Diapositive 1

Report
Neuquen EOR workshop - November 2010
Application of an Advanced Methodology for
the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in
Centenario
P. Moreau1, M. Morvan1; B. Bazin2, F. Douarche2, J-F. Argillier2, R. Tabary2
1 – Rhodia
2 – IFP Energies Nouvelles
Bring together the capabilities required for Chemical EOR…
World-class geosciences
public-sector research
Global leader in specialty
chemicals and formulation
Independant E&P consulting
and software editor
Polymer technologies for
IOR and well performance
(IFP subsidiary)
2  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
2
Outline
Introduction
• Chemical EOR (ASP/SP) – Basics
• Rhodia-IFP énergies nouvelles & partners
An integrated workflow
• Process & material selection
• Chemical formulation optimization
• Coreflood validation
• Simulation
An Illustrative Case study
Conclusion & Perspectives
3  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Chemical EOR (ASP/SP) - Basics
After waterflood, oil remains trapped in reservoirs because of capillary trapping at Sor
Oil displacement (typical Residual Oil Saturation  70%)
Capillary trapping
Water
Oil
The only realistic way is to
drastically decrease the
interfacial tension ()
Optimized
surfactant
formulations
Waterflood
100 m
Illustration of capillary trapping in micromodels (developed at Rhodia LOF).
Mobility control to drive the surfactant slug and bank the oil to the production well
w = 0.1 oil
Water Saturation
w = oil
Surfactant slug integrity is
secured by controlling
mobility ratio
Polymer
4  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An integrated workflow...
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
A reservoir engineering approach from lab to pilot simulation
Expertises
Chemistry & Reservoir engineer competencies for selecting
appropriate process and chemicals
High Throughput Screening (HTS) capabilities are critical to test
large number of chemical combinations & provide optimized and
robust formulations
Increase in oil recovery and minimum adsorption must be
demonstrated in cores.
Lab-scale simulations are required before Up-scaling and
injection strategy definition – Physics from SARIPCH
implemented to full field simulators
Towards pilot simulation with a commercial simulator
5  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
…With integrated solutions
EOR methods screening
• Integrated reservoir analysis
• Selection of EOR methods
Laboratory design – A 4 steps methodology
•
•
•
•
•
Process & Material selection
Chemical formulation optimization
Coreflood validation
Lab-scale simulation
Impact on water management
Pilot design
• Numerical simulation at pilot scale
• Pilot economics
• Surface facility conceptual design
Pilot implementation / Full field extension
• Field management and monitoring
• Expertise and assistance to operations
• Full-field surface facility design
Dedicated supply-chains
• High-volume logistics
• Large-scale manufacturing
6  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
6
Step 1
Step 1: Process and Material Selection
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Ca2+ (ppm)
Critical information for process selection from reservoir data
• Reservoir temperature
• Brine composition (divalent ions, TDS...)
• Salinity distribution inside the reservoir
• Oil properties (API, viscosity, acid number)
• Rock properties (clay content, permeability)
Calcium concentration distribution
calculated after waterflooding
Alkali:
Different alkalis are available depending on salinity and temperature.
Divalent ions concentration is critical for the use of alkali. Possible hurdles at very high temperature.
Surfactants:
Surfactant portfolio: olefin sulfonates, alkoxylated alcohols, sulfated/sulfonated alkoxylated
alcohols, alkyl aryl sulfonates.
Raw material selection and process are critical.
Industrially representative samples are essential to guarantee pilot performances.
Polymer:
Polymer is a case by case selection with permeability, temperature and salinity limitations.
The most promising EOR chemicals are pre-selected
according to reservoir conditions
7  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Step 1
Step 2: Chemical formulation optimization
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Microemulsion phase behavior
Winsor classification
I
III
II
Salinity (g/l)
Optimal formulation
Interfacial tension vs microemulsion
Variability for different reservoirs
• Oil (composition, viscosity)
• Reservoir parameters (T, P…)
Chemicals selection & Formulation
optimization is necessary for each reservoir
Heterogeneities in a given reservoir
• Salinity, temperature gradients
• Oil and rock properties
Robustness of the formulation must be
evaluated
4000+ formulations are required for a small design study.
