How have governments reacted to terrorism? Get tough or talk? Learning Objectives Explain how different governments have responded to terrorism; British government to the IRA Israel to the PLO USA to al-Qaeda Compare strategies of getting tough or using negotiation with terrorists and the effectiveness of these strategies. Evaluate which government has been most effective in dealing with terrorism Evaluate how effective terrorist groups have been between 1969-2005 The British Government and the IRA – Security and politics • • • • Internment: August 1971 Focus on security Covert operations in 1980s Co-operation with the government of the Irish Republic • Starving the terrorists of publicity • Talking to terrorists c What is the message of this cartoon? The man on the ground is Gerry Adams and the ‘doctor’ is US President Bill Clinton Israel and the PLO • Get tough • The intifada • Talking to terrorists • Does terrorism always put governments in a no win situation? The US response to al-Qaeda: What was the war on terror? What was the war on terror? Using the summary at the top of page 178, create a quick flow diagram summarising the events following 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan The US response to al-Qaeda: How successful was the war on terror? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rS8nqBuvrBo Was successful? • • • • • • • Al-Qaeda and Taliban defeated Events of 9/11 won support for US Allowed countries such as Russia and Israel to get support of public opinion to clamp down o terrorism. Since 2001 security has increased USA has exported experts, equipment and training all over world to help combat terrorism and has improved it’s own technologies. USA has managed to ignore international criticism in the face of accusations about abusing human rights when holding, questioning suspected terrorists. There have been no attacks on the same scale as 9/11 since. Was not successful? • Afghanistan has been very difficult to control. Attacks have continued from alQaeda and the Taliban and it has been hard Afghan people. Heroin production has also increased in Afghanistan (provides 90% of worlds heroin). •Still much sympathy in Middle East and Asia for Islamic militancy i.e groups in Pakistan. •US tactics such as torture and detention have cost them support. Has also increased tensions between Western governments and the media. •Osama bin Laden and other leading alQaeda members escaped.