The Harlem Renaissance and The KKK U.S. History Unit 1: The 1920’s February 3, 2011 The Great Migration • The rapid movement of African Americans from the south to the north during and after World War I changed African American culture by concentrating it in urban areas and moving it out of the repressive South. The Great Migration Urban Culture • The concentration of African Americans in urban areas directly led to a rise in African American culture. • This was seen in the large amounts of artistic and cultural work being produced at the time, especially in Harlem • This work took the form of visual art, music, dance, and writing. Definition of Harlem Renaissance • Just like the European Renaissance, people in Harlem did not think at the time that they were having a Renaissance • Instead the Harlem Renaissance was a time that creativity, inspiration, and possibility converged to allow a rapid change in the artistic culture of this community. The Century - Harlem Renaissance Harlem Renaissance Art • Many visual artists came out of the Harlem Renaissance • They often portrayed the troubled past or present of the African American, the exciting life of Jazz in the 1920’s, and other cultural themes. Jacob Lawrence • Jacob Lawrence often painted pictures of life in Harlem. • This work is entitled Builders • Bold Colors and modern, expressive lines often characterize pieces from the Harlem Renaissance Jacob Lawrence Dreams Tombstones William Johnson • Here, in Chain Gang, Johnson portrays problems facing African Americans at this time. Archibald Motley • Motley shows the excitement of 1920’s music and dance in Blues Music - Jazz • As African Americans moved from the south to the north, the southern music of blues traveled with them. • Blues music met with the cultural developments of the Harlem Renaissance and became the first American music style - Jazz Jazz Clips • Intro to Jazz • Jazz in New York • Louis Armstrong Harlem Renaissance Poetry • Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers Nativism and the Second Wave of the KKK • While African Americans were celebrating a time of cultural and social growth, others in America were fighting against minorities. African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and Immigrants were particularly hard it by this new wave of racism and hate. The Rise of the KKK • During the wave of nativism that accompanied the anti-communist activity in the United States, anti-immigrant sentiments filled the country. Many nativists felt that although immigrants were useful to fill the large quantity of available factory jobs in the 1800’s, now that factory jobs were diminishing, the quantity of new immigrants arriving in America should be limited. The Rise of the KKK • A combination of fear over diminishing job openings and racist attitudes helped further anti-immigrant attitudes in America. This led to the rise of a variety of racist groups that sought to injure those who were not white, native-born Americans. The Rise of the KKK • The KKK experienced a huge rise in membership during the 1920’s – by 1924 they had 4.5 million white, native born, male members. While they continued to attack African Americans, during this time they also focused their attacks on immigrants and those of Catholic and Jewish descent. The Rise of the KKK • Oregon was one place in America where the Klan found a stronghold in the 1920’s – especially southern Oregon. Much of the Oregon Klan’s activity was directed against Catholics. In 1922, the Klan backed a state measure requiring children to go to public school and therefore not a religious school. Later the courts ruled this unconstitutional. The Rise of the KKK The Rise of the KKK Government Response • The numbers of immigrants entering the country rose sharply between 1919 and 1921, almost 600%. The government passed The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 in response to nativist pressures. This set up a quota system that would limit the number of immigrants from certain countries, especially those in Eastern and Southern Europe. Government Response • Amendments to the law in 1924 limited the immigration from each European nation to 2% of the number of its nationals living in the United States in 1890. This discriminated against those from Southern and Eastern Europe (mainly Catholics and Jews) as their populations did not begin immigrating until 1890. Government Response Government Response • Later, the base year was shifted to 1920, and then in 1927 the law reduced the total number of immigrants to 150,000 in any one year. This law also banned immigrants from Japan which broke the Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907 and angered Japan. Government Response • How did the Emergency Quota Act affect what would happen around World War II?