Gianmaria Collazuol Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa

Report
st
1
Workshop on “Photon Detection”
(13-14 JUNE ,2007 PERUGIA)
Risultati sperimentali ed applicazioni dei
SIPM a pixel ed a matrice dell’FBK-irst da
parte della collaborazione DASIPM
Alberto Del Guerra
Department of Physics and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,
Pisa, I-56127 Italy
Spokesman of the DaSiPM2 collaboration:
University and INFN Bari, Bologna, Perugia, Pisa, Trento and FBK-irst (Trento), Italy
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
1
SUMMARY
●
●
●
SiPM features
●
Gain
●
Noise
●
PDE
●
Dynamic Range
●
Time Resolution
●
Dependence upon temperature
●
Radiation Damage
SiPM performance w/Scintillators (i.e., LSO/LYSO)
●
Energy resolution
●
Timing resolution
●
Magnetic field  MRI
●
ASIC
PET Application (FP7 project: COMPANION)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
2
Example: SiPM technology at IRST (TN, Italy)
20
n+
7E+05
p
6E+05
18
5E+05
17
4E+05
16
3E+05
15
2E+05
14
1E+05
13
0E+00
n+
(V /c m )
D o p in g
F ie ld
p
fie ld
19
0
0 .2
0 .4
0 .6
0 .8
d e p th (u m )
1
1 .2
fully
depleted
region
4 µm
 epi
E
D o p in g
c o n c . (1 0 ^ ) [1 /c m ^ 3 ]
Shallow-Junction GM-APD
≈
Substrate
500 µm
p+
1 .4
Optimization for the blue light (420nm)
• Thin high-field region (max. doping of p layer  also fixes low VBD )
• Trenches for optical insulation of cell (low cross-talk)
• Fill factor 20% - 30% (to be optimized)
• RQ with doped polysilicon
C.Piemonte NIM A 568 (2006) 224
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2
1mm
1mm
• n+-on-p layer structure
• Anti-reflective coating (ARC) optimized for λ~420nm
• Very thin (100nm) n+ layer (“low” doping  min. recombination)
SiPM geometry: 1x1mm2
• 25x25 cells
• cell size: 40x40 mm2
Collaboration
3
Dynamic range
SiPM output = sum of binary
SPAD output !
The output signal is
proportional to the number of
fired cells as long as the
number of photons in a pulse
(Nphoton) times the
photodetection efficiency PDE
is significant smaller than the
number of cells Ntotal.
Saturation
N

PDE
photon

eg:
20% deviation from linearity
N
A

N

N

(
1

e total
)
if 50% of cells respond
firedcells
total
Best working conditions: Nphoto-electrons < NSiPM cells
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
4
Time resolution - Experimental Method
• SiPM exposed to pulsed femto-second laser
in low light intensity conditions (single photon)
• SiPM signal is sampled at high rate and
the time of the pulses measured
by waveform analysis
• Time resolution measured by studying
the distribution of time differences between
successive pulses (on the same SiPM device)
(G.Collazuol et al. VCI 07)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
5
Experimental Setup (CNR Pisa)
Millenia V (Spectra-physics)
solid state CW visible laser
pump laser
conversion 800 nm  400 nm
efficiency at % level
Ti:sappire
laser
Tsunami (Spectra-physics)
femtosecond pulsed laser
Analog bandwidth: 6GHz
Sampling rate: 20GS/s
Vertical resolution: 8 bits
Dark box
(Aknowledments:
E.Marcon, LeCroy)
SiPM +
amplifier
SHG
Mode-locked
Ti:sapphire Laser
LeCroy SDA 6020
Low noise LV
suppliers
Crystal for Second
Harmonic Generation (SHG)
Pump Laser
External trigger from
Ti:sappire laser signal
Filters
blue + neutral
for rejecting IR light
and tune intensity
Electronics
wavelength: tuned at 800±15 nm
pulse width: ~ 60 fs
pulse period: ~ 80MHz
pulse timing jitter < 100 fs
-Vb
Cb
Rs
I  V conversion via RL (500Ω)
Two stage voltage amplification (= x50)
based on high-bandwidth low-noise
RF amplifier: gali-5 (MiniCircuit)
Zin= 50Ω
(Aknowledments:
F.Morsani and L.Zaccarelli, INFN-Pisa)
hn
Data taking conditions:
• different Vbias
SiPM
gali5
gali5
• both at 800 nm and 400 nm
CC
CC
CC
• with different light intensities
RL
(counting rates
in the range 10-20 Mhz
GND
ie 15-30 KHz per single cell)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
Vout
6
Single photon timing resolution
Overvoltage=4V
Laser
period
FIT: gauss+const
λ=400nm
1 p.e.
