Document

Report
USA Volleyball
Presents the
2014 Season
IMPACT
Clinic
Part 2
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Learning
The SCIENCE Behind the ART of Coaching…
 What KEYS will be used to
teach the skills?
 In what ORDER will these
skills be presented?
 How can coaches combine
DEMONSTRATIONS & KEYS into an
effective 4x4 teaching method?
Manual Page 71
Slide #95
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
LEARNING
and
RETENTION
Research has shown that:
 “The deepest & therefore ‘best’ learning
(indicated by performance retention under varied
conditions) is usually accomplished by a process of
‘Implicit Learning’ – where learners come to understand a
principle, concept or relationship in a deeply personal way they have their own ‘Eureka!’ (or ‘Light Bulb’) moment. This
process may take much longer than other types of learning.
 ‘Explicit Learning’ is a process where learners may be able
to perform a given task or recite a given principle more
quickly, but the level of demonstrated learning is far less
complete & retained for far shorter time.”
~Peter Vint~
Manual Page 72
Slide #96
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
LEARNING and RETENTION, cont.
For example, if we want an athlete to improve on middle blocking, and in
particular, the ability to read the play to improve the speed & accuracy of
initial decision making – then the following would be true:
 Implicit Learning: the coach would define the skill & expected
outcome, i.e. “Read the play so you can make faster and more
accurate decisions!”
 Leaving it up to the athlete to determine how to do it
& figure out what information to attend to.
 Hopefully, the athlete would figure it out & by doing so
on own, would come away with a very strong
understanding of this aspect of the game.
 However, it may take a long time for this to happen
and maybe never would. ~Peter Vint~
Manual Page 72
Slide #97
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
LEARNING and RETENTION, cont.
Using the same middle blocking example:
 Explicit Learning: here the coach not only defines the
skill and expected outcome but also defines the stimulus
and response, i.e. “When you see this… do that.”
 No attention is given toward the athlete understanding or
actually internalizing the cue, just a superficial “if-then”
response.
 This is generally a learning technique that can yield very
rapid changes in performance (and therefore useful during
in-game, time-out situations) but results in very poor
retention and very shallow understanding.
 The latter may cause athletes to resort back to prior habits
under conditions of stress and anxiety.
~Peter Vint~
Manual Page 72
Slide #98
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
LEARNING and RETENTION, cont.
And finally, still using the same middle blocking example:
 Guided Discovery (the USAV recommended method): the coach
defines the skill and expected outcome and provides some
guidance on which cues to focus on without explicitly
stating the cause-effect relationship, i.e. “Watch what
happens when the setter arches his/her back…”
 By the coach providing ‘hints’ without a ‘rule’, the athlete is still
able to ‘discover’ the answer and learn the relationship in their
own way.
 The advantage of coaching using this approach is that it typically
takes less time than Implicit Learning but may also yield results
which are comparable to those obtained under Implicit Learning.
~Peter Vint~
Manual Page 72
Slide #99
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
SPECIFICITY vs. GENERALITY
Research has shown that:
 Abilities like coordination & agility are specific to the task
 Scientific evidence does not support the idea of general
athletic ability
 “However… while specific practice is required (or best) to
perform a specific motor task in a specific situation, some
would contend that the practice design literature also shows
that such specificity can be quite limiting.
 Those trained in narrow & specific performances may develop
to be quite talented; but those trained in broader & more varied
performances, while lacking some nuanced technical execution,
are often able to perform at equal or higher levels because they
have used their bodies in more varied ways & developed a more
comprehensive (albeit general) set of motor abilities.”
~ Peter Vint, USOC Sport Science ~
Manual Page 72-73
Slide #100
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
SPECIFICITY
vs. GENERALITY cont.
 Schmidt “Schema Theory”
 Accounts for ability to execute a generalized motor response (i.e. an
