Lecture 13 Cultural Practices - Biosystems and Agricultural

Report
Cultural practices in grain storage
BAE 2023 Lecture 18
March 5, 2012
Jasreen K Sekhon
Grain Production in the World: Statistics
Rank Barley (000’MT)
Maize (000’MT)
Rice (000’MT)
Wheat (000’MT)
1 France
10102 USA
316165 China
197212 China
115180
2 Australia
7294
China
177540 India
120620 India
80710
3 Ukraine
8484
Brazil
56060 Indonesia
66411
USA
60102
4 USA
3924
Argentina
22676 Bangladesh
49355
France
38207
5 Germany
10412 Indonesia
18364 Vietnam
39988
Russian
Federation
41507
6 Morocco
2566
Mexico
23301 Myanmar
33204
Pakistan
23310
5252
India
14060 Thailand
31597
Canada
23166
8 China
2520
South
Africa
12815 Philippines
15771
Australia
22138
9 Argentina
2983
France
13975 Brazil
11308
Turkey
19660
10 Turkey
7240
Nigeria
7305
11027
Argentina
14914
7
UK
USA
http://www.agrostats.com/world-statistic/world-production-statistics.html
U.S. Crop Standards
Standard weight
Standard
moisture
Standard
price
Wheat
60 lb (27.2 kg) per bushel
13.5%
$/bu
Barley
48 lb (21.8 kg) per bushel
14.5%
$/bu
Oats
32 lb (14.5 kg) per bushel
14.0%
$/bu
Flaxseed
56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel
8.0%
$/bu
Corn
56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel
15.5%
$/bu
Sorghum
56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel
14.0%
$/cwt
Soybeans
60 lb (27.2 kg) per bushel
14.0%
$/bu
Holland, T. 2011. Overview of Sample Surveys for Forecasting & Estimating U.S. Crops. Regional Workshop on Sampling for
Agricultural Surveys, Uruguay.
3
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Post Harvest Losses (PHL)
Harvest (1-3%)
Pre-drying
Threshing/Shelling (2-6% Loss)
Pre-cleaning
Drying (1-5%)
Cleaning/Sorting
Marketing
4
Storage
(2-6 % Loss)
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
Processing
(6.25-18% Loss)
3/5/2012
% Post Harvest Losses (PHL)
According to the FAO, about 30 million metric tons of corn, 20 million metric tons of wheat, and
nearly 3 million metric tons of soybeans – with an aggregate value estimated at more than US$14
billion – went to waste worldwide in 2007
5
Gustavsson, J., C. Cederberg, R.V. Otterdijik, and A. Meybeck. 2011. Global food losses and food waste-extent, causes and prevention.
FAO of United Nations. Rome
3/5/2012
Reasons for PHL in the storage
1.
2.
3.
6
Poor product coming into storage
Poor storage structures
Poor storage management
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
but, Why Store?
Even out fluctuations in market supply, from one season to the
next and from one year to the next, by taking produce off the
market in surplus seasons, and releasing it back onto the
market in lean seasons
7
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Who Stores?
 Farmers
 Future consumption
 Seed
 Future cash
 Traders
 Government
 Food security reserve
 Price stabilization stock
 National storage reserves
8
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Quality characteristics of stored grain
The condition of stored grain is determined by a complex interaction
between (Lacey, 1988):
 Grain
 Macro-environment
 Micro-environment, and
 Variety of organisms- microorganisms, insects, mites, rodents and
birds
9
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Quality characteristics of stored grains
Intrinsic
Color
Composition
Bulk density
Aroma/Odor
Size/shape
10
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
Induced quality
Age
Broken grain
Chalky or immature
Foreign matter
Infested, infected grain
Mixed varieties
Moisture content
3/5/2012
Purpose of a Storage Facility
The purpose of any grain storage facility is to prevent grain
quality loss from weather, wind and moisture; rodents,
birds and insects, and microorganisms
11
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
What is required of a good storage system
 Prevention of moisture re-entering the grain after drying
 Maintenance of temperature and humidity by aeration
 Barrier to insects, rodents and birds
 Good Sanitation practices
 Ease of loading and unloading
 Efficient use of space and ease of maintenance and management
 Monitoring!
12
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Good Management Practices
 Pre-harvest Practices
 Sanitation: bin and handling equipment preparation; bin treatments
 Grain treatment: protectants (Melathion, Chlorpyrifos-
