Tilapia Aquaculture * An Overview: Nutrition and Feed Tchnology

Report
Tilapia Global Supply and Demand
in 2013.
Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.
University of Arizona, Professor of Environmental Science
World Aquaculture Society, Past-President
Aquaculture without Frontiers, Past-Chairman
American Tilapia Alliance, Sec. Tres.
Adelaide, Australia .
June 2014
Tilapia: continuing to increase in
popularity globally
•
•
•
Tilapias are second only to the carps as a
farmed food fish.
In 2012 the global volume of farmed fish
exceeded global volume of beef for the
first time (FAO)
Tilapia have unique characteristics that will
facilitate its continued growth to someday
surpass carp production.
Global production of some major
farmed fishes
4,500,000
Metric tons per year
4,000,000
3,500,000
3,000,000
Tilapia
Catfish
Salmon
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
0
1980
1990
2000
2008
2010
2011
2012
World Tilapia Production of 4,677,613 mt in 2013
1,800,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
2008 Tilapia exports from China
Sales volume = 224,359 mt
Russia
8%
EU
5%
Others
7%
SubSahara
Africa
10%
US
54%
Mexico
16%
2012 Tilapia exports from China
Sales
Others
20%
EU
6%
Russia
6% SubSahara
Africa
2%
Mexico
10%
US
56%
Farm gate prices for tilapia to Chinese farmers
Ex-farm prices for whole, live tilapia, China,
500-800 grams
Nov. 2013: RMB 10.0 ($1.60/kg)
Global production of tilapia
Aquaculture
Fishery
5,000,000
4,500,000
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
2012 (est)
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
0
1984
Metric tons
4,000,000
Top Ten Seafoods (U.S.)
per capita (lbs)
2000
2001
T una 3
Shr i mp 3
Shr i mp 3.2 T una 2.9
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2 0 11
2 0 10
2 0 12
Shr i mp 3.7
Shr i mp 4.0 Shr i mp 4.2
Shr i mp 4.1 Shr i mp 4.4 Shr i mp 4.1 Shr i mp 4
Shr i mp 4.1
Shr i mp 4.0
Shrimp 4.2 Shrimp 3.8
T una 3.1
T una
T una 3.1 T una
T una
T una
Tuna
Pol l ock 1.6 Sal mon 2.0 Sal mon 2.0
3.4 T una 3.4
Sal mon 2.2 Sal mon 2.2
2.9 T una
2.7
T una
2.8
Sal mon 2.4 Sal mon 2.0 Sal mon 2.4 Sal mon 1.8
2.5
Sal mon 2.0
2.7
Sal mon 2.0
2.6
Tuna
2.4
Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.0
Sal mon 1.5 Pol l ock 1.2 Pol l ock 1.1 Pol l ock 1.7 Pol l ock 1.7 Pol l ock 1.5 Pol l ock 1.6 Pol l ock 1.7 Pol l ock 1.34 Pol l ock 1.45 T i l api a 1.45
Pollock 1.3 T ilapia 1.5
Catf i sh 1.1 Catf i sh 1.1 Catf i sh 1.1 Catf i sh 1.1 Catf i sh 1.1 Catf i sh 1.0 T i l api a 1.0
Tilapia 1.3
Cod
0.8
Cod 0.6
Cod
0.7
Cod
0.6
T i l api a 1.14 T i l api a 1.19 T i l api a 1.21 Pol l ock 1.2
T i l api a 0.7 T i l api a 0.8 Catf i sh 0.97 Catf i sh 0.90 Catf i sh 0.92 Catf i sh 0.85 Catf i sh 0.8
Cl ams 0.5 Cl ams 0.5 Cr abs 0.6
Cr abs 0.6 Cod
0.6
Cr abs 0.4 Cr abs 0.4 Cl ams 0.5
T i l api a 0.5 Cr abs 0.6
Fl atf i sh 0.4 Fl atf i sh 0.4 T i l api a 0.4 Cl ams 0.5 Cl ams 0.5
Cr abs 0.6 Cr abs 0.7 Cr abs 0.68 Cr abs 0.61 Cr abs 0.59
Cr abs
Cod 0.6
Cod
Cod
0.5
Cl ams 0.4 Cl ams 0.4
Cod
0.47
Cod
0.44
Cod
0.42
Cl ams 0.45 Fl atf i sh 0.43 Cl ams 0.41
0.6
0.5
Pangasi us 0.4
Scal l ops 0.3 T i l api a 0.4 Fl atf i sh 0.3 Scal l ops 0.3 Scal l ops 0.3 Scal l ops 0.3 Scal l ops 0.3 Fl atf i sh 0.32 Cl ams 0.42 Pangasi us 0.35 Cl ams 0.35
T i l api a 0.3
Pollock 1.2
Pangasius 0.6 Pangasius 0.7
Catfish 0.6 Crabs 0.5
Crabs 0.5 Cod
Cod
0.5
0.5
Catfish 0.5
Clams 0.3 Clams
0.3
US Consumption of tilapia from
domestic and imported sources
700,000
500,000
400,000
Domestic
300,000
200,000
100,000
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
0
1990
Tilapia (000's of kg of live weight)
600,000
Imports
Percentage of US finfish grocery sales: weekly sales averaged $608 per store
US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic)
437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007
453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008
465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009)
579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010)
513,361 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2011)
613,406 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2012)
700,000
600,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
0
1988
100,000
1986
Metric tons
500,000
$696,085,981(2009)
$842,866,006(2010), $838,349,634 (2011)
$986,127,852 (2012)
Value
Value ofof Tilapia
Tilapia product
product forms
forms imported
imported to
to the
the U.S.
U.S.
2002
$1,200,000,000
$200,000,000
$180,000,000
$1,000,000,000
$160,000,000
$120,000,000
$600,000,000
$100,000,000
Whole Frozen
Whole Frozen
Fillet Frozen
Fillet Frozen
Fillet Fresh
Fillet Fresh
$80,000,000
$400,000,000
$60,000,000
2001
2012
2011
2000
2010
2009
2008
1999
2007
2006
1998
2005
2004
1997
2003
Fillet Frozen
Fillet Fresh
2002
1996
2000
1999
1995
1998
1997
1994
1996
1995
1994
$20,000,000
$0
$0
1993
1993
Whole Frozen
1992
$ US
$200,000,000
$40,000,000
2001
$ US
$140,000,000
$800,000,000
2002
US Sales of tilapia
•
•
•
•
•
Imports to US in 2012 were $986,127,852
US production of 28,000,000 lbs at farm
2012 US tilapia farm-gate sales were
$84,000,000
2012 US Tilapia Sales estimate –
$986,127,852 + $84,000,000 =
$ 1,070,127,852
Selective breeding and genetic improvements
•
•
•
Excellent breeding programs
- G.I.F.T. - Malaysia
- Acuaplan - Mexico
- Genomar - Brasil and Norway
- Chitralada – Thailand
- TabTim – Thailand (CP Group)
- GIFT Excell – Philippines
- Molobicus - Philippines
- GIFT Bangladesh
Several in Israel
YY Supermale - Philippines and
Swansea, Egypt and Indonesia
Genetic improvements in tilapia
(From: Mair, G., 2002)
Tilapia Genome Project
•
•
•
•
•
•
March 2011 - First assembly of the tilapia genome
Oreochromis niloticus – Nile Tilapia
http://www.broadinstitute.org/ftp/pub/assemblies/fi
sh/tilapia/Orenil1/
Matching many segments to those known from
other fish
Publically available and freely accessible
Next frontier of genetic program for tilapia
The YY male technology
(GMT®)
Regions of rapid production growth
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vietnam – conversion of catfish cages to tilapia in
Mekong, and culture in all regions
Indonesia – cage culture, polycultures, rice culture
Malaysia – government support and private sector
investment
Bangladesh – government support and private sector
investment
Brasil – lots of available water, labor, land, feed
Thailand – better reporting, shrimp polyculture
•
Mexico – continued intensification, some govt
support, large and small private investments
•
Sub-Saharan Africa - commercialization
Mexico
4623 licensed farms
 20,000 ton Dos Lagos
farm in Chiapas
 Second farm now
started, also by Regal
Springs