attack) in a number of novel ways & conditions (i.e. set is high/low;
tight/off; fast/slow).
 “So, …when an attacker correctly adjust to a poorly set ball (or
poorly timed approach), I do NOT believe they are calling up a
unique ‘specific motor program’ for that particular condition.
 Rather, I believe they are able to elicit an appropriate motor response
by drawing upon a pool of available and compatible motor abilities.
 It’s still an attack – it’s just a bit different this time than it was last
time.
 The broader the repertoire, the more adaptable the response can be.
 This repertoire may be extended directly through variability in
training conditions – which I believe can include participation
in other sports.”
~ Peter Vint ~
Manual Page 72-73
Slide #101
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
TRANSFER
 Research has shown that:
 Motor programs are very specific to the task
 There will not be much transfer from one task to another
 However… “people with athletic/sports experience may be better at
knowing how to learn and prioritize key information.” (Bill Neville)
 However…. “I agree that there may not be DIRECT 1 to 1 transfer
between a baseball pitcher’s ability to attack a volleyball, but there
is likely to be some POSITIVE TRANSFER . A baseball player who
has never played volleyball is likely to be more capable of learning
to attack a volleyball with an ‘ideal’ form than a wrestler who has a
less mature ‘overhand throwing pattern’. In a vb practice, I would
still prefer to teach the wrestler –turned-vb player to ‘attack a vb’
rather than ‘throw a ball ,THEN learn to attack a vb’, but there are
SOME similarities which can in fact, and do, transfer.” ~ Peter Vint ~
Manual Page 73
Slide #102
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
TRANSFER, cont.
 “Realize that positive transfer is good; negative
transfer is bad; and greater positive transfer is better
than less positive transfer.
 If used, design ‘progression’ drills to maximize
positive transfer & minimize (if not completely
eliminate) negative transfer. Some ‘progressions’
may be more similar to the actual skill of ‘attacking’
and should therefore promote greater transfer.
~ Peter Vint ~
Manual Page 73
Slide #103
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
WHOLE
vs. PART practice
 Practice all of a skill at once or
break it down into “progressions”?
 Research has shown that:
 Since there is a general lack of transfer, whole skill practice
should be better than “progressions”
 “However consider that these concepts may be more
appropriately and practically applied as written ONCE A
FUNDAMENTAL LEVEL OF SKILL is demonstrated.
 For novice learners, high reps & frequent feedback on some
‘part skill’ tasks can promote motor skill development AND
maintain/foster the motivation needed to step into a more sport
specific ‘whole skill’ practice.” ~Peter Vint~
Manual Page 73-74
Slide #104
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
STATE-DEPENDENT Training/ Remembering
 Research has shown that:
 Information about the learners’ mood and surroundings
become a part of the motor program
 That same mood and environment should produce better
skill performance
 This concept is tied to something called ‘perception-action
coupling’ – that is, learning is more effective when all
components (cognitive, perceptual and motor) of a skill are
included in it’s execution (as in whole/part discussion).
 It can also be tied to ‘decision-making’ in that simply watching
a video & talking about the correct response is less effective
than a more immersive activity where athletes actually
physically execute appropriate responses.”
~Peter Vint~
 Should result in a “home court advantage”…
Manual Page 74
Slide #105
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
RANDOM vs. BLOCKED practice
 Intentional variations of a task rather than continuous
repetition of a skill
 Research has shown that:
 Random practiced produces better performance & retention
 Random vs blocked practice pertains to the distribution of
repetitions on a given motor task (or drill).
 Serving 20 in a row would be BLOCKED practice.
 Serving twice, then passing a few reps, then serving 3 times,
then … is RANDOM practice.
 Practicing on different courts, oron different sides of the net,
or at different times of the day, or with different balls, or
against different teams is more RANDOM.
~Peter Vint ~
 RANDOM is how our game is played, so “Train in Reality”!
Manual Page 74
Slide #106
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
VARIABLE vs. CONSTANT practice