methyl)
 Surface dressing (Melathion, Reldan, Bacillus thuringiensis)
 Fumigation (Phosphine)
 Post-harvest Operations
 Monitoring
 Aeration
13
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
On Farm vs. Off Farm Storage
 Fixed Cost: cost of owning the facility
 Variable Cost: cost incurred during grain storage
Most often On-farm storage is not preferred
14
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
On Farm Storage: Cylindrical Metal/Wooden bins
 Flat floor bins: non-aerated with flat concrete or metal floors
 False-floor bins: rounded metal structure typically with a ground-
level floor made of concrete and a metal, fully perforated floor
located 12” above the concrete floor to allow air movement through
the grain mass. Drying bins are false-floor bins
 Hopper bottom bins equipped for aeration
15
Commercial Grain Storage: Bucket elevators
 1842 Wooden Bucket elevators (Steam boilers)
 Wood readily available
 but, Fire Hazard
 1897 Steal & Concrete Bucket elevators (Electric)
16
3/5/2012
Commercial Grain Storage: Bucket Elevators
Enid Terminal Grain Elevators Historic District (1925-1959) Oklahoma
Largest grain storage capacity (80,000,00 Bu) in the US, and third largest in the World
17
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Commercial Storage: Large Metal bins
Roll formed 8 – 5 gauge thick steel with tensile strength of 483Mpa with
Capacity up to 730,000 Bu – 1 million Bu
18
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Commercial storage: Large bins, Silos
Hopper Bottom Bin
Flat Bottom Bin
Bin Flooring
India
 PHL in food grains 8-12% in 2009-10
 On farm storage more common because 70% of farmers
produce for their own consumption
 Traditional methods: Underground or Above ground storage
 Bagged Storage (40-50 kg/bag)
 Off farm storage: Bulk Storage
http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/x5002e/X5002e02.htm
20
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
India: Post Harvest Handling of Grains
Bagging
FCI Godowns
Harvesting
Selling
Transportation
Threshing
Traditional Underground Storage
Local name State
Material of Shape
constructio
n
Dimension
Capacity
Khani or
Patra
Orissa A.P.
Dug out with Rectangular
sides
plastered
with animal
waste
D = 150 cm
Sides: 150200cm
2-3 ton
Khai
Rajasthan
Well, lined
with
stone/sandcement
D=600cm
Dia = 600
cm
Upto 60 ton
3/5/2012
Circular or
rectangular
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of
Biological Materials
22
Traditional Above ground storage structures
Local name
State
Material of
construction
Shape
Khothi
Bihar, Punjab,
U.P.
Unburnt clay
mixed with
straw and mudanimal waste or
brick
Cylindrical/Rect 1-50 ton
angular
Kanagi
Mysore and M.S. Bamboo
plastered with
clay
Cylindrical
1-20 ton
Kotha
Punjab and U.P.
Cylindrical
5-100ton
3/5/2012
Small shed built
with brick and
masonary
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of
Biological Materials
Capacity
23
Traditional Above ground storage
Kotha, Punjab, India
3/5/2012
Mud, animal waste,
straw: Grain Storage AP,
India
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of
Biological Materials
24
On Farm Grain Storage
 Pusa Bin: LDPE sandwiched bin
 Coal-tar drum Bin
 Domestic Hapur Bin
Domestic Hapur Bin
(200- 1000 kg)
25
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Bulk Storage of Grains
FCI godowns: brick walls
with concrete flooring
Cover and Plinth
(CAP) Storage:
concrete flooring
with polyethylene
cover
Silos:
Concrete/Metal
Punjab: lost 16,500 tones of
wheat between 2007-2009
Traditional Bag Storage (Indonesia)
27
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Granary (Laos)
28
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Concrete Bin (Bhutan)
29
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012
Wednesday Lab Work!
Due March 19th, 2012
 Each Lab Group: Select a country and review its methods for




30
handling and storage of grains
Report: post harvest handling of grains; % PHL; traditional
storage vs present storage systems
Prepare PowerPoint presentation
The PowerPoint should have enough information (include
references) that it provides good information without a speech
going along with it
Submit to: [email protected]; and copy to [email protected]
BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials
3/5/2012

similar documents