Hydraulic Fracturing

Report
Overview of Hydraulic
Fracturing
May 31,2013
USDOL/OSHA
Ronald Williams – Compliance Assistance Specialist
3300 Vickery Rd.
North Syracuse, NY 13212
315-451-0808 ext. 3002
Art Dube, Area Director
Gordon DeLeys, CAS
Buffalo Area Office
130 S. Elmwood Avenue, Suite 500
Buffalo, NY 14202
(716) 551-3053 x244
Chris Adams, Area Director
Ron Williams, CAS
Syracuse Area OSHA Office
3300 Vickery Road
N. Syracuse, NY 13212
(315) 451-0808 x3002
Kim Castillon, Area Director
Albany Area Office
401 New Karner Road, Suite 300
Albany, NY 12205
(518) 464-4338
Diana Cortez, Area Director
Tom McCarthy, CAS
Tarrytown Area Office
660 White Plains Road
Tarrytown, NY 10591
(914) 524-7510
Tony Ciuffo, Area Director
Long Island Area Office
1400 Old Country Road
Suite 208
Westbury, NY 11590
(516) 334-3344
Kay Gee, Area Director
John Frowd, CAS
Manhattan Area Office
201 Varick Street, Room 908
New York, NY 10014
(212) 620-3200
• Introduction
–What is hydraulic fracturing?
–OSHA’s perspective
–OSHA’s actions
• Safety concerns
• Health concerns and hydraulic
fracturing fluid
Shale Plays
Hydraulic Fracturing
Picture from Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on
Drinking Water Resources, EPA 2011
Top Side
Water Storage Tanks
Chemical unit
Sand Trailer
Frac
Control
Van
Blender
Pumper
Units
Well
head
Hydraulic Fracturing is one in many
upstream operations in an industry with a
high fatality rate (2006-2010)
Rate per 100,000 Workers
Source:
Private Sector Fatality Rates- Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational injuries (CFOI)
O&G Fatality Rates - OSHA calculated using CFOI fatality counts and employment data from the BLS Quarterly Census of employment and Wages.
Possible risks for consideration
Are HF Workers at
Greater Risk of
Occupational Illness?
Are HF Workers at Greater
Risk of Occupational Injury?
• Increased Time On Site
– Increased Potential for Injury
– Longer hours/fatigue?
• Materials Transport
– Increased Risk of MVAs
•
•
•
•
Silica
Diesel
Chemicals
Increased Time On Site
– Increased Exposure to
Chemicals
– Increased Exposure to Heat
OSHA is including HF into existing O&G
activities to assess any new risks
• Local Emphasis Programs on Oil
and Gas
– HF is part of the Oil and Gas field
– HF inspections are occurring
• Better understand hazards
– gathering inspection information
– working with partners (e.g. NIOSH)
Hydraulic Fracturing Safety Hazards
Hydraulic Fracturing Safety Hazards
• Well Location/Pad
Drilling
• High Pressure
• Loud Equipment
• Silica Exposure
• Permit-Required
Confined Space
• Walking/Working
Surfaces
• Fall Protection
• Control of Hazardous
Energy (LOTO)
• Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE)
• Pre-Job Meeting
• Flammable Gases and
Vapors
Well Location
Water Storage Tanks
Chemical unit
Sand Trailer
Frac
Control
Van
Blender
Pumper
Units
Well
head
Multiple or Pad Location
Wireline Perforation truck
Manifold Trailer
Truck mounted crane
Wireline Logging Unit
High Pressure Hazards (cont’d)
High Pressure Hazards (cont’d)
Chokers
Chokers
Loud Equipment
Blender
Manifold Trailer
Triplex Pumper
Quintuplex Pumper
Proppant Use
Silica Exposure
(discussed later)
Sand Conveyor
Field Sand Storage Trailer (aka Sand Hog)
Sand Conveyor
Permit-Required
Confined Space
(PRCS)
Portable Frac Tank
Cellar
Waste Water Pit
Other
Examples
of PRCS
Sand Dump Truck
Field Sand Storage Trailer
Chemical Unit
Acid transport
truck
Walking/Working Surfaces
Fall
Protection
Control of Hazardous Energy (LOTO)
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
PPE (cont’d)
Pre-Job Meeting
Flammable Gases
and Vapors
Hydraulic Fracturing Health Hazards
Hydraulic Fracturing Health Hazards
•
•
•
•
Background
Water
Base Fluids
Silica
• Chemicals
• Potential Hazards &
Solutions
Background
• Chemicals typically make up just 0.5 and
2.0% of the total volume of the fracturing
fluid. When millions of gallons of water are
being used, however, the amount of chemicals
per fracking operation is very large. For
example, a four million gallon fracturing
operation would use from 80 to 330 tons of
chemicals.
