Chapter 8x

Report
 Stress-
is the reaction of the body and mind
to everyday challenges and demands.
 How much stress you feel depends on your
perception (the act of becoming aware
through the senses).
 Stress can be both positive and negative in
its effects.
 What are some positive effects of stress?
Examples?
 What are some negative effects of stress?
Examples?
 Stressor
is anything that causes stress.
EXAMPLES:
 People
 Objects
 Places
 Events
 Certain situations

More specifically, psychologists have
identified five general categories of
stressors…
 Biological-
illness, disabilities, or injuries
 Environmental: poverty, pollution, noise,
natural disasters
 Cognitive (thinking)- the way you perceive a
situation or how it
affects you and your
world
 Personal behavior- tobacco, alcohol, drugs,
lack of physical activity
 Life situations- death of a family
member/friend/pet, troubled relationships

Past experiences play a large role in how you
perceive these stressors. (Positive vs. Negative)
 Stage

1: ALARM
The body and mind go on high alert- “Fight or
Flight” response.

Physical Symptoms:
 Pupil dilation
 Increase perspiration
 Faster heart rate and pulse
 Rise in blood pressure
 Faster respiration rate
 Narrowing of arteries to internal organs and skin
 Increase blood flow to muscles and brain
 Increase in muscle tension
 Release of blood sugar, fats, and cholesterol
 Stage




2: Resistance
During this stage your body adapts to the rush
created by alarm and reacts to the stressor
This is the stage that you actually “fight” or
“flight”
You are briefly able to perform at a higher level
of endurance
The resistance stage is why people in extremely
high-stress situations have been known to
accomplish incredible feats.
 Stage



3: Fatigue
Prolonged exposure to stress causes the body to
lose it’s ability to adapt to the situation.
A tired feeling takes over the body and lowers
your level of activity.
3 Types of fatigue:



Physical-muscles work vigorously for long periods,
often leads to soreness and pain
Psychological-from constant worry, overwork,
depression, boredom, or feeling overwhelmed.
Pathological-tiredness brought on by overworking the
body’s defense in fighting illness. Flu, poor nutrition,
use of drugs and alcohol.
 Psychosomatic
Response: a physical reaction
that results from stress rather than from an
injury or illness.
 Headache
 Asthma
 High
Blood Pressure
 Weakened
Immune System
 Difficulty
Concentrating
 Mood
Swings
 Risks
of Substance Abuse
 Stress
that is associated with long-term
problems that are beyond a person’s control.
 ENGAGE
IN Physical Activity
 Look
for support- friends, family
 Find
a hobby or activity that relaxes you
 Avoid
harmful substances-tobacco, alcohol,
other drugs.
 Identify



your personal stressors:
Life events- getting a driver’s license;
graduation; moving/relocating; addition of new
family members; major illness; divorce/
separation
Physical stressors- pollution, excessive noise,
physical injury, lack of rest, drug use, excessive
dieting or exercise
Daily hassles- time pressures, too many
responsibilities, deadlines, conflicts with fellow
students
Sometimes you can manage stress by changing
your perception. Try looking at the situation as a
learning experience.
 Plan ahead- this better prepares you for
unexpected changes.
 Get adequate sleep-if not it can cause stress by
interfering with schoolwork, athletics, and
personal relationships.
 Get regular physical activity-burns off excess
nervous energy, causing you to feel more
relaxed.
 Eat nutritious food- eat regular meals, limit
“comfort” foods, limit caffeine (causes blood
pressure to rise)
 Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs

 Stress
management skills- skills that help an
individual handle stress in a healthful,
effective way.

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

Redirect your energy-work on a creative project,
go for a jog
Relax and laugh-deep breathing, think happy
thoughts, stretching, laughing out loud.
Keep a positive outlook-the way you think often
determines how you feel.
Seek out support- confide in someone you trust,
parent, guardian, sibling, teacher, or close friend
Express yourself-share your feelings, set/share
goals.
 Anxiety-
the condition of feeling uneasy or
worried about what may happen.

Can be both positive (help you to work harder)
and negative (cause you to make mistakes).

Symptoms:




Feelings of fear or dread
Perspiration, trembling, restlessness, or muscle
tension
Rapid heart rate, lightheadedness, or shortness of
breath
Is perfectionism a form of anxiety? i.e. grades,
sports, unrealistic expectations
 Redirect
your energy
 Relaxation exercises: meditation, breathing
 Engage in physical activity
 Get support from family and friends
 Some
choose to “escape” by using drugs or
alcohol. This only provides a temporary and
false sense of relaxation. THE PROBLEM IS
STILL THERE! This also causes more problems
making it harder for you to function properly.

Everyone experiences the occasional sad mood
that lasts a few days. They are natural feelings
that can be managed by:

Writing in a private journal

Draw, dance, or engage in some other creative
activity

Talk about your feelings with your family or friends

Do something nice for someone else. This takes the
focus away from you and your feelings.

What do you choose to do when managing general
sadness?
 Two
types of depression depending on the
cause of the feeling and the length of time it
lasts.

Reactive Depression

Major/Clinical Depression
 Reactive



depression:
A response to a stressful event (death of a
friend).
Lasts longer than a case of the “blues”.
Most times it eventually goes away as the person
finds a way to manage his or her response to the
event.
 Major/Clinical




depression:
A medical condition that requires treatment.
Much more severe and last much longer than
reactive depression.
May develop from reactive depression.
May be the result of a chemical imbalance in the
brain or genetic tendency.
Many teens who are suffering from depression do
not act sad or seem outwardly different to their
family or friends.
 Other symptoms include:


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



Irritable or restless mood.
Withdrawal from friends and activities that were once
important or enjoyable.
Change in appetite or weight.
Feelings of guilt or worthlessness.
A sense of hopelessness.
Feeling a few of these symptoms occasionally is
“normal”. It is NOT normal to experience several of
them at the same time for two weeks or more. Also,
if depression causes a person to start using drugs or to
have thoughts of suicide, professional help is needed.
 For
mild forms of anxiety and depression
help includes:



TALKING WITH SUPPORTIVE PEOPLE
GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
VOLUNTEER YOUR TIME TO HELP OTHERS
 Both
anxiety and depression are very
treatable. Talk to a parent or other trusted
adult, and seek help from a counselor, school
psychologist, or other health care
professional.
 Resiliency-
the ability to adapt effectively
and recover from disappointment, difficulty,
or crisis.
 Resilient people are able to handle adversity
in healthy ways and achieve long-term
success in spite of negative circumstances.

External Factors:
Your family
Your school/ community
Your peers
 You have little control over these factors but you can
work to strengthen them.

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
Internal Factors:
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
Your Attitude
Your Behavior
Commitment to learning
Positive Values
Social Competency
Positive Identity
You have control over Internal factors. Making a
conscious effort to strengthen these factors will
increase your resiliency and improve your
mental/emotional health!


Protective factors- conditions that shield individuals
from the negative consequences of exposure to risk.
Actions you can take are:

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Become involved with after school activities.
Make a commitment to learning by reading for pleasure
at least three hours a week.
Stand up for your beliefs, and refuse to act against
your values.
Be honest with yourself and others.
Resist negative peer pressure, and avoid dangerous
situations.
Learn about people from other cultures or ethnic
backgrounds.
Develop a sense of purpose.
Develop a positive outlook about YOUR future.

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