Into Thin Air
by Jon Krakauer
Who is John Krakauer?
David Esca and Hannah May
Who is Jon Krakauer
● Born April 12, 1954 in Brookline
● Attended Hampshire University
in Massachusetts
● Married Linda Moore in 1980
● American writer and
● Writer for outdoor magazine
● Author of many best selling
Why Jon Krakauer is
● Krakauer climbed a new route
on devils thumb in Alaska
● He completed some small climbs
but is most known for the climb
of Everest
● His famous Everest climb ended
in a disaster for many people
● He made it to the top of Everest
● Hes a very famous author that
tells all of the stories and things
that took place on his expedition
What and Where are
the Himalayas?
What Are The Himalayas?
● The Himalayas are a mountain range that
contains over 100 mountains.
● Has over 1,500 glaciers.
● Highest peak is Mt. Everest at an
estimated 29,000 feet.
Where Are The Himalayas?
● Covers an estimated amount of 1,500
miles and passes through six countries
● It is separated into three sections; outer
ranges, middle ranges and the greater
● 3 of the worlds largest
rivers run through it.
What is Mt Everest?
Geology, Elevation, and Climate
Elevation and Climate
-The elevation of Mt. Everest is 29,035 feet above sea
-Mt. Everest touches the top of the troposphere
-Atmospheric pressure 346 MB (millibars), pressure at sea
level 1013.25 MB
-Temperature always at freezing
-A lot of wind, speeds up to 175 MPH
❖ Granite rock
❖ Metamorphic rock
❖ Used to be at the bottom of Tethys sea over
400 million years ago
❖ Everest is divided in three units called “Formations”
Notable Expeditions
Tanner Lewis and Daisy Keech
First Known Expedition
● Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, were the first
people to reach peak of Mt. Everest
● They could only stay for 15 minutes before they
had to set off due to low oxygen
Deadliest Day on Mt. Everest
● Avalanche on April 18, 2014; Occured west shoulder of
● Knocked 20-25 people down and killed 16 climbers
● This disaster caused the most deaths on Everest in one
What does it cost to
Climb Mt. Everest?
Training and Costs
In order to climb Mt. Everest, you need to:
Be in good shape
Have a strong upper body
Gain a noticeable amount of weight
Need to practice for cardiovascular training for 12 months straight
Can't have any cuts or sickness
Have the right materials
Cost to climb Mt. Everest
Starts at about $35,000
$10,000 for mountains permit
Pay guiding companies about $65,000
Group of climbers cost about $70,000
What are the paths to the summit
and how do they differ?
Path[s] to the Summit
Southeast Ridge
● Easiest route
● Starts in Nepal
● Total of 4 camps (not
including basecamp)
● The most frequently used route
● Successfully climbed 1140 times
with 80 fatalities, giving it a fatality rate of 7%
● Khumbu Icefall is considered the most dangerous part of
the journey, but many climbers have also climbers have
also died by falling into a crevasse on the Lhotse Face
North Ridge
● Starts in Nepal
● Total of 4 camps (not
including basecamp)
● Successfully climbed 655
times with 62 fatalities, giving
it a fatality rate of 9%
● Most deaths are from
avalanches on the North Col, or falling off the
Northeast Ridge and down the ledges of the Yellow
8000 Meter Peaks
What are they?
Expeditions of the 14 Peaks
14 mountains that are more than 8000m
above sea level
1st attempt by Albert F. Mummery and J.
Norman Coille attempted Nanga Pailbat in
1895 but were killed in an avalanche
June 3rd, 1950 was the 1st successful
climb by Maurice Herzog and Louis
Lachenal who climbed Annapurna
Reinhold Messner was 1st to climb all 14
mountains- October 16th, 1986
As of 2011, 26 people have climbed all 14
peaks successfully
Gerlindo Kallenbrumer was 1st woman to
climb all 14 peaks without supplementary
The 7 Summits
Summits are the highest
mountains on each of the seven
South America- Aconcugua
Europe- Mount Elbrus (5,642m)
Asia- Mt. Everest (8,848m)
North America- Mt. Mckinley
Africa- Kilimanjaro (5,895m)
Antarctica- Mt. Vinja (4,892m)
Australia- Puncak Jaya (4,884m)
Who are the Sherpa?
