Diapositive 1

Report
LINKING RELIEF
REHABILITATION AND
DEVELOPMENT
GROUPE URD
Groupe URD is a French research institute whose main
goal is to:
Improve quality of humanitarian practices through
debate, research, evaluation, capacity building,
training and lobbying.
Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and development
It aims to draw lessons from current experience to inform policy and
programmes, for NGOs, donors, international agencies and governmental
institutions.
The LRRD project focuses on the 6 following sectors:
 Agriculture
 Irrigation and water supply
 Nutrition
 Health
 Urban Development
 Education
And includes a team of 4 technical members from Groupe URD, two
independent consultants, a pool of junior experts, a project coordinator,
permanently based in Kabul, and scientific support from headquarter and
partners in Afghanistan
Main Objectives

Learning and sharing lessons in this period of
political and technical transition, through
multi-sector review
 Increasing and sharing knowledge and experience by
carrying out applied research in rural and urban settings
in specific fields (including food and economic security
and urban development):
- 4 different agrarian systems throughout
Afghanistan
- 3 cities (small/middle/big)
In partnership with interested NGOs
 Contributing to the capacity building efforts of
the relevant ministries and Afghan NGOs
through trainings
Agenda
1.
Focusing on people’s needs
2.
Understanding the context and linkage with
policy making
3.
Rebuilding the state
4.
LRRD: a new set of stakeholders, new trends
A BIT OF THEORY
AND MODELISATION
TYPOLOGY OF CRISES
Development
Development
Crisis
Reconstruction
Emergency
Rehabilitation
The Continuum theory
TYPOLOGY OF CRISES: not that simple
COMBINAISON OF PREVIOUS CASES : THE
CONTIGUUM CONCEPT
1
2
3
4
4
NEED OF NEW METHODS AND APPROACHES

Which can tackle the State building agenda (the peace and democracy
agenda);

Which can ensure that the needs of people are responded to
(vulnerability agenda) and a humanitarian response capacity still
preserved (the Humanitarian Space agenda)

Which can ensure that a vivid civil society can develop and democracy
progressively can nurture (civil and civic agenda)

Which can ensure that economy will progress at the micro and macro
levels (economic agenda)
FOCUSING ON PEOPLE’S
NEEDS
Keeping a focus on people / humanitarian
needs while moving towards reconstruction
and development
Vulnerabilities still need to be address

Remaining vulnerabilities



coexistence of Relief, Rehabilitation and Development needs
high level of structural and circumstantial vulnerabilities
Decreasing focus on vulnerabilities


Phasing out of some « relief donors » and stakeholders
Increased focus on high potential and easy accessible areas
Developing a formal space for humanitarian
interventions in the development strategies
Main challenges:

Integrating vulnerabilities and relief issues in the
current reconstruction and development frameworks

Designing and implementing relevant programmes
adapted to the needs and constraints for vulnerable
areas and/or vulnerable population’s groups

Addressing vulnerabilities in insecure areas
Main requirements
(through the Food Security case study)

Integrating approaches and programmes

Designing specific policies and strategies (drought mitigation, floods control)

Designing specific planning and programming

Designing specific action-research towards difficult areas

Having formal and efficient information, decision making and intervention
systems (early warning systems and preparedness plans)

Long term commitments from the donors

NGOs remain an important stakeholder for implementation /advocacy

More holistic approach (FS or livelihoods conceptual frameworks) for
assessment, monitoring and evaluation is required
CONTEXT UNDERSTANDING & LINKAGE
WITH POLICY MAKING
To fulfil the tremendous requirements for diagnosis in
order to design and adapt policies and programmes to
the context complexity and diversity
Insufficient or inadequate diagnosis



Limited, un-adapted and low-quality diagnosis
(spatial, holistic, …)
Lack of capacities and expertise
Lack of coordination
Challenges:

Highlight the missing information of the relevant
needs and their prioritization

Define and implement a plan of action
Gaps between policy making and field operations
A contrasted situation within the sectors

Lack of interaction:
 NGOs are not able or not willing to participate
 Government and donors do not really seek for NGOs’ views
Suggestions:
 Need to encourage relationships between policy making and field
stakeholders in order to ensure that policy design is fully adapted to
field’s realities
 Donors have a role to play in integrating NGOs in policy design
processes
Case study :
Lack of spatial data in Urban sector
Gap between urban territories and urban responsibilities

