### Mathematical Vocabulary

```Mathematical
Vocabulary
Flash Cards
© Brent Coley 2008 | www.mrcoley.com
Sum
Difference
subtraction (-) problem
Product
multiplication (x or *)
problem
Quotient
division (÷) problem
Factors
Numbers that will evenly
divide into another number
(the numbers you can multiply
together to get another number)
Factors of 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12
(1 * 12, 2 * 6, 3 * 4)
Prime Number
A whole number greater than
1 that has only two factors:
1 and itself
(The only way to get the
number is to multiply
1 times itself.)
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, …
Composite Number
A number that has more than
two factors
(there is more than one way to
multiply to get the number)
“9”: 1 * 9, 3 * 3
“12”: 1 * 12, 2 * 6, 3 * 4
Prime Factorization
A factor tree – breaking a
number down into its prime
factors
16
4
2
16 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2
4
22
2
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
The biggest factor of two or
more numbers
The GCF of 12 and 18 is 6.
Factors of 12 → 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12
Factors of 18 → 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
Smallest number that is a
multiple of two or more
numbers
The LCM of 3 and 4 is 12.
3 → 3, 6, 9, 12
4 → 4, 8, 12
Parts of a Fraction
¾
Numerator = top number
Denominator = bottom number
Exponent
Tells how many times the
base number is being
multiplied by itself
23 = 2 * 2 * 2
base
number
exponent
Parallel Lines
When two lines are always
the same distance apart
(they will never touch)
Perpendicular Lines
When two lines intersect to
form a right angle (90°)
Perimeter
The distance around a twodimensional figure
To find the
all the sides of
the figure.
Perimeter = sum of all sides
Area of a Rectangle
The amount of space inside
the rectangle
height
base
To find the
area, multiply
the base times
the height.
Area = base * height
Area of a Triangle
The amount of space inside
the triangle
height
base
To find the area,
multiply the
base times the
height, then
divide by 2.
Area = ½ (base * height)
Volume
The amount of space inside a
three-dimensional figure
height
depth
base
To find the
volume,
multiply base
times height
times depth.
Volume = base * height * depth
A line segment from the
center of a circle to any
point on the circle
Diameter
A line segment that passes
through the center of a
circle
diameter
Circumference
The distance around a circle
To find the
circumference,
multiply π (3.14)
by the diameter.
diameter
Circumference = π * diameter
Area of a Circle
The amount of space inside
the circle
To find the area,
multiply π (3.14)
by the squared
Maximum
The largest number in a set
of numbers.
1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20
Maximum = 20
Minimum
The smallest number in a set
of numbers.
1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20
Minimum = 1
Range
The difference between the
maximum and minimum
(maximum – minimum)
1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20
Range = 19
Max. (20) – Min. (1) = 19
Mean
The average. Add up all the
numbers and divide by how
2, 3, 5, 7, 8
Mean = 5
(The five numbers add up to 25.
25 ÷ 5 = 5)
Mode
The number that occurs
most often.
1, 5, 5, 9, 9, 9, 11, 13
Mode = 9
(There are more 9’s than any
other number.)
Median
The middle number when the
numbers are lined up
smallest to largest
1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20
Median = 12
Title image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Used with permission.
```