Pike Perch larvae shortly after hatching.

Report
PIKE PERCH – a possible new
specie for aqua culture in CHINA
Mr. Morten Tangen,
CEO &President SINOR AS
24. of November 2012
PIKE PERCH
The scientific name is Sander lucioperca (or Stizostedion lucioperca)
ZANDER or PIKE PERCH
• The Zander – or as it is more commonly called
PIKE PERCH, is considered one of the most
valuable food fishes native to Europe. It is
esteemed for its light, firm but tender meat with
few bones and a delicate flavor.
• Although it is not generally bred for food because
of its complex genetics and insufficient conclusive
research for implementation in scaled aqua
culture production, its adaptability makes the
Pike Perch quite sustainable in the wild.
CURRENT SITUATION
• The total world farmed volume of Pike Perch is estimated
by EU not to exceed 500 MT/year - in Europe.
• Biggest farming unit has a yearly production capacity of
100 MT/year slowly building capacity to 150 MT/year. This
farm has 15 trout production plants as main business.
• Breeding technology and know how is low and considered
major risk element.
• Mortality in breeding is up to 80% and considered major
risk element
• Major ongoing research is undertaken
• Consequently, the industry is considered unprofitable but
with a future potential.
CURRENT SITUATION
Pictures from Danish farm; Outdoor trout production
that now is being relocated to indoor RAS facilities.
Bottom picture; Butchering in Denmark.
• European Pike Perch production is located to a
few countries; Finland, Poland, Germany,
Holland & Denmark.
PIKE PERCH CHARACTERISTICS:
• In the wild, grow out weight may come to 15-20 kg.
• In commercial farming, the butchering weight is averaging 0.8 to
1.5 kg while brood stock will typically reach 3 kg+.
• Pike Perch is a mixed specie – carrying instable DNA, a so-called
hybrid.
• Mutations of Pike Perch occurs
• Pike Perch is in its initial life time a cannibal developing into a
predator
• Niche markets are offering premium prices and major supplies (in
commercial terms the wild catches are rather small) are from wild
catch, but declining.
• Pike Perch breeding & farming technologies and methodology are
incomplete in all aspects.
• Future R & D will determine sustainability & profitability for aqua
culture industrialization of Pike Perch.
FEED FOR PIKE PEARCH
• The Pike Perch is still a small and new specie in
RAS aqua culture and for the professional feed
producers.
• Commercial feed for RAS production exists, but is
reflecting the complicated elements of this
developing specie.
• The pike perch is one of the few fresh water fish
in aqua culture, which has to be fed with live feed
during the larval stage.
• A number of formulations providing the fatty
acids, the vitamins mix that is needed both for
the larvae, the grow out stage and for brood
stock applying unique extrusion technology and
coating application of marine fish oils.
MAJOR CHALLENGES for PIKE PERCH
INDUSTRALIZATION
• Regardless of its aggressiveness, the PP is a
“tender” specie that is easily exposed to diseases
outside its natural habitat.
• Breeding is a particular challenge, in terms of
fertilization, hatching of larvae on the “sea bed”
or alternatively in WEISS JARS, feeding live feed to
larvae, cannibalization, possible mutations and
special feed pellets formulas for the various
stages of the life cycle.
• Current PP industry is small and in an initial
learning situation based on trial & fail.
• Hormones are used in the spawning process
The typical fungal infection in
Pike Perch.
FERTILIZATION PROCEDURE;
• High mortality rate due to unproven methodology.
• Pike Perch has a significantly low tolerance for stress,
including being touched by human.
• Anesthetic bath prior to stroking.
• Hormone injection for controlled stroking.
• Eggs are “glued” together and removing eggs
adhesiveness requires implementation of separation
techniques.
• Individual fish must be treated extremely carefully –
both for its tenderness and its ability to pass on
diseases to other elements of the plant.
Pike Perch female during anesthetic
bath with salt addition.
Pike Perch breeder in anesthesia.
Application spawning hormone in
artificial reproduction of Pike Perch
A catheter for sampling Pike Perch
oocytes
Oocytes in the catheter
Adding sperm to the Pike Perch eggs.
Mixed gametes of artificially stripped
Pike Perch
INCUBATION & HATCHINGN
• There exists two methodologies for hatching;
- WEISS JAR (most advanced) or
- SeaBed hatching
• In most cases spawners are collected/caught in
wild and kept in tanks or pounds and are
hormonally stimulated to spawn.
• Comprehensive breeding methodology is pending
THE EXPERIENCE OF A COMMERCIAL
FARMER IN DENMARK;
“The farming primarily takes place in closed
circuit RAS systems.”
“Farming pike perch is an extremely difficult
science, and especially the farming of fry and
juveniles prove difficult, partly due to the
cannibalistic nature of the fish.”
Pike Perch breeder in tank with
controlled water temperature and
aeration.
Pike Perch breeders in pond.
Eggs incubated in Weiss jars in one of
commercial hatcheries
Pike Perch eggs in Weiss jars shortly
before hatching
Grow out tanks for Pike Perch,
- Photo ; biggest commercial plant with annual production of 100 MT/year
.
A wooden frame with net for hatching
Pike Perch – alternative to Weiss Jar.
Pike Perch eggs on the nest during
incubation
Nest (artificial grass) applied for
Pike Perch reproduction
Pike Perch male under the nest.
Dead pike perch male over the nest with developing eggs can be a very
serious source of pathogenic bacteria, viruses or other pathogens, it
should be removed from the water as quickly as it is possible.
Pike Perch larvae shortly after
hatching.
The pikeperch summer fry.
PIKE PERCH – THE PRODUCT
ON THE TABLE
FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATION
• Pike Perch is a high value fish in market demand.
• Current aqua culture production is low.
• It is expected that basic research and development of a
sustainable commercial production scheme will take at
least another 10 years.
• The future potential should be considered good.
• The growth of the industry is uncertain & risky.
• Participation presents two options or risk scenarios;
1. TAKE THE LEAD; Go into industry, establish a major
R&D program accepting substantial investment in R&D,
or
2. Monitor the development and the outcome of the
ongoing research and act upon a proven technology.

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