MORALE AND MOTIVATION

Report
MORALE AND MOTIVATION
Trent/Fleming Nursing
January 28, 2004
Think about – and then write down
“3 situations in which I feel good
about myself”
Think about - and then write down -
“3 things that I enjoy doing”
MORALE
Confidence, determination of a group or
person (Oxford)
Esprit de corps (Merriam Webster)
The mental and emotional attitudes of an
individual to the tasks expected of him
(MW)
MOTIVATION
That which causes a person to act in a
particular way (Oxford)
That which stimulates the interest of a person
in an activity (Oxford)
A need or a desire that causes a person to act
(Merriam Webster)
MORALE is related to FEELING it is the perception of satisfaction
or dissatisfaction
MOTIVATION is related to
BEHAVIOUR
Think about - and then write down -
“3 reasons I chose nursing”
HOW WELL DO THE
THREE LISTS
REFLECT EACH OTHER??
ORGANIZATIONAL SATISFACTION
EMBRACES NOT ONLY THE
WORKERS ADAPTATION TO THE
ORGANIZATION BUT ALSO
WHAT THEIR WORK MEANS TO
THEM
AND
WAYS IN WHICH THE ORGANIZATION
MIGHT ADAPT TO THEIR (THE
WORKERS’) NEEDS
(Stamp)
MEASURING SATISFACTION IS
ONE THING CHANGING IT IS ANOTHER!
The important knowledge we gain is not about
measuring work satisfaction; the goal is to
create more satisfying jobs
THE RESEARCH
Research concentration of the 30’s/40’s
Motivation creates satisfaction
versus
Satisfaction creates motivation
CONTENT THEORIES of
MOTIVATION
focus on individual processes
TAYLOR
1911
Principles of Scientific Management
- individuals will be motivated to complete
tasks if reward is directly linked to task
completion
- economics as the primary motivator
MASLOW
1954
Hierarchy of Needs
- satisfaction of a low level need allows focus
on a higher level need
- introduction into the literature of formal
writing/theory around ‘fulfillment’
- explicit assumption that partial satisfaction
and partial dissatisfaction co-exist
HERZBERG
1959
Hygiene Theory
- 2 basic sets of needs: 1 satisfies, 1 dissatisfies
- satisfiers: achievement, recognition,
responsibility
- hygiene factors: absence of salary, job
security, structure, supervision, policy
ABSENCE OF A SATISFIER DOES NOT
NECESSARILY CREATE
DISSATISFACTION
HYGIENE FACTORS ARE POWERFUL
DISSATISFIERS IN THEIR ABSENCE
BUT AN INCREASE IN THESE AREAS
DOES NOT CREATE SATISFACTION
PROCESS THEORIES of
MOTIVATION
focus on organizational processes
VROOM
1964
The Expectancy Model
- motivation as dependent on individual
perception of preference and expectancy
- a particular behaviour will produce a
particular outcome (+ve or -ve)
PORTER and LAWLER
1968
MOTIVATION MODEL
- people are motivated by future expectations
based on past experience as influenced by
personality and skills
- performance level in the job causes the level
of satisfaction
hi performance --> hi satisfaction
lo performance --> lo satisfaction
THEORIES OF SATISFACTION
NEED FULFILLMENT THEORY
Maslow
Herzberg
SOCIAL REFERENCE GROUP THEORY
(EQUITY THEORY)
Social Reference Group Theory
Work satisfaction as a function of, and positively
related to;
job characteristics that meet the wants of
a group to which the worker looks for
guidance/direction in evaluating
his/her own reality
(Korman)
Work satisfaction is determined by the
perceived ratio of what a person
receives from his/her job relative to
what he/she puts into that job
(Adams)
EXPECTED OUTCOMES ARE
DETERMINED BY COMPARING ONE’S
WORK AND REWARDS TO OTHERS IN
A SIMILAR JOB
OVER-REWARDING (guilt) AND UNDERREWARDING (unfair treatment) LEAD TO
DISSATISFACTION AND REDUCE
MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE
OUTCOMES
EMPOWERMENT
To give official authority to
(Webster)
Earned autonomy based on consistent
contribution as a situational leader for the
good of the employee, the customer and the
organization
(McGraw)
Components of Empowerment
- balance of power
- enabling (gaining access to power)
- shared power
- leader versus manager
- delegation of authority
- participative management
COMMUNICATION IS THE
PRIMARY WAY OF
MAINTAINING/SHARING
POWER
EMPOWERMENT THEORIES
NEWMAN
1989
OPEN SYSTEMS THEORY OF NURSING
- nurse core structures: physical,
pyschological, sociocultural, developmental,
spiritual
- client system: lines of defense
- environment: internal and external stressors
EQUILIBRIUM OF THE NURSE
MUST BE MAINTAINED FOR
AN EFFECTIVE CARE
DELIVERY SYSTEM
GRANT
1986
EXCHANGE FLOW SYSTEM
- flow process model designed to improve job
performance
- employment as an exchange process in
which both employee and organization have
needs and in which both make contributions
- Effort Net Return Model of motivation and
satisfaction
- manage individuals AND rewards
- working conditions, external life, degree of
decentralization, nature of the organization
as key influencers of employee satisfaction
- employees strive to maximize aggregate
satisfaction (home + work)
- this theory exposes some of the “myths” of
workplace satisfaction, including:
MYTH
increased motivation = increased productivity
REALITY
increased motivation --> increased work -->
increased dissatisfaction (and potentially
burnout)
MYTH:
happy worker is a motivated worker
REALITY:
a happy person may be happy doing nothing
or may be happy doing the wrong thing
MYTH:
greater rewards lead to greater motivation
REALITY:
ability of a reward to motivate is dependent on
the effort required to attain the reward
(declining marginal utility)
WHAT DOES A
SATISFYING
WORKPLACE LOOK
LIKE?
