JEROME BRUNER - Leonel Madrid

Report
Group 5
Anayensy Cárcamo
Pamela Ávila
Rocío Flores
Jerome Seymour Bruner was
born on October 1, 1915 in New
York.
Bruner is currently a senior
researcher fellow at the New
York University School of Law.
He received his B.A. in 1937 from Duke
University and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in
1941 under the guidance of Gordon Allport.
CONTRUCTIVIST THEORY
Bruner was one of the founding fathers
of constructivist theory.
Learning is an active process.
Facets of the process include:
selection
and
transformation
of
information, making decision, generating
hypotheses, and making meaning from
information and experiences.
Bruner's
ideas
are
based
on categorization: "To perceive is to
categorize, to conceptualize is to
categorize, to learn is to form categories,
to make decisions is to categorize."
CATEGORIZATION
Categorization is the process in which
ideas
and
objects
are recognized, differentiated and understood.
Bruner
believed
that
perception,
conceptualization, learning, making
decision, and making inferences all
involved categorization.
To form a category is necessary follow
four rules to specify an object:
1.
Criterial
attributes
required
characteristics for inclusion of an object
in a category.
2. The second rule prescribes how the
criteral attributes are combined.
3. The third rule assignees weight to
various properties.
4. The fourth rule sets acceptance limits
on attributes.
Bruner also suggested that there are two
primary modes of thought: the narrative
mode and the paradigmatic mode:
•In narrative thinking, the mind engages
in sequential, action-oriented, detaildriven thought.
•In paradigmatic thinking, the mind
transcends particularities to achieve
systematic, categorical cognition.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Bruner was influenced by Piaget's ideas
about cognitive development in children.
During the 1940's his early work focused
on the impact of needs, motivations, &
expectations (“mental sets”) and their
influence on perception.
He presented the point of view that
children are active problem-solvers
and capable of exploring “difficult
subjects”.
The first stage he termed "Enactive",
when a person learns about the world
through actions on physical objects and
the outcomes of these actions.
From child's birth to 3 years old.
Children perceive the environment
through actions that they initiate.
Showing and modeling have more
learning value than telling.
The second stage was called "Iconic"
where learning can be obtained through
using models and pictures.
From age 3 to about age 8.
Children can remember and use
information through imagery.
Visual memory increases.
Decisions are still made on the basis of
perceptions.
The final stage was "Symbolic" in which
the learner develops the capacity to think
in abstract terms.
Children began to use symbols to
represent people, things, etc.
They have the ability to think and talk
about things in abstract terms.
They
can
better
understand
mathematical principles and use
symbolic idioms.
SOCIAL LEARNING
Bruner argued that aspects of cognitive
performance
are
facilitated
by
language.
He also mentioned that the setting is
very important in the adcquisition of
language.
The earliest social setting is the motherchild dyad, where children work out the
meanings of utterances to which they are
repeatedly exposed. Bruner identified
several important social devices including
joint attention, mutual gaze, and turntaking.
CULTURAL LEARNING
Bruner adopted the point of view that
culture shapes the mind and provides the
raw material with which we constrict our
world and our self-conception.
THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION
In 1960 Bruner published The Process of
Education . This was a landmark book
which led to much experimentation and
a broad range of educational programs.
Four Key themes emerged in Bruner's
early work:
•Bruner emphasized the role of structure
in learning and how it may be made
central in teaching. Structure refers to
relationships among factual elements
and techniques.
•Readiness for learning. Bruner believed
that any subject could be taught at any
stage of development in a way that fit
the child's cognitive abilities.
•Spiral curriculum. Refers to the idea of
revisiting basic ideas over and over,
building upon them and elaborating to
the level of full understanding and
mastery.
•Intuitive and analytical thinking. Bruner
believed that intuitive and analytical
thinking should both be encouraged
and rewarded.
Effective Instruction Theory
1. Predisposition to learn/Personalized:
Instruction should relate to learners'
predisposition, and facilitate interest
toward learning.
2. Content Structure: Content should be
structured so it can be most easily
grasped by the learner.
3. Sequencing: Sequencing is an
important aspect for presentation of
material
(visual,
words,
symbols).
4.
Reinforcement:
Rewards
and
punishment should be selected and
paced appropriately.
CONCLUSIONS
Constructivism
is
widely
considered an important model of
effective teaching practice, and
Bruner’s ideas
underlie many
contemporary approaches and
practices, such as thinking skills and
assessment for learning.
The teacher should utilize the
internal imagery development of
the child for his educational
purposes. This mental imagery of
the child would enable him in the
conversation of his experiences
and forge ahead with new
experiences.
 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Answers. com. Jerome Burner. Recovered on September 5th, 2011,
from http://www.answers.com/topic/jerome-bruner#ixzz1XTfUCSKE
Jerome Bruner and the process of education. Recovered on
September 5th, 2011, from
http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm
The Contributions of Jerome Bruner. Recovered on September 5th,
2011, from http://www.slideshare.net/lilianamonserrat/thecontributions-of-jerome-bruner
Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology. Jerome Bruner:
Constructivism & Discovery Learning. Recovered on September 5th,
2011, from http://www.lifecirclesinc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/bruner.html
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categorization. Recovered on
September 5th, 2011, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorization

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