∆t
2 p.e.
Mod (∆t,Tlaser) [ns]
Data at λ=800nm
fit gives reasonable χ2 with an
additional exponential term exp(-Δt/t)
Overvoltage=4V
FIT: gauss+const
+exponential
λ=800nm
•Δt ~ 0.2-0.8ns in rough agreement
with diffusion tail lifetime: Δt ~ L2 / p2 D
if L is taken to be the diffusion length
• Contribution from the tails ~ 10-30%
of the resolution function area
Mod (∆t,Tlaser) [ns]
Distributions of the difference in time between successive
peaks (modulo the measured laser period T laser=12.367ns)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
7
IRST – single photon timing
high-field
region
• λ = 800 nm
• λ = 400 nm
— contribution from
noise and method
(not subtracted)
neutral
region
hν
e–
e–
h+
n+ p
h+
p
p+
depletion region
eye guide
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
8
CPTA – single photon timing
a) Green-Red sensitive
SSPM 050701GR_TO18
b) Blue sensitive
SSPM 050901B_TO18
• l = 800 nm
• l = 400 nm
eye guide
Two different structures:
a) thick n+/p
b) p+/n deep junction
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
9
Comparison with Hamamatsu devices
1600 cells (25x25)
400 cells (50x50)
• l = 800 nm
• l = 400 nm
eye guide
HPK-3
HPK-2
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
10
IRST – timing studies
Dependence of single photon timing
on the light spot size and position
Dependence of SiPM timing on the
number of simultaneous photons
By using pinhole in front of the SiPM
No pinhole
Ø=200mm
Ø=25mm
Ø=10mm
Poisson statistics:
σt ∝ 1/√Npe
•
λ=400nm
Overvoltage = 4V
contribution from noise subtracted
Over-voltage = 3V
— fit to c/√Npe
Over-voltage = 5V
No relevant spread
 Uniformity of rise-time
among different cells
N of simultaneous photo-electrons
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
11
Thermal-electrical characterization 1/4
●
Ileak vs Bias vs Temperature
M. Petasecca et al.,
Perugia (2007)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
12
Thermal-electrical characterization 2/4
●
Vbreakdown vs Temperature
M. Petasecca et al.,
Perugia (2007)
(**) K.G.McKay,Avalanche Breakdown in
Silicon,Physical Review,Vol.94 Number 4,
May 1954
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
13
Thermal-electrical characterization 3/4
●
Gain vs Bias vs Temperature
M. Petasecca et al., Perugia(2007)
The residual Gain
dependence is due to
the variation of Pt with
temperature.