Pertains to the conditions in which skills are
performed.

Serving 20 x’s in a row from the same side of the net
is CONSTANT and BLOCKED.
Serving 2 x’s, then passing a few, then serving 3 x’s
from the other side of the net is VARIABLE and RANDOM.
When teams practice on the same court, in the same
direction, with the same balls, at the same time of the
day – that is CONSTANT practice.
Passing balls coming from the same place on the
court to the same place on the court is CONSTANT
(no variables).
~Peter Vint~
Again, the way VB is played is VARIABLE – so Train in
Reality!




Manual Page 74-75
Slide #107
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Principles of Planning Effective Practices
DISTRIBUTED
vs.
MASSED
practice
 “Massed vs distributed” relates to “WORKREST” RATIOS … which is the time interval
between repetitions of a skill or between drills.
 Research has shown that:
 Shorter drill time frames are best
 Massed practice reduces the performance and
learning of a motor skill
 Train in Reality!
 How often does same player serves15-20 x’s in a row?
 How many rotations till server gets to serve again?
Manual Page 75
Slide #108
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Applications of Principles
POLL QUESTION #1






SHOW (more)… then tell (less)
More INDIVIDUAL demonstrations (as needed)
THE GAME teaches THE GAME…
LIMIT Progressions
Make even beginners MOVE
SPEED FIRST…
Accuracy Second
 TIMING errors vs. …
TECHNIQUE errors
 Limit partner training
 Develop SKILL now… and condition later
Manual Page 76-82
Slide #109
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
 What IS LTAD?!
 An integrated training/competition/recovery program establishing
guidelines for coaches/athletes as well as administrators/parents
in all areas, including planning.
 Identifies potential &provides appropriate developmental pathways
for full realization.
 Pathways ensure anyone, at any age/experience level, who wants to
learn the sport has that opportunity
 Critical windows of optimal training during which
learning/training can be maximized
 Development of athletic models, identifying appropriate
training goals/strategies at each stage of development




Physical
Mental/Cognitive
Emotional
Social
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #110
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
 Chronological age is not the best
indicator on which to base athletic
development models


Between ages 10 -16 there is a wide variation in
development
 All 12 (or all 13 or all 14) year olds are NOT the
same in their development physically, cognitively,
emotionally & socially
 Yet most coaches tend to treat them all the same
when developing training plans for their teams.
Pathways must ensure anyone, at any age/experience
level, who wants to learn the sport has that opportunity
 Use onset of “Peak Height Velocity” (PHV)
as reference point for design of optimal
youth training programs




At first Glance, who would you
pick for YOUR team?!
And WHY?!
Each player here is 12 years old, & in
a different stage of development,
mentally, emotionally and physically.
Should we “eliminate from” or “choose”
for a team or a position at a first
glance, often based on physical
appearance/stature alone? Who of the
above has the most “potential” to
develop later?
PHV = point in child's development when reach maximum growth rate
Average age for reaching PHV is 12 for girls and 14 for boys
Use periodic measurements (standing & sitting height) to track & determine
PHV can be monitored & appropriate training programs created to match individual
athlete's windows of development
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #111
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
CHALLENGES
 Early specialization or late specialization?!
 Early, like gymnastics - requires fewer phases in LTAD model
 Late - like Track and Field & many Team Sports such as Volleyball - requires more phases
 Young athletes under-train & over-compete, using adult
competition models
 Training in early years focuses more on outcomes (winning)
rather than on processes (optimal training)
 Chronological age tends to dominate training, rather than
biological/maturational age
 The "critical/sensitive“ periods of accelerated adaptation to training aren’t
known, understood or utilized well enough
 Under-development between ages 6-16 can’t be fully overcome (may never reach
genetic potential)
 The best coaches are encouraged to work at elite levels
 Limited coaching education is provided to those working at youngest ages
 Parent's education is neglected with regards to long-term athlete development
 Lack of integration of sport science, sports med & sport-specific
technical-tactical activities
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #112
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
LTAD Models
 Most based on work by Dr. Istvan Balyi - Canadian National Sport LTAD
 American Development Model (ADM) created by USA Hockey





Based upon Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) principles
Grounded in sports science, physical education and child development practices
Includes non-sports specific & sport specific best practices of other countries’ LTAD’s
But … with very American practicalities
The ADM is age appropriate training and competition for kids
 To increase expert athlete pools
later >>> must change what is
done at age 7–14 now
 VB, like Hockey’s expert players,
tended to an early varied sport
background
 “You can’t speed farm.”
(Mike Boyle –NT Strength & Conditioning Coach)