• Fracture fluids may be based on either acid,
gel, water, or oil
– Most fracturing work is water based
Background (cont’d)
• Toxic chemicals exist in frack fluids
• Top health effects include: skin,
eye, respiratory, & gastrointestinal
effects, and brain and nervous
system effects
• “NORM” in relatively small
quantities of radium, radon and
uranium
NORM: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material
Background (cont’d)
• Myth: Flow back and Produced Water pose a
real risk to employees
• Fact: The chemicals used in fracking pose the
highest risk when in bulk, concentrated form
• There is a X to X ratio of water to chemicals
• Health
– Proper PPE
– Portable Eyewash/Shower
– Training
Water
• Water is the driving fluid used
in the hydraulic fracturing
process
• Depending upon the
characteristics of the well and
the rock being fractured a few
million gallons of water can
be required to complete a
hydraulic fracturing job
Water and Sand: 99.51%
• This water can be fresh water or
recycled water
• Sand is the proppant
• Silicosis
• Alternatives are often available
(e.g. ceramics)
Silica Exposures
OSHA/NIOSH Hazard Alert
• Summarizes some preliminary
data on silica exposure
• Critical for raising awareness
about this hazard
– Exposure data and operations where over
exposures can occur
• 47% samples collected exceeded OSHA’s PEL
• 79% samples collected exceeded NIOSH REL
– Control measures (engineering and respirators)
– Assistance/Services/Tools
Controls for Silica Exposure
• Use local exhaust
ventilation
• Enclose points
where dust is
released
• Reduce drop on
sand transfers
• Replace transfer
belts with screws
• Use water for dust
control
• Limit worker
exposure,
rotations
NIOSH designed control
Many Types of Fluids
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water
Friction reducers
Corrosion inhibitors
Clay stabilizers
Acids
Gelling agents
Oil
The following table shows an example of what hydraulic fracturing fluid contains:
Note that this is an example of what may be used in hydraulic fracturing operations.
Constituent
Examples
Water
Purpose
Volume % Gallons
Delivery
90
2,700,000
Proppant
Sand
Keep fracture
open
9.51
285,300
Acid
Hydrochloric
Dissolves
minerals, opens
fracture
0.123
3.690
Friction
Reducer
Polyacrylamide,
mineral oil
Reduce friction
0.088
between fluid and
pipe
2,640
Surfactant
Isopropanol
Increase fluid
viscosity
0.085
2,550
Make brine
0.06
1,800
Suspend
proppant in fluid
0.056
1,680
Potassium
Chloride
Gelling Agent
Guar gum
The following table shows an example of what hydraulic fracturing fluid contains:
Note that this is an example of what may be used in hydraulic fracturing operations.
Constituent
Examples
Scale inhibitor
Purpose
Volume %
Gallons
Ethylene glycol Prevent scale
deposits in fluid
0.043
1,290
pH buffer
Carbonate
Protect pH
sensitive
chemicals
0.011
330
Prerservative
Ammonium
persulfate
Delay gel
breakdown
0.01
300
Crosslinker
Borate salts
Maintain viscosity 0.007
with temperature
210
Iron Control
Citric Acid
Prevent metal
0.004
oxide precipitates
120
Corrosion
Inhibitor
n,n-dimethyl
formamide
Prevent corrosion 0.002
60
Biocide
Glutaraldehyde Inhibit bacterial
growth
0.001
30
Potential Health Hazards
• Ignition and respiratory hazards
• Potential ignition of flammable or
combustible carrier or base
fluids
• Chemical hazards (such as,
silica, toxics, asphyxiants)
• Radiation associated with
radioactive tracer materials
Possible Solutions
• Wear proper respirators
• Provide bonding and grounding
for blending, pumping, and
sand transfer equipment
• Use hose covers/shielding for
transfer or suction lines
containing flammable liquids
• Prevent contamination and
exercise proper personal
hygiene
Summary
• Steps to Safety and Health
• Site Preparation
• Traditional Safety Hazards traditionally
found in oil and gas are present
• Management of Fluids and Proppants
• Controls, Safe Work Practices and PPE
• HazCom
• Monitoring and Measurement Equipment
• Emergency Response Procedures
Industry Reference and OSHA Info
Most widely used industry consensus standards include:
• American Petroleum Institute (API)
• RP 54 Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Operations
• International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC)
• Safety on the Rig
• Accident Prevention Reference Guide
• American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
• 2733 Standard Specification for FR rainwear
• National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
• 2113 Selection, Care, Use, and Maintenance of FR garments
OSHA Website
• Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing eTool
• Stimulation
• Wireline Operations
• Well Logging
• Perforating
Ronald Williams
(315) 451-0808 ext. 3002
[email protected]
www.osha.gov

similar documents