Chapter 12: The World War I Era

Report
Chapter 12: The World
War I Era
IV. Americans on the Home Front
Bell Ringer
• What does home front mean?
• Why could life not continue normally while
the nations was involved in a war
overseas?
• WWI allowed women to join the paid work
force, how might this have affected US
families?
• How might it have changed the women?
Objectives
• Learn about the steps the government
took to finance the war and manage the
economy.
• Describe how the government enforced
loyalty to the war effort.
• Find out how the war changed the lives of
Americans on the home front.
Setting the Scene
• Page 432
A) Financing the War
18)Liberty Bonds: special war bonds to
support the Allied cause. – redeemed
later for more money.
• Raised 20 million
• Scouts sold them, “four-minute men”,
and actors.
• Buying bonds was patriotic!
B) Managing the Economy
•
Government created a bureaucracy, “dollar-a-year”
men to manage war production.
•
War Industries Board – told who to build what and
fixed prices
•
Samuel Gompers – promised no strikes in war
factories
19) Price control: Food Administration determined
prices on sale of food
20) Rationing: distributing goods to consumers in a
fixed amount
21) Daylight saving time: shifting time so more
daylight hours during work time – save energy
•
Food Administration promoted voluntary restraint –
garden (meatless, wheat-less, sweet-less)
C) Enforcing Loyalty
• Committee on Public Information – job was to
rally popular support for the war
• Banned movies and novels, censored the
news, and used propaganda
• Fear of foreigners: restricted immigration,
alert for sabotage, literacy test on immigrants
– nativism grew
• “Hate the Hun”: HS stopped teaching
German and playing music, lynched a person
in ST. Louis – page 435
•
Repression of Civil Liberties: promoted liberty and
democracy and at same time passed the Espionage
Act
•
Illegal to obstruct sale of bonds and discuss disloyal,
profane, scurrilous, or abusive ideas about US
(Sedition act) – (Schenck)
22) Sedition: any speech or action that encourages
rebellion
•
Controlling Political Radicals: socialists argued war
between capitalists – workers not bother – lynched and
horsewhipped
23) vigilantes: citizens who take the law into their own
hands
D) Changing People’s Lives
•
•
•
•
Militaristic styles became acceptable
Scouting – uniforms – marching
Schools did military drill
No immigrants or young men – women
joined the work force – 400,000
• Great Migration – 500,000 African
Americans moved north to work in
factories
Review
• What steps did the government take to
finance the war and manage the
economy?
• How did the government enforce loyalty to
the war effort?
• How did the war change the lives of
Americans on the home front?

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