CONSUMER LEARNING

Report
CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE,
LEARNING, AND UNDERSTANDING

Learning--what is it?
One form of
learning...
– Operant conditioning
– Classical conditioning
– Brand loyalty
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Perception
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–
MKTG 371
Characteristics of the senses
Accuracy
Ability to detect change
Attention
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Most useful for
vicarious learning!
Lars Perner, Instructor
1
CLASSICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL
(OPERANT) CONDITIONING
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Consumers (often
unconsciously) link
objects to past
experience
Consequences of
behavior tend to
influence subsequent
behavior
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
2
Another Typology
High
Involvement
Learning
Low
Involvement
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
3
Classical Conditioning
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MKTG 371
Pavlov’s dogs
Objects (stimuli)
associated with a
response may bring
about the response
Credit card studies
Stimuli and
responses
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Classical Conditioning
US
---->
(Unconditioned stimulus)
US + CS
UR
(Unconditioned response)
-----> UR
(Conditioned stimulus)
CS
------> CR
(Conditioned response)
E.g.:
SUGAR
-------> insulin release
SUGAR + Cola Taste
Cola taste
MKTG 371
(CS alone is now
able to bring
CR)
-------> insulin release
-------> insulin release
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
NOTE: UR and CR
represent the same
behavior, but causes
differ
Lars Perner, Instructor
5
Consumer Examples
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Advertising:
pairing product with
images of desired
affect
Product: Evoke
image of object
associated with
positive affect (e.g.,
Mustang; Coke Bottle)
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
6
Making Classical Conditioning
Work
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Appropriate symbols
(for the population
in question) to elicit
emotion
NOTE: Test stimuli
for desired effect!
Repetition
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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INSTRUMENTAL (OPERANT)
CONDITIONING
REINFORCEMENT
BEHAVIOR
NOT the
same thing!
MKTG 371
{
LIKELIHOOD
OF
BEHAVIOR
NEGATIVE
REINFORCEMENT
PUNISHMENT
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
LIKELIHOOD
OF
BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor
8
Reinforcement: An Example
You eat a cake (behavior)
----> good taste (reward)
----> more likely to eat cake
on another occasion
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
9
Negative Reinforcement
(not the same as punishment!)
Aversive stimulus exists
Behavior ----> termination of aversive
stimulus
----> repetition of behavior
during aversive stimulus
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
10
Negative Reinforcement: An
Example
Headache (aversive stimulus)
Aspirin (behavior) ---> Headache
cessation
----> Likely to consume
aspirin during future
headaches
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
11
PUNISHMENT
Behavior ----> Negative
consequences
-----> Behavior less
likely to be repeated
when punishment is
anticipated (mostly)
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
12
Punishment: Examples
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MKTG 371
Parking meters
Gas taxes
Restocking fees
Fees for non-ATM
banking transactions
Over-base rate
utility charges
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
13
More Punishment Examples
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Voidance of
warranty if product
is serviced by
competitor
Social ostracism for
failure to wear
deodorant
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Reinforcement Effectiveness
Temporal proximity--conditioning is
more effective if consequences
immediately follow behavior (delayed
reinforcement is much less effective)
 Recognition of relationship between
behavior and consequences
 Schedules of reinforcement--variable
ratio is most effective
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MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
15
Strength of Learning
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Importance
Involvement
– Product
– Message—e.g.,
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Mood
– Mixed research results
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AFLAC Insurance
Energizer Bunny
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MKTG 371
More elaboration and
associations during
positive mood if the
association is
pleasurable
Happy people may seek
to avoid thinking to
avoid spoiling the good
mood
Individuals will tend to
be more critical of
claims under bad mood
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
16
Extinction
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MKTG 371
Behavior which is
not reinforced tends
to become extinct
gradually
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed interval
 Fixed ratio
 Variable ratio
resistant
 Variable interval
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MKTG 371
<------ Most
to extinction
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Shaping
Behavior approximating
desired kind level
e.g., buying new
product on sale
Increased requirements,
when met
e.g., magnitude of sale
gradually decreased
MKTG 371
------> Reward
-------> Reward
