Albert Bandura

Report
Albert Bandura
1925 -
Theory

Observational Learning
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Vicarious learning and modeling

Behavior is learned intentionally

Can also be learned accidentally
Theory

Involves four mechanisms (processes):

Attention (Observing the behavior):

Involves:
 Development of cognitive capacities and perceptual
skills
 Certain arousal level
 Value of the behavior to the observer
 Characteristics of the model
Theory

Involves four mechanisms (processes):

Retention (Remembering the behavior):

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Remember in images and words
 Makes latent learning possible
Involves cognitive organization
Theory

Involves four mechanisms (processes):

Reproduction (Doing the behavior)


Must be able to do the behavior (No physical response
can occur beyond our physical capability)
Can be enhanced by imagination and practice
Theory

Involves four mechanisms (processes):

Motivation (Wanting to do the behavior)


Unless motivated to do it, behavior will not be imitated
Can include



Past reinforcements or punishments
Promised reinforcements or punishments
Vicarious reinforcements or punishments
Theory

Modeling

Acquiring behavior that we have never
performed by observing the behavior of
someone else
Theory

Factors that influence modeling:

Characteristics of the model:

Most influential if:



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Similar to us
- Same sex
Respected (status and prestige)
- Same age
Considered powerful
- Simple behaviors
Attractive
- Hostile or aggressive
(children)
Theory

Factors that influence modeling:

Characteristics of the observer:


Person with low self esteem and confidence more likely
to imitate than those with high self esteem and
confidence
Person who has been reinforced for behavior is more
influenced than those who are not.
Theory

Factors that influence modeling:

The reward consequences associated with
the behaviors


Rewards must be meaningful
Whether reinforced or punished
Theory

Two other important contributors to
personality


Self-reinforcement (self-regulation)
Self-efficacy
Theory

Self-reinforcement (self-regulation)
 Involves:
 Internal standards of performance (self observation)
 Usually learned from models
 Reference points against which to evaluate behavior
(judgmental processes)
 Self reactions (rewards and punishment)
 As important as external reinforcement
Theory

Self-efficacy


Our adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life
 Perceived self-efficacy ---> our beliefs in the above
Also involves our perception of control (locus of control)
Theory

Self-efficacy based on:


Performance attainment:
 History of success or failure
 Most influential
Vicarious experiences
 Seeing those similar in ability succeed or fail
Theory

Self-efficacy based on:


Verbal persuasion
 Genuine encouragement or discouragement from self or others
Physiological and emotional arousal
 Higher the response – the less self-efficacy
 Lower the response – the higher the self-efficacy
Theory

Self-efficacy can be enhanced by:
 Exposing people to success experiences by arranging
reachable goals
 Exposing people to appropriate models who perform
successfully
Theory

Self-efficacy can be enhanced by:
 Providing positive verbal persuasion
 Strengthening physiological arousal through:
 proper diet
 stress reduction
 exercise programs
Reciprocal Determinism
Environment
(Situation
variables)
Personal Variables
(Psychological
Processes)
Behavior
Theory

Self-Exonerating Mechanisms

Defense mechanisms that allow individuals to act
contrary to their moral principles
Theory

Self-Exonerating Mechanisms


Moral Justification
 Behavior becomes a means of higher purpose
 “I stole so I could provide for my family”
Euphemistic Labeling
 Calling something other than what it really is
 We “waste” or “terminate” people rather than “kill”
them.
Theory

Self-Exonerating Mechanisms


Advantageous Comparison
 Compare to a more heinous or reprehensible act
 “What I did was not as bad as …”
Displacement of Responsibility
 Responsibility rests with recognized authority
 “I was just following orders”
Theory

Self-Exonerating Mechanisms


Diffusion of Responsibility
 Group decision
Disregard or distortion of consequences
 Remove self from ill effects of actions
 “I just let the bombs go and they disappeared in the
clouds”
Theory

Self-Exonerating Mechanisms


Dehumanization
 If looked at as subhuman, can treat inhumanly
 “Why not take their land, they are just savages w/o
souls”
Attribution of blame
 Victim caused the behavior
 “If they hadn’t…then I wouldn’t have”

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