PIKE PERCH – a possible new specie for aqua culture in CHINA Mr. Morten Tangen, CEO &President SINOR AS 24. of November 2012 PIKE PERCH The scientific name is Sander lucioperca (or Stizostedion lucioperca) ZANDER or PIKE PERCH • The Zander – or as it is more commonly called PIKE PERCH, is considered one of the most valuable food fishes native to Europe. It is esteemed for its light, firm but tender meat with few bones and a delicate flavor. • Although it is not generally bred for food because of its complex genetics and insufficient conclusive research for implementation in scaled aqua culture production, its adaptability makes the Pike Perch quite sustainable in the wild. CURRENT SITUATION • The total world farmed volume of Pike Perch is estimated by EU not to exceed 500 MT/year - in Europe. • Biggest farming unit has a yearly production capacity of 100 MT/year slowly building capacity to 150 MT/year. This farm has 15 trout production plants as main business. • Breeding technology and know how is low and considered major risk element. • Mortality in breeding is up to 80% and considered major risk element • Major ongoing research is undertaken • Consequently, the industry is considered unprofitable but with a future potential. CURRENT SITUATION Pictures from Danish farm; Outdoor trout production that now is being relocated to indoor RAS facilities. Bottom picture; Butchering in Denmark. • European Pike Perch production is located to a few countries; Finland, Poland, Germany, Holland & Denmark. PIKE PERCH CHARACTERISTICS: • In the wild, grow out weight may come to 15-20 kg. • In commercial farming, the butchering weight is averaging 0.8 to 1.5 kg while brood stock will typically reach 3 kg+. • Pike Perch is a mixed specie – carrying instable DNA, a so-called hybrid. • Mutations of Pike Perch occurs • Pike Perch is in its initial life time a cannibal developing into a predator • Niche markets are offering premium prices and major supplies (in commercial terms the wild catches are rather small) are from wild catch, but declining. • Pike Perch breeding & farming technologies and methodology are incomplete in all aspects. • Future R & D will determine sustainability & profitability for aqua culture industrialization of Pike Perch. FEED FOR PIKE PEARCH • The Pike Perch is still a small and new specie in RAS aqua culture and for the professional feed producers. • Commercial feed for RAS production exists, but is reflecting the complicated elements of this developing specie. • The pike perch is one of the few fresh water fish in aqua culture, which has to be fed with live feed during the larval stage. • A number of formulations providing the fatty acids, the vitamins mix that is needed both for the larvae, the grow out stage and for brood stock applying unique extrusion technology and coating application of marine fish oils. MAJOR CHALLENGES for PIKE PERCH INDUSTRALIZATION • Regardless of its aggressiveness, the PP is a “tender” specie that is easily exposed to diseases outside its natural habitat. • Breeding is a particular challenge, in terms of fertilization, hatching of larvae on the “sea bed” or alternatively in WEISS JARS, feeding live feed to larvae, cannibalization, possible mutations and special feed pellets formulas for the various stages of the life cycle. • Current PP industry is small and in an initial learning situation based on trial & fail. • Hormones are used in the spawning process The typical fungal infection in Pike Perch. FERTILIZATION PROCEDURE; • High mortality rate due to unproven methodology. • Pike Perch has a significantly low tolerance for stress, including being touched by human. • Anesthetic bath prior to stroking. • Hormone injection for controlled stroking. • Eggs are “glued” together and removing eggs adhesiveness requires implementation of separation techniques. • Individual fish must be treated extremely carefully – both for its tenderness and its ability to pass on diseases to other elements of the plant. Pike Perch female during anesthetic bath with salt addition. Pike Perch breeder in anesthesia. Application spawning hormone in artificial reproduction of Pike Perch A catheter for sampling Pike Perch oocytes Oocytes in the catheter Adding sperm to the Pike Perch eggs. Mixed gametes of artificially stripped Pike Perch INCUBATION & HATCHINGN • There exists two methodologies for hatching; - WEISS JAR (most advanced) or - SeaBed hatching • In most cases spawners are collected/caught in wild and kept in tanks or pounds and are hormonally stimulated to spawn. • Comprehensive breeding methodology is pending THE EXPERIENCE OF A COMMERCIAL FARMER IN DENMARK; “The farming primarily takes place in closed circuit RAS systems.” “Farming pike perch is an extremely difficult science, and especially the farming of fry and juveniles prove difficult, partly due to the cannibalistic nature of the fish.” Pike Perch breeder in tank with controlled water temperature and aeration. Pike Perch breeders in pond. Eggs incubated in Weiss jars in one of commercial hatcheries Pike Perch eggs in Weiss jars shortly before hatching Grow out tanks for Pike Perch, - Photo ; biggest commercial plant with annual production of 100 MT/year . A wooden frame with net for hatching Pike Perch – alternative to Weiss Jar. Pike Perch eggs on the nest during incubation Nest (artificial grass) applied for Pike Perch reproduction Pike Perch male under the nest. Dead pike perch male over the nest with developing eggs can be a very serious source of pathogenic bacteria, viruses or other pathogens, it should be removed from the water as quickly as it is possible. Pike Perch larvae shortly after hatching. The pikeperch summer fry. PIKE PERCH – THE PRODUCT ON THE TABLE FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATION • Pike Perch is a high value fish in market demand. • Current aqua culture production is low. • It is expected that basic research and development of a sustainable commercial production scheme will take at least another 10 years. • The future potential should be considered good. • The growth of the industry is uncertain & risky. • Participation presents two options or risk scenarios; 1. TAKE THE LEAD; Go into industry, establish a major R&D program accepting substantial investment in R&D, or 2. Monitor the development and the outcome of the ongoing research and act upon a proven technology.