The Ins and Outs of Food Labeling Part 1

Report
2007
The Ins and Outs of Food
Labeling (Part One)
This module is adapted from:
the FDA Food Labeling Guide,
www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/flg-toc.html
Module designed by Tera Sandvik,
LRD, Program Coordinator; Julie
Garden-Robinson, PhD, LRD, Food
and Nutrition Specialist; and Tami
Totland, RD, Program Assistant
The following tips will help you navigate
through each module.
Click the left mouse button or the down
arrow to continue on to the next bullet or
slide.
 Before you begin, you’ll take a presurvey.

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The presurvey will open in a new window.
When you are finished with the presurvey
close the window to return to the module.
A
symbolizes a question slide. You’ll
need to click your mouse once to see the
answer.

A
means you’ll need to go to the site
listed to answer the question.

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
After visiting the site, close the Internet
browser to return to the module.
Click your mouse once to see the answer.
When you are finished with the module,
you will take a post-survey.


The post-survey will open in a new window.
When you are finished with the post-survey,
close the window to return to the module.
Overview

This module provides basic
information about food
labeling. When you have
completed this module, you
should have a general
knowledge of the basic rules
and regulations associated
with food labeling.
Presurvey
Before we begin, let’s take a presurvey to
see how much you already know.
 Click here to begin.
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History of Food Labels
In November 1990, the Nutrition Labeling
and Education Act (NLEA) became federal
law.
 NLEA:
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Requires most foods to bear nutrition labeling
Assists the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) in assuring all foods sold in the U.S. are
safe, wholesome and correctly labeled
Regulates the labeling of nutrient content and
health claims
History Cont.
In 1993, the FDA and Food Safety and
Inspection Service (FSIS) published
detailed regulations defining how to
comply with NLEA labeling requirements.
 NOTE:
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Changes and amendments are being made to
these regulations continuously.
The food industry is responsible for remaining
current with the legal requirements for food
labeling.
History Cont.

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
contains all final regulations issued by the
FDA and USDA by numbered “Titles.”
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Title 9 contains USDA regulations on animals
and animal products.
Title 21 covers FDA regulations on food and
drugs.
The CFR can be accessed via the Internet
at:
http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisi
dx_09/21cfr101_09.html
The function(s) of NLEA include:
A. Requiring most foods to bear nutrition labels.
B. Assisting the FDA in assuring foods are safe,
wholesome and correctly labeled prior to
consumption.
C. Regulating nutrient content and health claims on
food products.
D. All of the above
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “D,” you were correct.
NLEA provides all of the services
listed above.
Where can the latest FDA and USDA
regulations be found?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The Department of Education
The Department of Commerce
The Code of Federal Regulations
None of the above
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “C,” you were correct.
Does your business
qualify for an
exemption?
Exemptions

Certain small businesses and businesses
meeting other specific criteria are excused
from nutrition labeling.

These exemptions apply only if no
nutrition claim or information is on the
product packaging or in advertising.
Foods Under FDA Regulations
The FDA handles all domestic and
imported food sold in interstate
commerce, including shell eggs, but
excluding meat and poultry.
 The FDA also oversees bottled water and
wine beverages with less than 7 percent
alcohol.

FDA Small-business Exemptions
If you qualify for the FDA small-business
exemption and plan to utilize the smallbusiness exemption, your business must
file an annual notice with the FDA.
 If your product or business surpasses the
following criteria, the exemption will
expire within 18 months from that date.

If you answer “yes” to one of the following you
qualify for the FDA small-business exemption.

In my most recent two-year average, my
annual gross sales to consumers equals
less than $500,000 or my annual gross
sales of only food to consumers equals
less than $50,000.
FDA Small-business Exemption Cont.

My business employs fewer than 100
employees (based on the average FTEs)
and has product* sales of less than
100,000 units** for each product.
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* A “product” is defined as a food with the
same brand name and statement of identity.
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** A “unit” is defined as the package or form
in which the product is offered for sale.
Other FDA Exemptions
Julie’s
Coffee
If you answer “TRUE” to any of the following
statements for your business, you may be
excused from nutrition labeling.
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I manufacture a food product that contains
insignificant amounts of all mandatory nutrients
(e.g. plain coffee or tea, some spices).
My business manufactures restaurant and food
service foods sold for immediate consumption.
The food my business produces is ready to eat,
prepared largely on-site and is not sold outside of
that location (e.g. deli or bakery foods).
My business manufactures foods that will be further
processed, packed or labeled at another location.
FDA Exemptions Cont.
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My food product is packaged with less than 12
spare inches of labeling area and no nutrition
claim is made on the product. On the
packaging, I have provided an address or
telephone number where consumers can obtain
nutrition information.
My business manufactures properly labeled
multiunit containers, which consist of unlabeled
individual units. The individual units indicate
they are not labeled for retail sale.
My business sells foods from bulk containers.
The bulk containers are properly labeled.
FDA Exemptions Cont.
My business manufactures or sells singleingredient fish or game meats.
 I produce infant foods, formula or medical
foods (subject to separate regulations).
 The food(s) my business sells are among
the 20 most commonly consumed raw
fruits, vegetables and fish (subject to
voluntary regulations).

