Brief History of Concrete and Preservation Consideration

Report
The Preservation Principles of
the Secretary of the Interior’s
Standards for Historic
Preservation Projects
David W. Look, FAIA, FAPT
National Park Service
Pacific West Region
Oakland, California
Approach
Better to Maintain than Repair
Better to Repair than to Replace
Better to Replace than to Restore
Better to Restore than to Reconstruct
Approach of Historic Architects
“If all historic buildings and
sites were well maintained, there would
seldom be a need to restore, rehabilitate,
or reconstruct except for the updating of
systems.”
You are only a success as an Historical
Architect if no one knows you were there
after you finish working on a historic
building.
Lee H. Nelson, FAIA
Approach of Modern Architects
“All great architecture is unique and the
only great architects are those that create
unique buildings.”
“It is impossible to know and meet the
clients needs 20 to 30 years from now so
architects are wasting the clients money if
they construct monumental buildings with
materials that will last forever.” Prof.
Claude Winkelhack
Best Approach
Maintenance is the
Best Form of Preservation
and the Least Expensive
Why Does This Building
Have a Water Problem?
Deferred Maintenance
Costs 3-5 Times More
Than Preventative
Maintenance.
If Maintenance is Deferred
Too Long, the Resource
May be Lost Forever.
What Principles
Guide Work in
Historic Preservation?
Fundamental Principles
Research & Documentation
Authenticity & Integrity
Compatibility
Minimal Intervention
Reversibility
Research & Documentation
Research is investigation aimed at the
discovery and interpretation of facts, the
revision of accepted theories in light of
new facts, or the development of practical
applications of such new revised theories
[National Park Service].
Research
Documentation
Documentation is compilation of both
graphic and written records that explain
and illustrate the significant characteristics
of a historic building, site, structure, or
object. During research and treatment
further documentation is made to record
what was done and why.
Documentation
Authenticity
Authentic is defined as having an
undisputed origin; genuine [The American
Heritage Dictionary of the English
Language].
Authenticity is the condition or quality of
being authentic, trustworthy, or genuine
[The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language].
Authenticity
Integrity
Integrity is the authenticity of a property's
historic identity, evidenced by the survival
of physical characteristics that existed
during its historic or prehistoric period; the
extent to which a property retains its
historic appearance.
Integrity
“Do You Still Have Your
Grandfather’s Ax If It Has Had
3 New Handles and 3 New Blades?”
Lee H. Nelson
Seven Qualities of Integrity
Location
Design
Setting
Materials
Workmanship
Feeling
Association
Location
Quality of integrity retained by a historic
property existing in the same place as it
did during the period of its significance
Historic Building
and Cultural
Landscape have
Never Been Moved
Design
Quality of integrity applying to the elements
that create the physical form, plan, space,
structure, and style of a property
Setting
Quality of integrity applying to the physical
environment of a historic property
Materials
Quality of integrity applying to the physical
elements that were combined to or
deposited in a particular pattern of
configuration to form a historic property
Building with 95+% Integrity and Mature Specimen Trees that are 75-100 years old
Workmanship
Quality of integrity applying to the physical
evidence of the crafts of a particular
culture, people, or artisan
Feeling
Quality of integrity through which a historic
property evokes the aesthetic or historic
sense of past time and place
Association
Link of a historic property with a historic event,
activity or person. Also the quality of integrity
through which a historic property is linked to a
particular past time and place
Will always be associated with the
Agronomist Hoshino Shūtarô, the
Luther Burbank of the Pacific, and
the research done here during the
Japanese and American Periods;
the Art Deco Engineer/Designer,
Yamashita Yasaburô, who also
designed the Saipan Hospital & the
Palau Courthouse in the Art Deco
Style; and the early history of the FSM
Integrity of Material &/or Design
Compatibility
 Compatibility is the principle that no treatment shall
detract from or cause damage to a cultural resource.
This includes both visual and physical compatibility.
Treatments and new work shall be visually compatible in
terms of design, color, texture, massing, size, scale, and
other visual qualities to protect the historic integrity of the
property and its environment. Likewise, the treatments
and new work shall be physically compatible with the
historic materials in terms of coefficients of expansion
and contraction with changes in temperature, shrinking
and swelling with changes in moisture, hardness, etc..
Visual Compatibility
Treatments and new work shall be visually
compatible in terms of design, color,
texture, massing, size, scale, and other
visual qualities to protect the historic
integrity of the property and its
environment.
Visual Compatibility
Physical Compatibility
Treatments and new work shall be
physically compatible with the historic
materials in terms of coefficients of
expansion and contraction with changes in
temperature, shrinking and swelling with
changes in moisture, hardness, etc.
Physical Compatibility
Minimal Intervention
Minimal intervention is the principle that
usually the less change or alteration done
to a cultural resource the more integrity
the resource retains. If each generation
makes major changes or alterations to a
resource, sooner or later there is little or
no resource left to preserve and pass on
to future generations.
Minimal Intervention
Reversibility
Reversibility is the principle that nothing
should be done to a cultural resource that
cannot be reversed or undone without
permanent damage to the resource. In the
future there may be better treatments. If
irreversible treatments are undertaken, the
cultural resource may have permanent
damage and may be prevented from better
treatments developed in the future.
Reversibility
•
Simone Rodia Towers NHL, Watts, CA
Reversibility
Secretary of the Interior’s
Standards for Rehabilitation
David W. Look, FAIA
National Park Service
Pacific West Region
Oakland, California
Preservation
Work, including preliminary measures to
protect and stabilize the property,
generally focuses upon the ongoing
maintenance and repair of historic
materials and features rather than
extensive replacement and new
construction.
Secretary of the Interior’s
Standards for Historic
Preservation Projects
 Preservation
 Restoration
 Rehabilitation
 Reconstruction
Standards are based on:
Research & Documentation
Authenticity & Integrity
Compatibility
Minimal Intervention
Reversibility
Preservation is defined as the act or process of applying
measures necessary to sustain the existing form,
integrity, and materials of an historic property. Work,
including preliminary measures to protect and stabilize
the property, generally focuses upon the ongoing
maintenance and repair of historic materials and
features rather than extensive replacement and new
construction. New exterior additions are not within the
scope of this treatment; however, the limited and
sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and
plumbing systems and other code-required work to
make properties functional is appropriate within a
preservation project [NPS].
Preservation
is defined as the act or process of
applying measures necessary to
sustain the existing form, integrity, and
materials of an historic property.
Preservation
New exterior additions are not within the scope
of this treatment; however, the limited and
sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical,
and plumbing systems and other coderequired work to make properties functional is
appropriate within a preservation project
[NPS].
Preserve
Preservation
Focuses on the Maintenance and Repair
of Existing Historic Materials
and Retention of a Property’s form
as it has Evolved Over Time
Rehabilitation
is defined as the act or process of making
possible a compatible use for a property
through repair, alterations, and additions
while preserving those portions or features
which convey its historical, cultural, or
architectural values [NPS].
Rehabilitation
Acknowledges the Need to Alter
or Add to a Historic Property to
Meet Continuing or Changing Uses
While Retaining the Property’
Historic Character

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