Ethnic group in Eastern Nepal
Population around 152,000
Speak Sharpa and Nepali languages
93% of the religion is Tibetan Buddhism
Sherpa have immigrated to the U.S mostly to NYC
Sherpas have a high risk of avalanches
Sherpas are well known for their culture in native land
The word “sherpa” mean eastern people
Sherpas were farmers and traders that adapted well to
high altitudes
Who is George Leigh
Who is George Leigh Mallory?
● He was an English mountaineer.
● In the 1920’s he was part of an British expedition
to Everest.
● Him and his partner Andrew Irvine attempted
the first ascent up Everest.
● On their ascent they disappeared and their
● Bodies weren’t found for 75 years.
Who is Sir Edmund
What was his life like?
● Born July 20th, 1919 in
Auckland, New Zealand
● Grew up in a small village
called Takau
● Time Magazine named him one
of the most influential people of
the 20th Century
What’d He Do?d2
● He was the the first to climb everest w/ Tibetan
Climber Tenzing Norgay in 1953
● His first major climb was
mount oliver at age 20
● He lived a troubled life,
unfortunately his wife and
youngest daughter died in a
plane crash in 1975
Who is Tenzing Norgay?
Who is Tenzing Norgay?
● He was one of the first two individuals known to have
reached the summit of Mt. Everest alongside Sir
Edmund Hillary
● They had success in reaching the top after 6 tries.
● He is a Nepali Indian Sherpa mountaineer.
Why is he important?
● In 1953 he took part in John Junt’s expedition. When a member of the
team, Edmund Hillary, who fell into a crevasse, Tenzing Norgay saved
him from hitting the bottom
● He received a George medal
from Queen Elizabeth for his efforts.
● After climbing Everest, he became the first director of field
training for the Himalayan Mountaineering
Who is Rob Hall?
Life of Rob Hall
Born January 14, 1961
Died May 11,1996
He died of Hypothermia
Mountaineering guide
From New Zealand
Best known for his 1996 expedition
Successfully guided 39 climbers to the summit of
Mount Everest before 1996
● He climbed the seven summits in seven months
● He charged 65,000 for a guided expedition to the
summit of Everest, per client
On the 1996 expedition he had 8 climbers and 3
Rob Hall died on the mountain
May 11 is when Rob Hall reached summit in
What is H.A.P.E.
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema?
What is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema?
accumulation of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs
due to leaky capillaries
stops airflow of oxygen in the lungs
symptoms start gradually within the first 2-4 days at altitude
the more fluid accumulated, the worse the symptoms
symptoms such as bloody cough, chest tightness or congestion,
& severe weakness
● low oxygen in body & bluish appearance of the skin
● x-ray can confirm fluid in the lungs
● patients progress to unconsciousness, coma, & death
How Can You Treat H.A.P.E?
● rest, administration of oxygen, descent to lower
● if diagnosed early enough, recovery is rapid with a
descent of only 500-100m
● portable hyperbaric chambers are used if the person
What is H.A.C.E.
High Altitude Cerebral Edema
● Swelling in the brain at
high altitudes
● Symptoms of confusion and
feeling intoxicated
● 4 types (Vasogenic, Cytotoxic,
Osmotic, interstitial)
● You can treat it with a steroid
called Dexamethasone
● The person must be lowered in
altitude and have oxygen therapy
with a device called a Gamow
Recommended Gear on
Base Layers
Mountaineering Suit
Oxygen Tank
Ice Axe
Face/Neck Gaiter
Other Gear
2 Way

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