The post-crisis changes in urban sector result in the creation of new
urban context and areas

Very few updated spatial information on urban context

Services are not delivered in the illegal settlements (not mapped)

No common spatial references for urban planning, reconstruction and
coordination between the different stakeholders

Some progresses in 2006
 Land tenure issues are finally addressed thanks to its assignment to the
Ministry of Agriculture
 Rehabilitation in Kabul allowed by the recent agreement between KM
and MoUD (KURP)
 Ongoing spatial regional analysis aiming at a balance between the
Urban Land and rural development (SDP)

More progresses are required
 Further diagnosis (geographical, physical, social/technical ,transport….)
 Establishment of a validated document compiling data
 Establishment of flexible city master plans
Urgent need to place urban issues within a spatial and collective
understanding
REBUILDING THE STATE
…after a protracted crisis, and the succession
of different models
Rationalisation of the state

Different factors are hindering the functioning of the Afghan State:
 Lack of fiscal system
 Although efforts made, responsibilities still somewhat blurred
 Ministries and upper administration are still very much subject to cabinet
and political changes
 Human resources management is not always based on competences

Efforts are made to foster a rationalization of the State through the PAR and
PRR processes
 Numerous ministries are going through the PRR process but some
remain at the first stage, the second stage raising more difficulties
 Thus, this process should significantly improve the efficiency at national
and local levels, and need to be implemented quickly in order to improve
notably service delivery and therefore secure stability of the country
Ownership and accountability
in the reconstruction period

After the fall of Taliban, there was a sudden substantial injection of funds
and a mass influx of stakeholders (donors, technical assistants,
consultants, private contractors, IFI, UN agencies, NGOs):
 Clear effort in building and strengthening ministerial capacity and
setting national programmes

However, still limited ownership at all levels
 Donors push for quick impacts in the field (securing peace), and
want to influence policies and often push for their own agendas
through technical assistants
 On donors’ side: is there a long term commitment?
 On government side: still limited “absorption capacity”
Case study:
service delivery sectors, health and education

In education and health sectors, models were set very early on a national scale.
 In health sector it is implemented through PPA and carried out by other actors,
NGOs.
 In education sector, the service delivery is fully managed by the state

Country-wide programmes:
 High expectation
 Limited consultation of the Afghan counterparts in the choice of the strategic
orientations: Ownership? Appropriateness?

Rationalization process ongoing in MoE and MoPH, it is necessary for:
 Sustainability of the services, currently highly dependent on external funds,
 Quality of the services delivered
LRRD: A NEW SET OF
STAKEHOLDERS, NEW
TRENDS
Political agenda
International stakeholders
Security / Poppy
PRTs
Afghan stakeholders
GoA
Donors
IFIs
Communities
Private
sector
Afghan NGOs
Technical
Assistants
Funds
availability
INGOs
UN agencies
Skills / expertise
Humanitarian space
Linking relief, development and… security

Main bilateral donors are investing massive amounts of money in the South of
the country (Kandahar, Uruzgan, Helmand)
 Need to ensure a strong commitment to the south
 What about the buffer zone and the northern part of the country?
 Cost effectiveness, impact and sustainability of the interventions are difficult
to assess (Remote control strategies)
The prerequisite for long-term development in the south in not yet in place.

PRTs are playing an increasing role
 Are PRTs the sole relevant model to work in insecure areas? If, yes what
are they doing in the North…
 Debate on the confusion humanitarian/ military?
 Relevance, cost effectiveness, impact and sustainability of the interventions
are questionable
 Lack of coherence and coordination with other long-term strategies
Sharing responsibilities for building development
Finding the right pace in between building capacities, new roles and
responsibilities
 The state have defined the main policies (master plan, policies, norms and
standards)
 Rules are often overlooked
Ex: Infrastructure sector (quality, sustainability, cost effectiveness)
 Capacities for monitoring and regulations are not yet defined or applied at
the field level

 Abruptness of change in the transition in between stakeholders’ roles

NGOs: key players in the reconstruction process
 NGOs have gathered skills, expertise and in-country experiences
 NGOs are a enabling actor to strengthen the private sector’s development
(food processing entr.)
 Addressing vulnerabilities / Developing the Private sector should come
along
ISSUES AT STAKE
Issues at stake

Equity – balanced development

Civil society and democracy

Long term peace

Crisis-response capacities in the development agenda

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