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Mathematical Vocabulary Flash Cards © Brent Coley 2008 | www.mrcoley.com Sum The answer to an addition (+) problem Difference The answer to a subtraction (-) problem Product The answer to a multiplication (x or *) problem Quotient The answer to a division (÷) problem Factors Numbers that will evenly divide into another number (the numbers you can multiply together to get another number) Factors of 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 (1 * 12, 2 * 6, 3 * 4) Prime Number A whole number greater than 1 that has only two factors: 1 and itself (The only way to get the number is to multiply 1 times itself.) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, … Composite Number A number that has more than two factors (there is more than one way to multiply to get the number) “9”: 1 * 9, 3 * 3 “12”: 1 * 12, 2 * 6, 3 * 4 Prime Factorization A factor tree – breaking a number down into its prime factors 16 4 2 16 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 4 22 2 Greatest Common Factor (GCF) The biggest factor of two or more numbers The GCF of 12 and 18 is 6. Factors of 12 → 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 Factors of 18 → 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 Least Common Multiple (LCM) Smallest number that is a multiple of two or more numbers The LCM of 3 and 4 is 12. 3 → 3, 6, 9, 12 4 → 4, 8, 12 Parts of a Fraction ¾ Numerator = top number Denominator = bottom number Exponent Tells how many times the base number is being multiplied by itself 23 = 2 * 2 * 2 base number exponent Parallel Lines When two lines are always the same distance apart (they will never touch) Perpendicular Lines When two lines intersect to form a right angle (90°) Perimeter The distance around a twodimensional figure To find the perimeter, add all the sides of the figure. Perimeter = sum of all sides Area of a Rectangle The amount of space inside the rectangle height base To find the area, multiply the base times the height. Area = base * height Area of a Triangle The amount of space inside the triangle height base To find the area, multiply the base times the height, then divide by 2. Area = ½ (base * height) Volume The amount of space inside a three-dimensional figure height depth base To find the volume, multiply base times height times depth. Volume = base * height * depth Radius A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on the circle radius Diameter A line segment that passes through the center of a circle diameter Circumference The distance around a circle To find the circumference, multiply π (3.14) by the diameter. diameter Circumference = π * diameter Area of a Circle The amount of space inside the circle To find the area, multiply π (3.14) by the squared radius. radius Area = π * radius2 Maximum The largest number in a set of numbers. 1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20 Maximum = 20 Minimum The smallest number in a set of numbers. 1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20 Minimum = 1 Range The difference between the maximum and minimum (maximum – minimum) 1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20 Range = 19 Max. (20) – Min. (1) = 19 Mean The average. Add up all the numbers and divide by how many numbers you added. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 Mean = 5 (The five numbers add up to 25. 25 ÷ 5 = 5) Mode The number that occurs most often. 1, 5, 5, 9, 9, 9, 11, 13 Mode = 9 (There are more 9’s than any other number.) Median The middle number when the numbers are lined up smallest to largest 1, 5, 9, 12, 17, 19, 20 Median = 12 Title image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Used with permission.