Chapter 12: The World War I Era IV. Americans on the Home Front Bell Ringer • What does home front mean? • Why could life not continue normally while the nations was involved in a war overseas? • WWI allowed women to join the paid work force, how might this have affected US families? • How might it have changed the women? Objectives • Learn about the steps the government took to finance the war and manage the economy. • Describe how the government enforced loyalty to the war effort. • Find out how the war changed the lives of Americans on the home front. Setting the Scene • Page 432 A) Financing the War 18)Liberty Bonds: special war bonds to support the Allied cause. – redeemed later for more money. • Raised 20 million • Scouts sold them, “four-minute men”, and actors. • Buying bonds was patriotic! B) Managing the Economy • Government created a bureaucracy, “dollar-a-year” men to manage war production. • War Industries Board – told who to build what and fixed prices • Samuel Gompers – promised no strikes in war factories 19) Price control: Food Administration determined prices on sale of food 20) Rationing: distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount 21) Daylight saving time: shifting time so more daylight hours during work time – save energy • Food Administration promoted voluntary restraint – garden (meatless, wheat-less, sweet-less) C) Enforcing Loyalty • Committee on Public Information – job was to rally popular support for the war • Banned movies and novels, censored the news, and used propaganda • Fear of foreigners: restricted immigration, alert for sabotage, literacy test on immigrants – nativism grew • “Hate the Hun”: HS stopped teaching German and playing music, lynched a person in ST. Louis – page 435 • Repression of Civil Liberties: promoted liberty and democracy and at same time passed the Espionage Act • Illegal to obstruct sale of bonds and discuss disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive ideas about US (Sedition act) – (Schenck) 22) Sedition: any speech or action that encourages rebellion • Controlling Political Radicals: socialists argued war between capitalists – workers not bother – lynched and horsewhipped 23) vigilantes: citizens who take the law into their own hands D) Changing People’s Lives • • • • Militaristic styles became acceptable Scouting – uniforms – marching Schools did military drill No immigrants or young men – women joined the work force – 400,000 • Great Migration – 500,000 African Americans moved north to work in factories Review • What steps did the government take to finance the war and manage the economy? • How did the government enforce loyalty to the war effort? • How did the war change the lives of Americans on the home front?