HTS tools are necessary
8  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Step 1
Step 2: Chemical Formulation Optimization
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Automated formulation and analysis
• Automated formulation
• Imaging & Image processing
• Selection of the best formulations
• Further optimization of chemicals
concentrations and ratios
Morvan et al. SPE113705 (2008)
Salinity (g/L)
Microemulsion
Solubility
water/microemulsio
noil/microemulsion
Optimal Salinity
A fully automated formulation and optimization workflow
Data generation for improved simulations
9  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen
EOR workshop
2010
Morvan
et al.November
SPE113705
(2008)
Step 1
Step 2: Chemical Formulation Optimization
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Adsorption tests
• Adsorption depends mainly on pH
• Alkali can be used in soft brines
• Compatibility with hard brines could be
challenging
• A specific evaluation (pH vs. solubility) is
necessary depending on reservoir
conditions
Static adsorption of an olefin sulfonate
on Na-Kaolinite as a function of pH
(V  Vtr ).Csurf
adsorption surf
mcore
• Hydrodynamic retention from plateau chemicals
concentration
2500
Surf. concentration (mg/L)_
Dynamic adsorption in sandpacks or cores
• Surfactant adsorption from breakthrough time
pH of hard brines with alkali
2000
1500
DV
1000
Na2CO3 10 g/l
c
NaCl 10 g/l
500
Diluted Sea
Water 10 g/l
0
0.0
2.0
4.0
PV
Surfactant adsorption profiles in different brines
10  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Step 1
Step 3: Coreflood validation with dedicated tools
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Formulation injectivity/plugging is assessed
• Millifluidic setup with calibrated cores
• Single phase flow injectivity test prior to
coreflood
1.05 cp solution
74 mD
ΔP
Formulation injectivity test
Oil recovery experiments
• Characterization of core material (CT scan, RMN, HPMI...)
• Petrophysics data
• Relative permeabilities vs saturation
• Capillary desaturation curve
• Analysis
• Oil recovery efficiency
• Surfactant mass balance
• Alkali propagation
• Mobility control
• Pressure monitoring…
• Recovery experiments at reservoir conditions (live oil, pressure, temperature)
11  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Step 1
Step 3 : Core flood validation and strategy
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Design – Injection with Salinity Gradient
•
•
A salinity window is defined in a range of salinity extending from
the produced water to the injection water
Surfactant formulation optimum salinity is optimized inside the
salinity window to meet the three phase region during
displacement.
Additional advantages
•
•
•
Surfactant desorption with salinity gradient at the rear
Good mobility control at the rear of surfactant slug
Preparation of the surfactant formulation in low salinity water
improves solubility.
The injection strategy depends on:
•
•
•
Field conditions
Brines & water management issues (river or sea water and
production brine; water treatment)
Available ground facilities
A specific injection strategy must be optimized for each pilot
12  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Step 1
Step 4: Simulation from Lab to Reservoir scale
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
SaripCH is a prototype simulator for chemical EOR
• Black oil simulator with mass balance equations for
chemicals (Alkaline, Surfactant, Polymer)
• Physics implemented
•
•
•
•
•
Capillary desaturation curve and Kr, Pc curves
Surfactant IFT with salinity gradient
Surfactant adsorption with salinity gradient and pH
Polymer physics
Additional options: ion exchange
with clays,calcium
Cumulative
oil
carbonate dissolution/precipitation
• SaripCH simulations at lab scale
Experimental tables or
analytical expressions
are validated with core
displacements
Oil cut
• Modeling of coreflood experiments
• Model calibration prior to pilot simulations
• Optimization of injection strategy & sensitivity
analysis
Validation of simplified physics
PumaFlow - Beicip Franlab
commercial simulator for simulations
at pilot scale
13  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
SARIPTM simulation: comparison with other simulators
SARIPTM
UTChem
PumaFlow
Eclipse
Stars
Core / Pilot
In house simulator
Core / Pilot
Full field
Full field
Full field
Main
characteristics
• 3D, 2 phases (water,
• 3 phases (oil, water,
•3 phases (oil, water,
• 3 phases (oil,
•3 phases (oil,
oil)
• heterogeneity (k, Pc)
• cartesian
• kr, Pc = f(,Nc)
microemulsion)
• cartesian
• ....
gas)
• cartesian, CPG
• dual media in
2011...
water, gas)
• cartesian, CPG
• ...
water, gas)
• surf in gas
(foam)
• cartesian, CPG
Physics of
surfactant
• pseudo-surfactant
• compositional
• IFT from phase
• as SARIPTM without
• IFT tables (conc)
• ads=f(conc)
• IFT tables (pH,
• constant salt
• no alkali
• no info
• Analytic
• Effective
• as Eclipse
Application
Physics of Ions
Physics of
polymer
(surfactant, in situ
surfactant)
• IFT tables (pH, salt,
conc)
• ads=f(conc,salt, pH)
• tracers
• salt variation
• ion exchange
• alkali
• precipitation
• RM=f(shear rate,
salt, rock, conc)
• Rk, RM, ads = f(salt)
• Tables/analytic
• effect of ads on kro
and Swir
prototype
diagram
• in situ surfactant
from chemical
reaction.
•ads=f(conc,salt, pH)
alkali in 2010
•alkali available in
2011
• idem SARIP
TM
• Analytic
• Viscosity
• dispersion
• ...
