Slide 1

Report
The ABCs of IAQ
Why Focus on Indoor Air Quality?
What Can We Do?
Deborah Moore
Green Schools Initiative
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Why Focus on Indoor Air Quality?
• Children spend most of their day indoors
• Poor indoor air quality exposes students
and staff to chemical, biological, and
particulate contaminants and pollution.
• Such exposures cause a wide range of
disease and health problems, including
asthma.
• Asthma is single largest cause of school
absences from chronic conditions.
• Absenteeism costs schools lost revenue
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Asthma – A Common Disease
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•
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•
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Affects >30 million people in U.S.
1/3 are children
#1 cause of child hospitalization
#1 child chronic health condition
#1 chronic illness causing school
absences
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Asthma Rising
• 42% overall increase in
the U.S. since 1980
• Among children, 58%
increase since 1980
• Deaths increased by
78%
Changes are too rapid to be genetic
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Report to the California Legislature:
Environmental Health Conditions in
California's Portable Classrooms
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Inadequate flow of fresh air
– inadequate 40% of the time
– seriously deficient 10% of the time
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Ventilation turned off for NOISE.
– 60% of the teachers in portables
– 23% in traditional classrooms
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Equipment in poor maintenance
– Dirty filters, blocked outdoor air dampers, poor
condensate drainage
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The http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/indoor/pcs/leg_rpt/pcs_r2l.pdf
Studies confirm health benefits
of good IAQ
• Respiratory Illness
• “…reduced ventilation rate was associated with increases in
confirmed respiratory illness.” Fisk (2000)
• Dampness associated with asthma.
• Student Absenteeism
• “…lower ventilation rates resulted in increased student absence.”
Shendell et al. (2004), Milton et al. (2000)
• Academic Performance
• “…Performance in both math and reading tests increased with
ventilation rate. Test scores increased about 13% from
classrooms with the lowest ventilation rates” Shaughnessy, R.J.,
et al. (2006)
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Building-Related Illness
• Teachers have been complaining of recurring
headaches, nausea, eye irritation, itchy skin,
difficulty concentrating, and frequent URI
symptoms. They are also complaining of a
musty odor, and black material that may be mold
on the ceiling tiles.
• Building evaluation
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Ventilation rate, condition of ventilation
Temperature, relative humidity
Water intrusion, mold measurements
Gases (including CO, CO2)
VOCs (formaldehyde)
Particulate matter (including fiberglass)
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Sources of contamination
• Germs – human, animal vectors
• Particulates – dust, dirt, exhaust, furniture,
computers
• Dampness – humidity, human respiration
• Mold
• Chemicals – off-gassing from paints,
furniture, carpets, adhesives, equipment,
flooring, pesticides, cleaners
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Control Airborne
Contagion

Pollutants may be viral, bacterial, or
fungal or …
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Control toxic emission
sources from cleaners.
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Control toxics from pesticides
 Cancers – childhood
and adult
 Birth defects and
Reproductive harm
 Developmental
disabilities
 Neurologic toxicity
 Respiratory diseases
(e.g. asthma)
 Endocrine disruption
• Immunotoxicity
Use Integrated Pest Management/IPM 11
Control toxic emission sources
from interior furnishings
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Key Toxicants in School
Buildings
 Formaldehyde, other VOCs, and
SVOCs
 Phthalates (softener used in
polyvinyl chloride or vinyl)
 Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)
 Heavy metals
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Vinyl and its additives
 Vinyl (PVC) - most widely used plastic
 + 14 billion pounds per year in No.
America* - 75% used in construction
and buildings
 Flooring, wall covering, fabric, wall and
corner guards, window treatments, etc.
 Health outcomes
 Creates dioxin (one of most potent
carcinogens known to humans)
 Phthalates – respiratory and other
potential health problems
* American Plastics Council,
Resin Review 2002
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Alternatives Materials Without
Phthalates
 Alternatives w/o phthalates
– non-PVC interior products
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Carpet backing
Furniture
Resilient flooring
Upholstery
Wall coverings
Wall, door, and corner
guards
 Window treatments
Chartwell School, Monterey, CA
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Control pollutants brought in
from the outdoors.
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Optimize Ventilation
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#1 Minimum ventilation rate
in each occupied space.

California Building Code Title 24 Section 121
– “15 cfm per person times the expected number
of occupants.”

Cal-OSHA Title 8 CCR Section 5142
– “The HVAC system shall be maintained and
operated at least the quantity of outdoor air
required by the State Building Standards Code,
Title 24, Part 2, California Administrative Code,
in effect at the time the building permit was
issued.”
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#2 Reduce cooling and
heating loads when
possible.
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Lighting
Envelope Insulation
Solar orientation, glazing and shading
Roofs
Thermal mass
Shading
Equipment-energy star
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#3 Specify 100% outside
air when possible


Avoids recirculation of air
contaminants.
Include energy recovery device to
avoid energy waste
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#4 Aim to use efficient
HVAC components.
Efficient to separate functions
– Ventilation
– Cooling
– Heating
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Filters – Merv 10 or higher
Ducts – keep clean, no biocides
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Energy Efficient Systems are
needed.
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“Report on metrics appropriate for small commercial customers” (PG&E service
territory) , http://buildings.lbl.gov/hpcbs/Element_2/02_E2_P2_1_3.html
#5 Efficient HVAC- Filters
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MERV 10+ ASHRAE
Standard 52.2 or better.
Specify that Digital
Control System and
Energy Management
System monitor and track
filter pressure.
Change filters regularly
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#6 Occupancy sensors
and sequencing inputs
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Use occupancy sensors to turn off when
there are no occupants.
Offer occupant thermal comfort adjustments
Program in hours of operation, temperature
and relative humidity setpoints.
Program in pre-occupancy flush out and
solar night cooling.
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#7 Acoustic limits
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35 dBA max, 55dBC max ANSI
Standard S12.60-2002
See the CHPS relocatable HVAC
system
If the system is too loud it gets turned
off!
http://www.access-board.gov/acoustic/index.htm
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IAQ Resources
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CHPS Guidelines, ASHRAE
CASH FIT Guidebook
State of CA EPP Task Force: Best Practices
Manual
State of California Procurement Contracts:
discounts on products
School Emergency Repair Program: funding for
Williams eligible schools
Proposition 1D Bonds, $100 million incentives for
High Performance Schools
State regulations and technical support from
CADPH, CARB
EPA Tools for Schools, H-Seat
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