Pathways in the use of tilapia as
biomanipulator (and disease control?) in
shrimp farms for Vibrios and EMS
Promotion of
Chlorella
dominance
IMPROVED
SEDIMENT
QUALITY
Feeding on
organic
waste
Bioturbation
of sediment
IMPROVED
WATER
QUALITY
Production of
natural
antimicrobials
SUPRESSION OF
GROWTH OF V. harveyi
and V. parahaemolyticus ?
Stocking and harvest schedule
Improvements in packaging
Traditional product forms
Yangon BBQ tilapia
Mexican-American street foods
Courtesy:
Randall Brummett
Byproducts - Tilapia Leather
Pet treats
Tilapia Orange Juice
Tilapia pedicures
and manicures
Global Tilapia Market Trends
Prices have been constant, only fresh fillets have increased
significantly, will not see increases beyond inflation
8
7
Fresh fillet
Frozen fillet
Whole Frozen
Live
5
4
3
2
1
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
0
1992
$/kg
6
Tilapia
Global Aquaculture Production
3000
6
2500
5
2000
4
1500
3
1000
2
500
1
0
0
2010E
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
Sources: 1990-2009: FAO and Kevin Fitzsimmons; 2010-2012: Average of Helga Josupeit and Kevin Fitzsimmons estimates;
2013: Kevin Fitzsimmons; Prices US import frozen tilapia Jan- Jun: NMFS
2013F
7
2012F
3500
2011F
4000
REAL PRICE
(USD/KG)
8
1000 METRIC TONNES
35
Farmed
Mexican
tilapia fillets
in Tucson,
Arizona
Safeway
$15/kg
Global Aquaculture Tilapia Sales
•
For year 2000 =US $ 1,615,321,000
(FAO FishStat 2007)
•
2005 sales = $ 2,457,312,000
(FAO FishStat 2007)
•
2010 sales = $ 5,680,410,000
(FAO FishStat 2012)
•
2012 sales = $ 7,656,257,000
(FAO FishStat 2014)
•
2013 sales > $ 9,000,000,000
2013 (est)
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
Metric tons
Bangladesh tilapia aquaculture
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2015 (est)
2014 (est)
2013 (est)
2012 (est)
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
Metric tons (000)
Future global tilapia aquaculture
5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
ISTA 11

Surabaya, Indonesia
 In
conjunction with WAS Asia-Pacific Chapter
 Regal Springs, Surya University, Matahari Sakti
Feeds, AquaFish Innovation Lab, WorldFish,
and
Aquaculture without Frontiers

May 2016
Conclusions
•
•
•
Tilapia has long been
called the aquatic
chicken.
Instead…...
The
“terrestrial
tilapia”
Conclusions
•
•
•
Global tilapia production was 4,507,002
metric tons in 2012 (FAO, 2014), should
exceed 4,800,000 MT in 2014. (6% growth)
Constantly improving farming, processing
and packaging for food safety, quality
assurance, traceability, and environmental
safeguards (with little, if any, increase in
price).
Other aquaculture species will follow the
tilapia model.
Buy TILAPIA
Thank you
Questions?
Tilapia: the most fun aquaculture
species of the 21st century
http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Bh2673ncWJg

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