“…Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!“ Bell-work: Read the poem by Lazarus 1. Who was this poem meant to appeal to? 2. Would the nickname “Mother of Exiles” be appropriate for the Statue of Liberty? 3. Summarize the poem in your own words. Before the Civil War manufacturing centered in the countryside By the end of the 19th century, 90% of all manufacturing took place in the cities. “New immigrants” Why did they immigrate? The population of cities grew at double the rate of the nation’s population as a whole. New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Boston and Baltimore were the nation’s largest cities. Movement from the South and farms….why? What is the difference between immigrants and migrants? Immigrants and their children were the major source of urban population growth. What is the difference between the first wave of immigrants before the Civil War and the “new immigrants?” -Skilled vs. Unskilled labor -Settled in countryside vs. Settled in cities ChicagoGermans New YorkItalians BostonIrish (most numerous among the new immigrants) Immigrants came to the city for expanding opportunities for employment. Jews had the most experience with urban life. Rural European immigrants Continued mobility We know that people swelled population in the cities, but how did they live? Urban landscape Tenements By 1890, New York’s Lower East Side crammed more than 700 per acre into back to back buildings. Concept! What is an ethnic enclave? An ethnic community which retains some cultural distinction. New styles of commercial and civil architecture were established. Architects played a key role in the late 19th century City Beautiful movement. Influenced by American wealth New schools, sport amphitheatres, court houses, capital buildings, hospitals, ect. Who helped pay for these? Central YMCA, Chicago 1891Jenney What disparities can you already identify in American cities between American wealth and the urban working population? Industrialization vs. environmentalism :Who always wins this one? Mass transportation Sewer systems Pollution Biggest danger facing the urban population? -Fires! Contagious diseases Public health reform efforts wouldn’t take place until the turn of the century Attempts to transplant communities from Old World Modification of old attitudes and customs Younger generations adapt Clash between old and young generations Influence on religion -Predominance of Protestant religions before newcomers -Influx of Catholics and Jews -Attempts to convert newcomers Immigrants as innovative entrepreneurs helped to shape popular culture German immigrantsTin Pan Ally African AmericansRagtime ChicagoConey Island Close to 60% of the industrial labor force was foreign-born. Had links to the America Hemispheric migration Immigrant communities took the form of densely packed ghettos. NY became the center of both Jewish immigration and America’s huge ready to wear clothing industry. Piece-rate Garment industry was highly seasonal. A typical workweek averaging 60 hours or 70 during busy season. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire Think about how events like these might lead to reform movements during the Progressive Era. Where are we headed? Create a journal / diary entry for the following events: You are a new immigrant to the US in the 1890’s, reflect on your: Experiences in your journey to the US Emotions upon sailing into NY harbor Experiences in your processing on Ellis Island Your emotions and experiences upon leaving processing and going into the city. Bear in mind the reasons that prompted your journey and the family / friends you left behind.