• as SARIPTM
salt, conc)
• ads= f(conc,
salt)
viscosity
•....
commercial
14  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study
Formulation design
• Temperature:
• Production brine:
• Injection brine:
• Model oil:
• Rock:
• Permeability:
• Surfactants mixture:
• Olefin sulfonate
• Alkyl Ether Sulfonate
• Cosolvent: short chain alcohol
• Alkaline: Na2CO3 (10 g/L)
• Polymer: HPAM (MW  6MD)
60°C
50 g/L NaCl
mixture production/fresh water
EACN 12
sandstone
medium
Process & material selection
• Process:
• Alkali:
• Surfactants:
• Polymer:
ASP
Sodium carbonate/metaborate
Sulfonates
HPAM
x1000 formulations
Model reservoir characteristics
Optimum salinity: 36 g/L
Formulation performances
• Ultra-low interfacial tension (10-3 mN/m)
• Excellent solubility/injectivity
• Acceptable adsorption (150 g/g)
15  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study - Formulation
•
Polymer
Chase water
salinity
Injection is done with a salinity gradient in order to promote WIIWIII-WI transition during flooding
The scenario is illustrated here
Surfactant slug
salinity
Reservoir brine
Surfactant slug
•
Polymer drive
Formulation design for a salinity gradient strategy
Formation brine
Optimal salinity
Solubilization ratios
Solubility
Salinity
Microemulsion
16  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study – Core Flood
Injection strategy in a salinity gradient
Slug size
(PV)
Salinity NaCl
(g/L)
Surfactant Conc.
(g/L)
Alkaline Conc.
(g/L)
Polymer Conc.
(g/L)
-
50
-
-
-
0.5
30
8
10
-
Polymer
2
25
-
10
1
Chase water
5
25
-
-
-
Waterflooding
Alkaline Surfactant
Oil Recovery
• The oil bank occurs at 0.3 PV
• Oil saturation after surfactant flooding is
Cumulative oil
18% (65% of the oil remaining after
waterflooding has been recovered)
Oil cut
• Excellent pH propagation
• No formation damage (mobility reduction
compared to relative viscosity)
pH
Surfactant conc.
17  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study – Simulation at lab scale
1.E+01
Reduced adsorption
Input data
Extensive data from
petrophysics & formulation
Interfacial tension (mN/m)
Use of in-house SaripCH simulator to reproduce coreflood results
Cs = 8 g/L
Cs = 4 g/L
1.E+00
Cs = 2 g/L
1.E-01
1.E-02
1.E-03
1.E-04
25
30
35
40
45
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
6
50
8
1
2
Surfactant Conc. (g/L)
Tertiary Oil Recovery (%)
70
60
50
IFT
40 = f (Composition)
30
20
10
0
0
12
pH
NaCl (g/l)
Simulation results
• Excellent oil recovery prediction
• Good surfactant adsorption
profile
10
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
3
PV
0
1
2
3
PV
Accurate predictive simulations with a limited number of adjustable parameters
Same physics implemented for pilot design
18  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study – Simulation at pilot scale
Simulations at pilot scale with input data from lab steps
Reservoir - Input data
• Geometry: 3 layers (layer cake)
• Reservoir Thickness: 13 m
• X-Y linear extension: 267.75 m
• Irreducible water saturation: 0.35
• Residual oil saturation: 0.32
Injection - Input data
Slug
size
(PV)
Surfactant
Conc.
(g/L)
Polymer
Conc.
(mg/L)
Alkaline preflush
0.5
-
-
SP formulation
0.5
2.5
200
Polymer
0.3
-
500
Chase water
2.3
-
-
Simulation
• Quarter 5-spot
• Grid: 75x75x3 (16875)
• Wells: 1 injector, 1 producer
19  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
An illustrative case study – Simulation at pilot scale
Simulations at pilot scale – Sensitivity study
Sensitivity to surfactant
concentration
Surfactant concentration is a
critical parameter
and must be optimized
together
with the surfactant slug size
to achieve
the best economical design
IFT = f (Composition)
Sensitivity to adsorption
Surfactant consumption by
adsorption is
extremely costly in terms of oil
recovery
Sensitivity to slug size
Base case: 0.3 PV with 20%
ROIP recovery
Low additional oil recovery with
higher slug size:
• 22 % ROIP with 0.5 PV of ASP
injection
• 25 % ROIP with 1.0 PV of ASP
injection
Optimization of a pilot injection
20  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Conclusions
The
Theintegrated
integratedworkflow
workflowpresented
presentedhere
hereisisbased
basedon:
on:
•• AAfast
fastidentification
identificationof
ofthe
thebest
bestchemicals
chemicalsfor
forgiven
givenfield
fieldconditions
conditions
•• An
Anextensive
extensiveoptimization
optimizationstudy
studythanks
thanksto
torobotized
robotizedtechniques
techniques
•• Core
Coreflood
floodexperiments
experimentsfor
foradsorption
adsorptionand
andoil
oilrecovery
recoverydetermination
determination
•• Optimization
Optimizationat
atpilot
pilotscale
scalewith
withsimulations
simulationsusing
usingextensive
extensiveexperimental
experimentalinput
inputdata
data
Methodology deployed for multiple customers worldwide
Next step: development at reservoir scale
• Chemical reservoir model available (PumaFlow)
• Sensitivity analysis
• Optimization of injection strategy
21  Brigitte Bazin et al - Application of an Advanced Methodology for the Design of a Surfactant Polymer Pilot in Centenario - Neuquen EOR workshop November 2010
Thank you for your attention

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