…but the Breakdown
voltage is dependent with
the temperature so…
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
14
VARIATION with TEMPERATURE
Variation of Vbk and Gain with 1 °C ∆T
FBK-SiPM
APD
∆Vbk /Vbk(@300K) %
~0.2  0.1
∆Vbk [mV]
~ 60 30
60-200 **
∆G/G(@300K) %
~ 3 1.5
3.4*
** J.P.R. David and G.J.Rees, RAD Hard Workshop 2003
* Spanoudaki et al., IEEE NSS-MIC 2005
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
15
Radiation damage
Expected effects:
1) Increase of dark count rate due to introduction of generation centers
The effect is the same as in normal junction diodes:
• independent of the substrate type
• dependent on particle type and energy
• proportional to fluence
Dark rate increase
DDC~ Pt/qe• α ΦeqVoleff
where α ~ 3 x 10-17 A/cm is a typical value of
the radiation damage parameter for low E hadrons
and Voleff ~ AreaSiPM x GF x Wepi
C.Piemonte
FNAL 25/10/2006
2) Increase of after-pulse rate due to introduction of trapping centers
 loss of single cell resolution
The few existing preliminary measurements are in agreement with
expectations for the radiation damage parameter a within a factor
of 2 (Musienko and Danilov, VCI07)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
16
Radiation damage
Dark count rate increase
~ Positron 28 MeV
(8*10**10 cm**2)
M.Danilov - VCI07
CALICE collaboration
MEPhI/Pulsar SiPM
Photonique/CPTA device
Y.Musienko – Vienna VCI 2007
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
17
Summary of SiPM features
Most important features of a SiPM are:
• sensitivity to extremely low photon fluxes
providing proportional information with excellent resolution
and high photon detection efficiency
• extremely fast response with low fluctuation (sub-ns risetime and <100ps jitter)
More features:
• low bias voltage (<100V)
• low power consumption (<50µW/mm2)
• long term stability
• insensitive to magnetic fields (up to 15T) and EM pickup
• robust and compact
• low cost (in the future!  now ~140$/mm2) + low peripheral costs
Technology parameters: may be tuned to match the specific application
● silicon quality (dark rate, after-pulse)
● doping concentration (operating voltage and its range)
● layer structure and thickness (PDE wavelength range, optical cross-talk)
● optical cell insulation (optical cross-talk)
● effective area of the cells (gain, fill factor, dynamic range, recovery time)
● quenching resistor (recovery time, dynamic range)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
18
Great variety of possible applications
Calorimetry in magnetic fields
● Fiber tracking (spectrometers, beam monitoring)
● Particle ID (TOF, RICH, fast timing with cherenkov,
Transition Radiation)
● Astroparticle (Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes)
● Space applications (calorimetry, traking, TOF)
● Medical imaging (PET) + timing + magnetic and RF fields (MRI)
● Thin scintillators read-out
● Time resolved X-Ray correlation spectroscopy
● Fast timing applications
●
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
19
Medical imaging (PET)
Many photons application
Blue sensitive SiPM
Aims: PET detectors with
• high spatial resolution (sub-millimeter)
• high sensitivity (low dose or  high signal/background ratio)
• high time resolution (TOFPET  background rejection)
• DOI capability (no or  less parallax)
• no sensitivity to magnetic fields, EM pickup and RF (simultaneous NMR scan)
Key issues:
• Granularity: matrices of SiPM
• High PDE for short wavelengths (420nm):
• for coupling to high light yield crystals (scintillators)
• max E resolution  high efficiency to reject
background Compton scattering
• Optical coupling with scintillator
• Dynamic range and recovery time: multi cell signal saturation and fluctuation
• Gain stability with V and T: individual control of O(10000) channels
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
20
Matrices of SiPM - IRST
The first matrices of 2x2 blue sensitive
SiPMs have been developed at IRST
G.LLosa et al. IEEE NSS 2006 CD record M06-88
To avoid the anode wire bonding on the active surface
aim to use the 3D technology at IRST to have a
conducting contact to bring the anode to the backside.
SEM photograph of a section of a 3D detector
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
21
SiPMs
22Na
Source
Typical spectrum
R ~ 21.0 % FWHM
Scintillator
crystals
A 22Na spectrum was obtained with a
1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm LSO crystal
coupled to a SiPM (GF~30.9%)
Best spectrum
Two devices were operated in time
coincidence. A typical energy resolution
of 21% FWHM was obtained.
World best resolution w/ LSO (3x3x20) and
PT XP2020 10%(FWHM) [intrinsic 8.9% at
511 keV] [Balcerzyk et al., IEEE TNS 47(2000)1319]
R ~ 17.6 % FWHM
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
22
Energy resolution vs. different bias
9/18/06
poiché…
23
Scintillator readout with SiPM matrices
- LSO crystal (1x1 mm2) coupled to one pixel
- time coincidence with a PMT
M6 @ 35.7
R ~ 29%
9/18/06
24
Scintillator readout with SiPM matrices
- LSO crystal (1x1 mm2) put in the centre
- time coincidence with a PMT
- gain calibration with a LED
M6 @ 35.7
R ~ 30%
9/18/06
25
Timing: set up
SiPM
LSO
CFD
thresh1
thresh2
Time
coincidence
delay
trigger
scope
∆t
9/18/06
26
Timing: cosa ci aspettiamo dalla teoria?
