies: – – – – Money Monopoly Land Monopoly Tariff Monopoly Patent Monopoly Tucker’s Teaching • On Property – The Four Monopolies raise prices above costs and produce usury (≡ taking of surplus value). Labor does not receive the full fruits of its production. Free money and credit, Free land, Free trade, and Free intellectual property will increase supply and lower prices to equal costs. All forms of usury - profits, rent and interest- will disappear. Labor will be rewarded its full product. Inequality will not disappear, but only the limited inequality between one laborer’s product and another will remain. Tucker’s Teaching “Nearly all Anarchists consider labor to be the only basis of the right of ownership in harmony with that law [the law of Equal Liberty]…” “…in the case of land, or of any other material the supply of which is so limited that all cannot hold it in unlimited quantities, Anarchism undertakes to protect no titles except such as are based on actual occupancy and use.” - Instead of a Book, p. 131, 61 Tucker’s Teaching • Economics – Tucker possesses the most sophisticated economics of any of the major anarchists. He operates within a theoretical rather than a philosophical framework. He pays attention to “economic” questions. • On Transition – Convince people that their interests demand change; freedom of speech and press; individual resistance leading to general resistance. Tucker’s Teaching “Passive resistance is the most potent weapon ever wielded by man against oppression.” “…fallacious idea that Anarchy can be inaugurated by force.” - Instead of a Book, p.413, 427 Anarchism: Kropotkin and Tolstoy Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) • Born Moscow; father landowner and owner of serfs • 1857-1861; Corps of Pages • 1862-67; Cossack officer • 1867-71; studied Math in St. Petersburg • 1872- joined IWA, came into contact with anarchists • Imprisoned in Russia, escaped to London; expelled from Switzerland in 1877; imprisoned in France 1883 • Actively supports WWI against Germany • Returns to Russia in aftermath of February Revolution 1917 Evolutionary Utilitarianism “A society is an aggregation of organisms trying to combine the wants of the individual with those of co-operation for the welfare of the species in establishing the best conditions for realizing the greatest happiness of humanity.” - Anarchist Communism, p. 4 Kropotkin’s Teaching • Basis – The goal of social evolution is attaining the largest possible human happiness. Fundamental requisites for the attainment of this goal are “the principle of equality” and “the commandment of energy.” – “Do to others as you would have it done to you in the like case.” – “Be strong; overflow with the passion of thought and action: so shall your understanding, your love, your energy, pour itself into others.” - Anarchist Morality, p. 41, 61 Kropotkin’s Teaching • On Law – Legislation is a hindrance to human happiness. Three classes of legislation: protection of property, government, persons. They exist to rob the producer, uphold privilege of nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie, and give a false sense of protection. • On the State – The State is a hindrance to human evolution toward greatest human happiness. The State “What does this monstrous engine serve for, that we call ‘State’? For preventing the exploitation of the laborer by the capitalist? of the peasant by the landlord? or for assuring us of work? for providing us food when the mother has nothing but water left for her child? No, a thousand times no. …’State’ is tantamount to ‘war’ …civil war rages at the same time with foreign war; …the State … has become a weapon of the rich against the exploited; of the propertied against the propertyless.” - Words of a Rebel, p. 14 Kropotkin’s Teaching • On Society – Anarchism is the highest and inevitable form of society. – ”Free associations are beginning to take to themselves the entire field of human activity.” - Anarchist Communism, p. 25 • Organization of the Stateless Society – – Contractual organization of individuals into communes, contractual organization of communes into federations. Kropotkin’s Teaching • On Property – Private property is a hindrance to the evolution of mankind toward greatest happiness. Its effects are chronic crises, unemployment, want and misery in the midst of overproduction. It produces a caste of idlers who are a threat to general morality and offends against justice. Kropotkin’s Teaching • On Wealth – All of the entire accumulated wealth is the product of labor, present and past. – “Every discovery, every progress, every increase in our wealth, has its origin in the total bodily and mental activity of the past and present. Then by what right can any one appropriate to himself the smallest fraction of this vast total and say ‘this belongs to me and not to you.’?” - Conquest of Bread, pp. 8-9 Kropotkin’s Teaching • Economics – Community ownership of all property, consumption as well as producer goods. Community decisions as to production – access dependent upon labor. Shares based upon wants/needs not shares of production. “It will be recognized that every one who co-operates in production to a certain extent has in the first place the right to live, and in the second place the right to live comfortably.” - Conquest of Bread, p. 229. “Free taking of everything in superfluity, and rations of that in which there is a possibility of dearth: rations according to needs, with preference to children, the aged, and the weak in general.” - “Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution,” p. 13 Kropotkin’s Teaching • On Transition – A social revolution will occur – the people taking possession of society’s total stock of goods – extending for several years to complete the social and economic transformation. The “People” will limit the bloodshed because of their sympathy of their victims. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) • Born Yasnaya Polyana, Russia • 1843-1846; student Kazan – oriental languages and jurisprudence • 1847-8; studied jurisprudence at St. Petersburg • 1851-5; served in Caucasus and Crimea as artillery officer • 1861 on; agriculturalist and author • War and Peace; Anna Karenina • My Confession (1879); What I Believe (1884); The Kingdom of God is Within You (1893) “The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions. They are mistaken only in thinking that Anarchy can be instituted by a revolution. But it will be instituted only by there being more and more people who do not require the protection of governmental power…There can be only one permanent revolution - a moral one: the regeneration of the inner man.” - On Anarchy Christianity Matthew 5: 38-39 [Jesus said,] “You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.‘ But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. “ “I needed only to take these words simply and downrightly, as they were spoken, and at once everything in Christ’s whole teaching…was comprehensible to me…and the main gist appeared no longer useless but a necessity; everything formed a whole…” - “What I Believe”, p. 15 Tolstoy’s Teaching • Basis – Christian “True Love,” the setting aside of one’s personal comfort for others due to his life in God. Faith is knowledge of the truth based in reason. • On Law and the State– Rejects Law and the State because both are based upon and upheld by violence. Instead of Law, Love is to be the rule of action. Tolstoy’s Teaching • Kingdom of God – The following of Christ’s teaching, especially the five commandments of the Sermon on the Mount: – – – – – Keep the peace and restore it when broken; Remain true to one another as man and wife; Make no vows; Forgive injury and do not resist evil; Refrain from breaking the peace for the people’s sake. Tolstoy’s Teaching • On Property – Property establishes dominion of possessors over nonpossessors, dividing brothers and sisters into castes, introducing dependency and exploitation. Labor is exploited by those who own land and tools, so that the product of labor passes out of labor’s hands. Property is defended by violence. Tolstoy’s Teaching • Economic Organization – A society based on Love requires a distribution based on its commandments. Two precepts that follow from Love are (1) “Man lives not to be served, but to serve.” (2) “Share what you have with the poor; gather no riches.” Tolstoy’s Teaching • Transition – Self-reform upon the basis of Love; change one’s life to conform with Love, and spread the truth by word and deed.