Autonomy - job related independence
Interaction - formal/informal social and
professional contact during work hours
Organizational Policies - P&P supporting
nursing
Pay- $/hour and benefits
Professional Status - your view and the view
of others about your profession’s
importance
Task Requirements - what is done in the job
INDEX OF WORK
SATISFACTION (Stamp)
COMPLETE THE FORCED CHOICE
SELECTION
Autonomy
Interaction
Pay
Policies
Prof Status
Task Req’t
2
5
1
6
4
3
3
4
1
6
2
5
2
3
6
5
1
4
1
3
5
6
2
4
1
2
4
6
3
5
3
2
4
6
1
5
Med/Surg
2
3
6
5
1
4
Autonomy
Interaction
Pay
Policies
Prof Status
Task Req’t
Crit Care
3
2
5
6
1
4
STORIES FROM THE FIELD
Bogota
1986
“I have 8 hours to do a 9 hour job”
Bruce et al, Canadian Nurse 1998
“With the nursing shortage we have a perfect
storm brewing:
Korcok, CMAJ November 01
“… nurses have consistently
identified a non-supportive,
demeaning and, at times, hostile
relationship with physicians as one
of the most important factors
deteriorating the quality of work
life for nurses”
Oneil & Seago, JAMA, 2002
Succeeding Against the Odds
NHS Leadership Centre
SUPPORT THAT MATTERS:
respect as a person
recognition
support without interference
appreciation of differences in priorities
more contact with manager
feeling free to phone somebody
support to be creative
support when speaking frankly
real inclusion in decision making
political guidance
help with time pressures
development resources
support to progress to the next level
TYPES OF RECOGNITION
(in order of frequency listed):
positive feedback from managers/staff
top level recognition
opportunity to lead/colead a project/trial
own sense of achievement
being head hunted
opportunity to write a paper/present
recognition from clients
policy development opportunity
getting job
an award - achieved or nominated
consultant support to develop ability
opinion being sought
secondment to a project
development opportunity
fair, effective performance appraisal
representative role in video/brochure for corp.
PERSONAL QUALITIES:
interpersonal skills (warm, approachable)
honesty, self awareness
commitment to making a difference
professional competence
self motivation
supportive team work
respect - for clients/colleagues
able to challenge
able to take criticism
always doing your best
positive approach
adaptability/flexibility
fairness
setting an example
ability lead/influence change
Leadership
Walking the talk
Accessibility
Transparency
Credibility
Kouzes and Posner
Challenge the Process
Model the Way
Inspire the Vision
Enable Others to Act
Encourage the Heart
Leadership as a relationship, not a position
INTEGRITY/HONESTY
FORWARD LOOKING
INSPIRING
COMPETENT
FAIR MINDED
WHAT HELPS MOST?
Determination
Encouragement from managers/colleagues
Professional ability
Being proactive and willing to learn
Mentors - political awareness, using networks
Home supports
At PRHC?
Mission/vision
Workplace and Patient Care Values
Values Effectiveness Council
Partnership Council Model
Organizational effectiveness and learning service
Increased front line management
Measurement of satisfaction
Guided Learning program
Zero tolerance policy
Mediation service
At PRHC in Nursing?
Nursing Practice Council(s)
Professional Practice Service
Nurse Educators
Credentialling
Recruitment
Orientation/On site ongoing education
Nursing QWL process
Peer recognition
Nurse Executive/Chief Nursing Officer
WHERE NEXT AT PRHC?
Increased professional practice FTE’s but not
positions as such
Increased nurse educator positions
Increased services

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