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Shaping: Possible Examples
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Introduction of fruit flavored
soft drinks in Indonesia prior
to Coca Cola
New products given premium
shelf space in the beginning
Premium given with purchase
of new product
In-store demonstrations of
new products
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Note that marketers’
power tends to be
limited
Lars Perner, Instructor
20
Instrumental (Operant)
Conditioning In Practice
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MKTG 371
Marketers typically do not have the power to
significantly reward or punish people
greatly-- typically have little power to
directly influence people’s experience
Note that many rewards and punishments
are significantly delayed
Better able to influence vicarious learning
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
21
Brand Loyalty vs. Habit
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Habit: consumer
picks product
without much
thought; may be
due to convenience
Loyalty: consumer
actively seeks out
product
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Loyalty...
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MKTG 371
Multibrand loyalty
How strong?
...or lack of it.
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Stimulus Generalization
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“Rub off” effect
A slightly different stimulus may not be
discriminated
Both discrimination and generalization are
evolutionarily adaptive
– Categorizing of like objects (e.g., lions, alphabet
letters)
– Distinction between dangerous and safe entities
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Developing Brand Loyalty:
Tricks and Traps
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Product quality --->
satisfaction
Sales promotions
Stealing loyal consumers
away from others--is it
worth it?
Price
– value
– exclusiveness
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
25
Memory
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Level of conscious intent
– Explicit memory
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Deliberate attempt to
retrieve information
– Implicit memory
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Information automatically
recalled
– E.g., associations
– E.g., routine information
(social security and
phone numbers, web site
addresses)
MKTG 371
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Associative Network of
Knowledge
– Pieces of experience and
information (nodes) are
tired together
– “Activating” one node will
tend to activate others
which in turn will activate
still more nodes
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E.g.,
– Thinking of marketing
class may activate name
of a soft drink always
consumed by the
instructor
– The soft drink may have
more “competing” links
and may not activate the
professor
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
26
Memory
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Short term (compare to RAM --->
volatile)
– mnemonic devices (e.g., 1-800-FLOWERS)
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STM
Long term (compare to hard disk --->
longer in duration but imperfect--”I
remember it well…”)
REHEARSAL
LTM
DECAY
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
27
Turning STM into LTM
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“Rehearsal””—repetition of information
– By consumer (e.g., phone number)
– By advertisement
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Elaborative activities—thinking of the object
to strengthen its association with other
nodes and maintenance
Extinction from long term memory
– E.g., old phone numbers; how to use an old
computer program; loss language skills
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
28
Scripts: The Way to Do Things
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Procedure for doing various
things learned over time
E.g., restaurant script:
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MKTG 371
make reservation
travel to restaurant
await seating
order drinks
study menu
order
have dessert and/or coffee
pay check and leave tip
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
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Implications of Scripts
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Check car odometer
If more than 3,000 miles,
– go to Joe’s garage or
– look in yellow pages for garages
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Ask mechanic for oil change
When asked which brand of oil
– select Pennzoil or
– think about which brand to use
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
If you were
Joe or
Pennzoil, which
script would
you prefer?
Lars Perner, Instructor
30
Positioning and Repositioning
Working with existing perceptions
 Research to identify perception and
associations of products—Perceptual
Maps
 Repositioning
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– Very difficult—may be more cost effective
to develop a new brand
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
31
Brand Equity and Leverage
Consumer associations with product
are valuable
 Brand leverage (brand extensions,
brand “family,” “umbrella” branding)
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– Use of appropriate associations
– May involve brand style rather than
product similarity
– Concept testing is important
MKTG 371
LEARNING, MEMORY, AND POSITIONING
Lars Perner, Instructor
32

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