2.4 Middle and Southern Colonies

Report
g1eastcoastpartnership.pbworks.com
2.4 MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN
COLONIES
Angela Brown
FOCUS….
L ea r ni ng Ta rgets :
Vo cab u la r y:
I Can…
1. Explain the early history of
the Dutch in New York.
2. Describe the founding of
the other Middle Colonies.
3. Compare the reasons for
settlement of the Southern
Colonies.
Middle Colonies, diversity,
synagogue, proprietary
colony, Quaker, haven,
Southern Colonies,
Trustee
THE MIDDLE COLONIES
• Settlers came from
several different
countries.
• They are in the middle
of the Atlantic coast of
North America.
• They had a great variety
of people.
• These colonies included
New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, and
Delaware.
k12handhelds.com
THE DUTCH IN NEW YORK
• The first Europeans to
settle in the area that is
now NY were the Dutch.
• They came from Holland,
also called the Netherlands.
• In 1621 Dutch investors
formed the Dutch West
India Company to develop
trade in the Americas.
• The company started the
colony, New Netherland, in
the Hudson and Delaware
river valleys.
•
•
•
•
A Thriving Colony
In 1625, the Dutch began
building a trading station
called New Amsterdam at the
mouth of the Hudson River.
They built their homes on the
island of Manhattan.
The director of the colony,
Peter Minuit, traded goods
with the local NA for the right
to use it.
They company also built Fort
Orange upstream, not far
from the site of Albany, the
modern capital of New York
State.
NEW YORK
• The settlers soon built up a
prosperous trade in furs and
other goods with Europe.
• The land was fruitful, the
rivers navigable, and Indians
brought furs to trade.
• Farmers grew wheat and rye
and more… shipping most
of these products to other
colonies.
• Many diverse people carried
on peaceful business at this
port.
• Some 18 different languages
were spoken in its streets.
• Religious tolerance
was a firm rule.
• They even had the first
synagogue, or house
of Jewish worship, on
the NA continent.
• Peter Stuyvesant, the
governor, was often at
odds with the colonies
regarding their desire
for self- government.
• He refused to grant it.
ENGLAND TAKES OVER
•
•
•
•
•
•
In 1664 the English King, Charles II,
declared the Dutch colonies belonged to
his brother, the Duke of York.
The Duke of York sent a fleet of four
ships and several hundred soldiers to
New Amsterdam.
The town had no fort or other defenses,
and the Dutch realized they could do
nothing.
Stuyvesant raged but in the end he was
forced to give up the town.
New Amsterdam was renamed New
York and became an English colony.
The rest of New Netherland
surrendered to the English.
paladium.net
PROPRIETARY COLONIES
• New York was a
proprietary colony – a
colony granted by a king
or queen to an individual
or group who had full
governing rights.
• Proprietor means
“owner”.
• It was owned by the Duke
of York.
• He could make laws and
rule as he wished.
• The other Middle
Colonies were also
proprietary.
ushistory.org
MIDDLE COLONIES
New Jer sey
• The Duke of York’s charter •
included land in what is now
Maine, NY, NJ, and Delaware.
• He signed some over to two •
English noblemen.
•
• It was divided into East
Jersey and West Jersey.
• East Jersey was closely linked •
to NY.
• West Jersey developed close •
ties to Pennsylvania.
• In 1702, they became the
single royal colony of New
Jersey.
Delaware
In 1638, settlers from Sweden
started the first permanent colony
in what is now Delaware.
They built Fort Christina on the
site of modern-day Wilmington.
The Dutch under Peter Stuyesant
captured this trading village.
The Duke of York captured it
from the Dutch.
In 1682 he turned it over to the
Englishman, William Penn, who
allowed it to become a separate
colony in 1704.
PENNSYLVANIA
• Delaware was not Penn’s only colony.
• He had received a huge land grant from King Charles II of
England in 1681.
• He called it Pennsylvania, which means “Penn’s woods”.