USDA Regulations
The USDA oversees all domestic and
imported meat and poultry and related
products (e.g. meat or poultry-containing
stews, pizzas and frozen foods). Also
under USDA control are processed egg
products.
 If you answer yes to the following
statements, you are excused from labeling
requirements.

USDA Exemptions
The food(s) my business produces are
raw, single-ingredient meat and poultry
products (e.g. ground beef, chicken
breasts), which are subject to voluntary
regulations.
 My business employs fewer than 500
employees and has sales of less than
100,000 pounds annually, based on the
most recent two-year average.

USDA Exemptions Cont.

My food product is packaged with less than 12
spare inches of labeling area and no nutrition
claim is made on the product.
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On the packaging, I have provided an address or
telephone number where consumers can obtain
nutrition information.
My business prepares, serves or sells food
products that are:
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ready to eat and are packaged or portioned at
retail
multiingredient products processed at a retail store
restaurant or food service foods
USDA Exemptions Cont.
My business produces a product that
weighs less than ½ ounce net weight
when packaged.
 My business manufactures a food product
that is not for sale to consumers since
further processing or export is intended.

If you voluntarily provide a nutrition
label or health claim, the exemptions
listed above no longer will apply and
you will need to meet all labeling
requirements.
A business qualifies for a small-business
nutrition labeling exemption from FDA when:
A. Annual gross sales to consumers is less
than $750,000
B. The business employs fewer than 100
workers
C. Product sales equal less than 100,000 units
per product
D. B and C
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “D,” you are correct.
What must be provided on the label of a food product
with less than 12 square inches of labeling area?
A. Address
B. Fax number
C. Web site address
D. No information is required
E. All are required
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “A,” you were correct.
True or False: A business that meets the
criteria for an FDA or USDA
exemption, but voluntarily decides to
print a nutrition claim of the product,
still is eligible to claim the exemption.
Click to see the answer.
The correct answer is “False.”
General Labeling Requirements
Five mandatory components must be on a
food label:
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Product Identity
Net Weight
Nutrition Facts (unless exempted)
Ingredient Statement
Place of Business
This information may be located on the
Principle Display Panel (PDP) or
Information Panel.
The above information must be printed in
English.
Principle Display Panel (PDP)

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The PDP is the surface area you are able to
see while walking down the grocery store
aisle.
The height times the width of the PDP
determines the type size requirement of the
food label.
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On cylindrical containers, the surface area of
the PDP can be calculated by multiplying 40
percent of the height by the circumference.
The PDP must include two pieces of
information:
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Statement of identity, or name of food
Net quantity statement, or amount of product
PDP Display
How can consumers identify the PDP
surface of a food package?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The PDP surface is adjacent to the front of the
package.
The PDP surface is the portion of the package
most likely to be seen at the point of purchase.
The PDP surface may be located at the bottom
or top of a food package.
None of the above.
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “B,” you were correct.
What two pieces of information must
the PDP include?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Product identity and Nutrition Facts
Net weight and ingredient statement
Nutrition Facts and place of business
Product identity and net weight
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “D.” you were correct.
Statement of Identity
The statement of identity is the common
or usual name of the product contained in
the package (e.g. “soup” or “cereal”).
 If no common name is given, then a
descriptive name may be used in place
(e.g. vanilla wafers).
 The product identity is required in the
middle portion of the PDP’s front label.
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It should be dominant and stand out from all
other print and pictures on the package.
Statement of Identity Example
What would the statement of identity be on a
can of Superstar’s chicken noodle soup?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Soup
Superstar’s
Chicken noodle
Both A and B
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “A,” you were correct.
Net Quantity Statement

This statement provides the amount of
food in the container or package.
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Located in the lower 30 percent of the PDP
Often at the lower right corner of the front
label
Only the quantity of food in the package is
stated in the net quantity statement
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The weight of the container, wrapping and packing
material may not be included.
The net weight or volume must be listed in
both the U.S. scale and metric scale.
Scales
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U.S. Scale
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Metric Scale
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Ounces
Pounds
Fluid ounces
Grams
Kilograms
Milliliters
Liters
For example, “NET WT 6 oz. (170g)”
would be an appropriate net quantity
statement. The required type size will vary
by the product’s surface area, with a
minimum height of 1/16 inch required.
Net Quantity Statement Example
Which of these is a correct version of a net
quantity statement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
NET WT 1 lb 8 oz (680g)
500 ml (1 pt 0.9 fl oz)
NET WT 2 Large oz (5g)
1 gallon (3.79L)
Click to see the answer.
If you chose “A,” you were correct.
Information Panel
The information panel is the surface area
normally to the right of the PDP.
 This would be the label on the right side of
the box.
 The information label on a jar would be
directly to the right of the PDP.
 On the information panel, we find:
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Nutrition Facts
Ingredient statement
Place of business
Information Panel
Post-survey
Let’s see what you’ve learned.
 Click here to begin the post-survey.


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