Speed
Flexibility
Sports Skills
Endurance
Strength
 For age group sports coach,
patience is a huge key
 Must have strong understanding
of process of development
(motor, cognitive, mental, & emotional skills)
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #113
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
10 Key LTAD Factors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
FUNdamentals
Specialization – early or late?
Ten year rule (or 10,000 hours rule)
Growth, Development, and Maturation
Trainability windows
Mental /Cognitive /Emotional
Development
7. Periodization and Training Principles
8. System Alignment and Integration
9. The System of Competition
10.Continuous Improvement
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #114
5 – Motor Skill Development:
Long Term Athlete Development
5 Key factors in US LTAD Development Models
1. Age appropriate training and competition, as
defined by each sport.
2. Modified equipment, playing surface and rules
to fit youth development for future success, as
defined by each sport.
3. Multi-Sport base to provide broad base of
quality movement skills at younger ages.
4. Allow for recognition of early and late specialization
sports, and define pathways for both early and late
entry time lines for reaching the elite level.
5. The youth sports environment should be safe
and directed by screened adults. All NGB’s will
follow the USOC Safe Sports Program Guidelines.
Manual Page 75-76
Slide #115
5 – Motor Skill Development:
MORE Applications of Principles
 Anticipation, Reading, Timing, & Judgment
are Involved in performance of EVERY skill… so Train in
REALITY!
 Skills should be taught with these cues & clues included
 Learned in game-like situations, at game-like speeds
 Are INNATE abilities in SOME athletes
 May be TRAINED to improve in MOST athletes
 How do you provide this training?!




Chunk information to recognize and memorize situations
Increase opportunities to make decisions
View video & ask to “predict” the action
Ask questions … “Where should the setter set this ball?”
or “Where would you hit this ball if you were the attacker?”
 Call attention to corrections in timing, not just technique
Manual Page 79-81
Slide #116
5 – Motor Skill Development:
MORE Applications of Principles
 Less feedback, more “Feed-FORWARD”





BETTER vs. MORE
Be SPECIFIC with feedback
POSITIVE wording
INTRINSIC vs. EXTRINSIC
Teach them WHY you know it – teach
anticipation & reading situations
 ONE KEY at a time
 Provide LESS info when intensity increases
 Coach & COMMENT on the AVERAGES
 Provide MORE “opportunities to respond”
 WASH DRILLS more than scrimmages
 MORE BALLS - fewer players - smaller spaces
– even in warm up
Manual Page 82-85
Slide #117
5 – Motor Skill Development:
REVIEW
POLL QUESTION #2
 What have we learned about the Science of Coaching
to add to the Art of Coaching?





Volleyball Specific Motor Programs must be formed
Little Transfer to the game unless it is specific
Showing is better than telling
DOING is better than Showing
Doing with SPECIFIC CUES reinforced, one at
a time, is much better
 Doing it all with volleyball MOVEMENT is even better
 Practicing like the game is played is the ultimate
 TRAIN IN REALITY!
 Structure MORE “opportunities to respond” and to
make decisions within your drills in every practice.
 “Are you practicing for practice, or are you Practicing
for Performance?”
~ Dr. Richard Schmidt ~
Now let’s take all that SCIENCE and apply it to the
ART of Drill Design in Chapter 6.
Slide #118
6 – Drill Development
POLL QUES #3
The BEST DRILLS are those created to:
MAXIMIZE
Successful,
Meaningful,
Movements and
Contacts
And solve specific problems your team is experiencing!
Manual Page 87-88
Slide #119
6 – Drill Development:
BASE - Building All Skills Efficiently







Varying ball initiation points
Ball flight variations
Player movement demands
Incorporate Decision Making
Goals of the Drill?!
Increase skill difficulty over time
Work w/o the ball – what is required
when not playing the ball?
 Combination skill drills
 Consider specialization…to train players together by
position for efficient practices
Manual Page 89-92
Slide #120
6 – Drill Development:
BASE - Building All Skills Efficiently
 Scoring Variations
 Look at the descriptions of
some scoring variations on page 90-91
 Which 3-4 would you like explained?
 Games
 Look at the descriptions of some game
variations on page 92-94
 Which 3-4 would you like explained?
 Can you think of others?
 How about Tic-Tac-Toe, Bingo, Yatzhee, Connect Four,
Battleship, Poker/Cards?
Manual Page 92-96
Slide #121
6 – Drill Development:
Review - “GAME-LIKE”?!
 TRAIN IN REALITY!
 “Game-Like” drills will utilize:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
POLL QUESTION #4
Ball traveling over the NET
Scoring (visible is best)
Court lines
Officiating/whistle
More than 1 isolated skill
More than 1 isolated player (triangles & angles)
Time between repeated contacts
Verbal communication/audio noise
 What else can you think of?