• Like the Puritans, he saw his colony as a “Holy Experiment.”
• Unlike the Puritans, he wanted his colonists to practice religious
tolerance.
• He made agreements with NA for land use and then brought
over the first settlers from England.
• These settlers were Quakers, members of a Protestant group that
had suffered persecution in England.
• Quakers believed firmly that all people should be treated as
equals, not only in church but in society and government.
• Pennsylvania became a haven, or safe place, for people of every
faith.
QUAKERS
• Quakers from other colonies, Wales,
Germany and other countries came to
Pennsylvania.
• Non-Quakers were also invited.
• Protestant groups such as the
German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish,
Presbyterians, and Swiss Mennonites
built large settlements.
• So many Germans settled in the
colony that they became known as
the Pennsylvania Dutch, after the
German word Deutsch, which means
“German.”
civilwardailygazette.com
THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Virginia was the first-settled of the Southern Colonies.
The others were Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
All of these settlements began as proprietary colonies.
Maryland
Maryland started as the idea of George Calvert, an English lord who had
become a Roman Catholic after growing up in the Anglican Church.
He saw Roman Catholics being persecuted in England, and wanted to establish
a safe place for them to live.
He had also been a member of the Virginia company, and was convinced a
well-run colonies could be profitable.
In the early 1630s Calvert asked the king for a charter to establish a colony in
the Chesapeake Bay area.
The king approved his plan, but Calvert died before the charter could be
written up.
Thus it was issued in the mane of his son, Lord Baltimore.
MARYLAND
• In 1634 the first settlers arrived.
• Though a haven for Catholics,
Puritans also moved into the colony
and outnumbered the Catholics.
• Lord Baltimore ordered the
adoption of a law that would
protect Catholics from persecution
called the Maryland Toleration Act.
• It did not provided protection for
non-Christians.
• Puritans in Maryland’s assembly
amended the law to state that nonChristians would be put to death.
enchantedlearning.com
MARYLAND PLANTERS
• Planters in the 1600s grew
prosperous by growing tobacco.
• They began to use enslaved
Africans to work their fields like
Virginia.
• By 1704, 15,000 of the 90,000 in
the two colonies were slaves.
• A Virginia law passed in 1642
penalized people for sheltering
runaway slaves or indentured
servants.
• A 1664 Maryland law specified
that all black people imported to
the colony were to be given the
status of slaves.
scientificamerican.com
THE CAROLINAS
• King Charles II granted ownership
to a group of English noblemen in
1663 despite earlier claims.
• It was split into North and South in
1691 when two different governors
were appointed.
• In 1721, SC became a royal colony.
• NC became a royal colony in 1729
• Both colonies thrived on trade with
Native Americans and tobacco
profits.
costonscomplaint.blogspot.com
GEORGIA
• Georgia was set up like a proprietary colony in 1732, but was managed by
trustees.
• A trustee is someone entrusted to look after a business.
• The trustees, led by James Oglethorpe, wanted to create a haven for
English people jailed for failure to pay their debts.
• The also had the duty of protecting the Southern Colonies against attack
from Spanish raiders based in Florida.
• Georgia was ruled strictly with no slavery, liquor or Catholics.
• All types of Protestants were permitted.
• The settlers lived in peace with the NA due to Oglethorpe’s negotiations.
• The colonists forced the trustees to change the rules for liquor and slaves.
• In 1752 the trustees gave their charter back to the King, and Georgia
became a royal colony.
EXIT SLIP:
1. Summarizing the main idea:
List some of the reasons people
settled in the Middle and Southern
Colonies of North America.
2. Organizing Information:
Create a chart showing the degree of
religious tolerance in New York,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and
Georgia.
3. Analyzing Time Lines: When
and why was the Dutch colony of
New Amsterdam renamed New
York?
4. Predicting Consequences:
Proprietors were able to make their
own laws in the colonies. What do
you think might be the consequences
of this fact?

similar documents