*
Dove…
<N> = numero medio di fotoni
Q = CFV * <N>
 = tempo di decadimento dello scintillatore
Se…
 = 40 ns per LSO
<N> ~ 100 per il fotopicco
Triggerando sul primo fotone Q=1
 ~ 400 ps
9/18/06
Triggerando al 20% Q=20
 ~ 1.78 ns
*Post, Schiff Phys. Rev. 80 p.1113 (1950)
27
Timing: risultati
Miglior risultato
ottenuto
 = 600 ps
9/18/06
28
SiPM in ststic magnetic field + gradient
Magnet 1T
Pulse
generator
LED
SiPM
Shielded
electronics
External trigger from
gradient amplifier
LED trigger
scope
SiPM signal
integrated and
histogrammed
55 µs
9/18/06 SiPM
signal is acquired while the gradient is increasing
29
single SiPM in magnetic resonance: Z gradient on
Black: reference spectrum
acquired inside the magnet with
the gradient off
Red: spectrum acquired with the
gradient on
SiPM dark signal
Pickup coil signal
9/18/06
30
single SiPM in magnetic resonance: Z gradient on
Black: reference spectrum
acquired inside the magnet with
the gradient off
Red: spectrum acquired with the
gradient on
LSO (1x1 mm^2) - 22Na - no coincidence
R~29.6%
R~30.4%
9/18/06
Spectra can be superimposed if
acquired in a short time
31
SiPM electrical model
Rq: quenching resistor
(hundreds of kW)
Cd: photodiode capacitance
(few tens of fF)
Cq: parasitic capacitance in
parallel to Rq (smaller than Cd)
Cg : parasitic capacitance due
to the routing of the bias
voltage to the N microcells,
realized with a metal grid (few
tens of pF)
IAV: current source modelling
the total charge delivered by a
microcell during the avalanche
 A parameter extraction procedure has been developed, based on both static and
dynamic measurements, to perform realistic simulations.
9/18/06
32
Validation of the parameter extraction procedure
Two different amplifiers have been used to read-out the detector
a)
Transimpedance amplifier
BW=80MHz, Gain=2.7kW
9/18/06
b)
Voltage amplifier
BW=360MHz, Gain=140
The fitting between simulations and measurements is quite good
33
Front-end electronics: main specifications
 Self-triggered electronics
 Dynamic range: about 50% of SiPM micro-cell occupancy
( SiPM gain  106 , no of micro-cells = 625  total charge  48pC )
 The required jitter for the self-trigger signal (few hundreds of picoseconds) calls
for large bandwidth (about 250MHz)
 Power consumption: about 2mW per channel
 Threshold for the self-trigger signal: adjustable, from few micro-cells to the full
dynamic range
 Important feature: fine adjustment of the SiPM bias voltage
9/18/06
34
Front-end architecture
Vdd
M:1
SiPM
To current
discriminator
Cf
Current
buffer
VBIAS
Rf
Peak
detector
Shaper
Vdd
-
+
+
Baseline
holder
-
Vbl
+
 The front-end is based on an input current buffer, which allows to achieve large bandwidth
and dynamic range.
 An output branch of the current buffer, suitably scaled, is sent to an integrator, which
extracts the charge information.
9/18/06
35
 Another output branch goes to a current discriminator, which provides the self-trigger
signal.
The current buffer
 A prototype of the input current buffer has
been designed, based on a current
feedback scheme
Vcc
M5
 Vref can be used to vary the bias voltage
of the detector, which is DC coupled to the
front-end
Vg2
M4
M3
M2
Vref
M1
 Simulated input impedance  20W
Iout
SiPM
M0
 The technology used is a standard 0.35mm
CMOS
 Simulated bandwidth (including the SiPM
model connected at the input)  250MHz
Vg1
 Noise negligible
 Dynamic range equivalent to about 300
micro-cells
9/18/06
36
Current buffer: first measurements
Output waveform of the test board as a function of the
SiPM bias voltage
Peak of the output waveform as a function of the
SiPM bias voltage
 A test board which performs current-to-voltage conversion and amplification has been
realized
 An infrared pulsed laser has been used as optical source (about 260 micro-cells hit)
 The bias voltage of the detector has been varied from 32.5V to 36V
9/18/06
 The measurements show the good linearity performance of the current buffer.
