Amazon Andes Review

Report
Yesterday...
• We established the Andes as a continental
mountain range, spanning the west coast of
South America.
• We looked at how people in the Andes
mountains adapt and live at high altitudes.
• We also compared the four climate zones of
the Andes: tierra helado, tierra fria, tierra
templada, and tierra caliente.
YESTERDAY’s Geo-Question:
What are the different
climate zones of the
Andes mountains? How
does each affect life?
Today’s Geo-Question:
How do people adapt to
living in a mountainous
region? What are some
unique features of the
Andes Mountains?
La Paz, Bolivia:
Mountain City
• La Paz is the highest
big city in the world.
It is located at
12,000 feet in the
heart of the Andes
Mountains.
Some More Flash Facts
• The Andes are the longest mountain range in
the world, running the length of South
America’s western coast.
– They’re also the second highest, next to the
Himalayas.
• Lake Titicaca is the largest fresh water lake in
South America.
Getting deeper into the question:
How do people
economically adapt to living
in a mountainous region?
Turn and talk.
One way economic adaptation:
Vertical trade
• vertical trading: the trading of crops between
lowland and highland areas.
• But who trades what and why?
Commercial Crops in the Andes
• Tierra Helada: Quinoa, potatoes. Few other crops.
• Tierra Fria: wheat, barley, corn, apples, and pears.
(terracing)
• Tierra Templada: bananas, oranges (low levels);
corn, beans. Main crop: coffee.
• Tierra Caliente: sugar cane, bananas, rice,
oranges, tomatoes.
Where is the snow line in the Andes?
• At the upper edge of the tierra helado (the
top elevation zone), is the snow line of the
Andes.
• The snow line is where permanent ice and
snow begin. Above this level, snow stays on
the ground year-round.
Vertical trading: BOTTOM UP
• Lowland farmers trade bananas, oranges, and
tomatoes up the mountains to the highland
areas.
– Remember, at the top of the mountain, they can’t
grow these things due to the climate.
Vertical trading: TOP DOWN
• In contrast, highland farmers trade potatoes
and wheat down the mountain to the lowland
areas.
– Remember, due to the incline, these crops are
grown on terraces.
On another note: Into thin air…
• Low elevations have denser air than higher
elevations; there’s more oxygen in the air.
• Why? Gravity pulls air in the atmosphere down
toward Earth.
• The denser the air, the more heat the air can
hold. As you move higher, the air thins and holds
less heat. For every 1000 ft. rise in elevation,
there’s an average 3.5°F decrease in temperature.
AMAZON REVIEW!
How are humans
changing the Amazon
rainforest? What are the
consequences?
Satellite Image from 1992: Red = dense rainforest
Satellite Image from 2006: Red = dense rainforest
MAPS!
vegetation, land use &
resources, elevation.
Where is the
Amazon Basin
again??
Vegetation Zones
of South America
Elevation in
South America
Land Use &
Resources in South
America
Amazon Basin: River & Rainforest
Tropical Rainforest Levels: Floor, Lower story, & Canopy
• tropical rainforest
Cause and effect
• Clear-cutting the rainforest is leading to a
significant loss of biodiversity.
Why is the rainforest
essential to the world?
• It gives us air (oxygen)!...
• carbon-oxygen cycle: the process by which
carbon and oxygen cycle (transfer back and
forth) between plants, people and animals,
and the environment. Think photosynthesis &
respiration.
There are many perspectives on the
land use conflict in the Amazon.
• Geoterms – know definition and understand
relevance.
• Amazon perspectives.
• Andes climate zones and adaptations.
• Location of major landforms in South America:
Andes Mts., Amazon Basin, Amazon River,
Patagonia.
Perspectives Review Activity
• Match the statements to the Amazonian
group! If you finish early, choose the two
groups that you most agree with and write
two more statements that would match.
Quiz Friday
• Geoterms – know definition and understand
relevance.
• Amazon perspectives.
• Andes climate zones and adaptations.
• Location of major landforms in South America:
Andes Mts., Amazon Basin, Amazon River,
Patagonia.

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