Keep these in mind during our discussion of Youth
Volleyball in CHAPTER 7 COMING UP!
Slide #122
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
Guidelines for Youth Volleyball Success
 Set up MORE nets and courts
Manual Page 97
Slide #123
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
Guidelines for Youth Volleyball Success
 Make 4 the LARGEST team size
Manual Page 98
Slide #124
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
Guidelines for Youth Volleyball Success
 PLAY for half your practice
 SPIKE FIRST and often
 Teach/reward COOPERATION,
CHARACTER and EFFORT
 Teach them to TEACH THEMSELVES
 SHOW THEM rather than tell them
 Create a positive, FUN ENVIRONMENT
 Make things as GAME-LIKE as possible
 Have SCORING and “consequences”
Manual Page 97-100
Slide #125
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
Concepts for Mini Volleyball









TEACH MORE, train less
Play on a SMALLER COURT
Use SMALLER SIZED TEAMS
Use a LOWER NET
Use a DIFFERENT BALL
Follow SIMPLIFIED RULES
Use AGE-GROUP definitions
Make PARTICIPATION a priority
Emphasize 3 CONTACTS
Manual Page 100-102
Slide #126
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
Benefits of Beach Volleyball




Encourages RANDOM PLAY
Helps PREVENT BURN OUT
Encourages more SELF-COACHING
Encourages learning Reading,
Anticipation, Judgment &
Timing skills
 Provides avenue for
YEAR-ROUND PLAY
 Encourages a
“WINNERS STAY ON” mentality
Manual Page 103-105
Slide #127
7 – Youth, Mini and Beach:
CHAPTER REVIEW
 REVIEW:
 Find spaces to create
courts, even if small
 Smaller teams =
more contacts =
more fun =
more learning
 SHOW and tell
 Cross-train on the beach
 Let ‘em PLAY!
 Emerging NCAA Sport!




DII IN 2010
DI IN 2011
3rd annual AVCA Sand Championships in April 2014
As of May 2014 now have 40+ schools sponsoring programs
 How can PARENTS help you? Find out in Chapter 8!
Slide #128
8 – Parents:
Ways That Parents Can Help
Just like a Strength and Conditioning coach,
a Medical Team, a Nutritionist or a Sports
Psychologist, Parents are an
important part of …
the TEAM AROUND your Team




Program Administration
Financial Support
Community Relations
Education
Manual Page 107-108
Slide #129
8 – Parents:
A Child’s Self-Esteem
Ask Parents to:
 Treat their child, and all others, with
RESPECT
 Provide specific PRAISE for EFFORT made,
not on the outcome of the game
 Give the child a sense of RESPONSIBILITY,
independence and freedom to make own
CHOICES, whenever appropriate
 Respect each child’s UNIQUENESS
 Always be a GOOD ROLE MODEL
Manual Page 108-110
Slide #130
8 – Parents:
Guidelines for Proper Cheering
NASPE / NCACE:
40 National Coaching Standards








Domain 1: Philosophy and Ethics
Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention
Domain 3: Physical Conditioning
Domain 4: Growth and Development
Domain 5: Teaching and Communication
Domain 6: Sport Skills and Tactics
Domain 7: Organization and Administration
Domain 8: Evaluation
Manual Page 108
Slide #131
8 – Parents:
Guidelines for Proper Cheering
POLL QUESTION #5
Parents can demonstrate support by:
 Not “booing” or intimidating the Players,
Officials or other Spectators
 Avoiding the “gasp” after an error
 Not “coaching” from the sidelines –
Players play, Parents parent & Coaches
coach…
 Showing appreciation for great
performances by either team
Manual Page 110-112
Slide #132
8 – Parents:
CHAPTER Review
 To Review:
 Parents can be your best friend if you guide them to be, &
your worst nightmare if you don’t communicate w/them.
 Remember, parents love their kids & think
they are “helping” from the stands.
 Find constructive ways to let “helpful”
parents help
 Shared (required?) reading
 Encourage the motto…
Players Play, Parents Parent & Coaches Coach…
and – Officials Officiate!
 Coming up next: An Overview of Skills and Systems
in Chapter 9 and 10!
Slide #133
USA VOLLEYBALL
Video Education Channel
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Slide #114

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