37
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
38
Proposal COMPANION for FP7
COMPANION - COmbined MRI-PET for small ANimal-Imaging
in Oncology and Neurology
●
Development of a combined PET/MRI scanner for small animals.
●
[Submitted 19 April. Results end June. (Start 1 Jan 2008?)] - 8 groups from 4 countries:
Institution
Main tasks
1 UP
University of Pisa
Pisa, Italy
Simulation+ PET construction + testing
2 FBK
IRST
Trento, Italy
Photodetectors development
3 PB
Politechnic Institute of
Bari
Bari, Italy
ASIC development
4 WBIC
Wolfson Brain Imaging
Center
Cambridge,UK
Gradient development + preclinical
application in neurology
5 CC
Cancer Institute of
Cambridge
Cambridge,UK
Preclinical application in oncology
6 UV
University of Valencia
Valencia,
Spain
Simulation+ image reconstruction +
attenuation correction
7 UM
Technical University of
Madrid
Madrid, Spain
Readout system + image reconstruction
8 TEI
Technological
Educational
Institute of Athens
Athens,
Greece
Simulation +Image fusion and motion
correction
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
39
Design
●
PET/MRI imposes hard restrictions:
●
Space limitation inside the MR scanner.
Sensitivity to magnetic fields.
Attempts with light guides and APDs.
Split gradient coil with the PET tomograph placed inside (20 cm outer radius to fit inside
standard magnets from 7 to 11T).
PET inner diameter: ~12 cm to accommodate inside RF coils and rat/mouse bed.
Maximum axial length: 8 cm. Maximum transaxial thickness: 2.5 cm.
●
●
•
•
•
≤ 2.5 cm
8 cm
PET ring
20 cm
~12 cm
Split gradient
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
40
PET design
●
The PET tomograph consists of a ring composed of 16 detector heads.
●
The heads are: LSO slab 7.2 cm long x 2.4 cm wide x 1 cm thick;
●
Read out by SiPM matrices. Total thickness ~1.8 cm.
≤ 2.5 cm
≤ 2.5 cm
2.4 cm
2.4 cm
7.2 cm
12.4 cm
12.4 cm
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
41
Scintillator
●
●
●
LSO continuous scintillator slab 7.2 cm x 2.4 cm
x 1 cm thick with matrix readout.
Simulations predict better performance than
detector heads with pixellated crystals. Better
spatial resolution, possible DOI (even with one
layer).
Readout by SiPM matrices and dedicated ASIC
SiPM matrix
LSO crystal slab:
72 mm x 24 mm
10 mm thick
24 mm
10 mm
72 mm
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
42
Matrices
●
Matrices: Aim- backplane readout
●
Phase 1: Matrices with lateral readout (1 mm x 1 mm SiPM elements in
1.5 mm x 1.5 mm pitch).
●
Phase 2: Matrices with backplane readout (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm in 1.5 mm
x 1.5 mm pitch -Almost no dead area).
● Improved PDE (PET efficiency).
● Same layout, number of channels
● Development in parallel. Not delaying the PET scanner construction.
● Technology already developed at IRST.
● Final decision according to performance, yield...
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
43
Possible layout
LATERAL READOUT.
SIDE VIEW
scintillator
~1.8 mm
support
SiPM matrix
ASICs
24 mm
cooling
pipes
TOP VIEW
72 mm
BACKPLANE READOUT.
holes to reach the sensor
… … …
support
fan-out
… … …
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
44
Simulation results
●
Expected performance (GEANT4):
●
FOV axial 7 cm, transaxial FOV ~6 cm.
●
spatial resolution at the CFOV , below 1mm3.
●
efficiency around 11% for an energy threshold of 250 keV.
Better than Siemens INVEON
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
45
Conclusions
SiPM might really replace PMT in many applications, due to their
• sensitivity to extremely low photon fluxes
• extremely fast response
IRST developed devices with excellent sensitivity to blue:
• devices working as expected
• very good reproducibility of the performances
• very good yield
• very good understanding of the device
• flexible geometry (linear and 2-D matrices under development)
Photo-detection efficiency (IRST devices):
• Quantum efficiency: > 95% in the blue region (optimized for 420nm)
• Triggering probability: growing linearly with overvoltage
• Geometrical fill factor: 15-30% to be optimized  44-76% soon available
Single photon timing resolution (IRST devices):
• σt at the level of 50ps for typical working overvoltage (4V)
• σt at the level of 20ps for ~15 photoelectrons
Applications of SIPM in various fields are under development (e.g. PET)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
46
Publications by the Collaboration (2006-2007)
1.
F. Corsi, et al.. “Modelling a Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM) as a signal source for optimum front-end design”, NIM A, 2007, 572,
416-418.
2.
V.Bindi, et al., “Preliminary Study of Silicon Photomultipliers for Space Missions”, NIM A 2007, 572, 662-667.
3.
N.Dinu, et al., “Development of the first Prototypes of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) at ITC-irst”, NIM A, 2007, 572, 422-426.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
C.Piemonte, et al., “Characterization of the first prototypes of Silicon Photomultipliers fabricated at ITC-irst”, IEEE Trans Nucl
Sci. 2007, 54(1), 236-244.
C.Piemonte, et al.,“ New results on the characterization of ITC-irst Silicon Photomultipliers”, Conference Records of the 2006
IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, San Diego, USA, October 29-November 4, 2006, cd_ROM,
N42-4.
G.Llosa, et al.“Novel Silicon Photomultipliers for PET application” Conference Records of the 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science
Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, San Diego, USA, October 29-November 4, 2006, cd_ROM, M06-88, and submitted
to IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.(2006).
F.Corsi, et al., “Electrical characterization of Silicon Photo-Multiplier Detectors for Optimal Front-End Design” Conference
Records of the 2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, San Diego, USA, October 29-November
4, 2006, cd_ROM, N30-222.
G. Collazuol, et al., “Single timing resolution and detection efficiency of the ITC-irst Silicon Photomultipliers”, presented at the
XI VCI, Vienna 19-24 February 2007, accepted for publication in NIM A (2007)
G.Llosa, et al.,”Silicon Photomultipliers for very high resolution small animal PET and PET/MRI”, to be presented at the Second
International Conference of the European Society for Molecular Imaging, Napoli, Italy, June 14-15, 2007 (Abstract)
G.Llosa et al. “ Novel Solid State detector and their application to very-high resolution PET and Hybrid Systems.” to be
presented at the ENC 2007, Brussels, 16-19 September 2007, and submitted to Radiation Protection Dosimetry
A. Del Guerra “Silicon photomultiplier(SIPM): the Ideal Photodetector for the Next Generation of TOF, DOI, MRI compatible, High
Resolution, High Sensitivity PET”, to be presented at the “Joint Molecular Imaging Conference” , Sept 8-11, 2007, Rhode Island,
NY(USA)
●
+ 1 submission to X EFOMP (sept 2007)
1.
+ 4 submissions to IEEE NSS MIC 2007 (nov 2007)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
47
International grants and collaborations (Pisa based)
Established
● Marie Curie Individual Fellowship (2007-2008)
● Italy-UK [Pisa-Cambridge (2007)]
● Italy-Spain [Pisa-Valencia (2007-2008)]
● Pisa University- UCI (US)
Requested
nd revision) {P.I. w/ Univ. of Washington}
● NIH (US) (2
● FP7
●
●
COMPANION {P.I. w/ other seven partners}
PEM-MRI {partner}
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
48
Acknowledgments
Deepest thanks go to the members of the
DASIPM2 collaboration:
● Claudio Piemonte & collaborators (FBK-irst
and Trento)
● Francesco Corsi & collaborators (Bari)
● Giovanni Ambrosi & collaborators (Perugia)
● Giuseppe Levi & collaborators (Bologna)
● Pisa TEAM (Gabriela Llosa, Sara Marcatili,
Gianmaria Collazuol, S. Moehrs, N.Belcari,
Maria G. Bisogni)
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
49
THE END
THANK you!
Alberto Del Guerra – DASIPM2 Collaboration
50

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